“Rabbi Zutra son of Tobiah said in the name of Rav: From where do we learn that a blessing should be said over sweet aromas? Because it says, Let all that has breath praise Yah (Psalms 150:6). What is that which gives enjoyment to the soul and not to the body?—You must say that this is fragrance” (BT Berakhot 43b).
“Three things restore a man’s good spirits: [beautiful] sounds, sights, and smells” (BT Berakhot 57b).
“Whoever smelled the smoke, as a column rose from the smoke-raiser [in the Temple], became cleansed of heart, refined in radiant joy to serve his Lord. The filth of the evil impulse disappeared from him, leaving him with only one heart toward his Father in heaven [cf. M Berakhot 9:5]; for incense actually disintegrates the evil impulse in all aspects… nothing in the world breaks the Other Side except incense.
Come and see what is written: Take the fire-pan and place fire upon it from the altar and put in incense. Why? For the fury has gone forth from before YHWH, the plague has begun! (Numbers 17:11). For look, nothing breaks that side except incense, since nothing is as beloved to the blessed Holy One as incense! Consequently, it can eliminate sorcery and evil elements from the home. If the fragrance and smoke of incense prepared by people for that purpose has the power to eliminate, All the more so [holy] incense.
This matter is an established decree before the blessed Holy One: Whoever contemplates and reads every day פִּטּוּם הַקְּטֹרֶת (Pitum ha-Qetoret), Preparation of the Incense, will be saved from all elements of sorcery in the world, from all mishaps, evil fantasies, and pestilence. He will not be harmed that entire day, for the Other Side has no power over him—but he must focus his intention on it.
Rabbi Shim’on said, ‘If human beings knew how exalted the Preparation of the Incense was in the eyes of the blessed Holy One, they would take every single word and raise it as a crown upon their heads, like a crown of gold. Whoever engages in the Preparation of the Incense and concentrates upon it every day has a share in this world and in the world that is coming. Pestilence will disappear from him and from the world, and he will be delivered from all judgments and all evil aspects of this world, from the judgment of the alien kingdom, and even from the judgment of Hell…
The Preparation of the Incense is more beloved than all rituals and devotions in the world. Even though prayer is most exalted of all [the commandments], the Preparation of the Incense is precious and beloved to the blessed Holy One.
Come and see: What is the difference between prayer and the Preparation of the Incense? Prayer was instituted to replace the sacrifices that Israel used to offer [in the time when the Temple stood], and none of those sacrifices that they offered was as important as the incense. Furthermore, what is the difference between this and that? Well, prayer is restoration, restoring as needed. Incense does more: restoring, forging links, and producing radiance greater than all. What is that? Removing filth and purifying the Dwelling—all is illumined, restored, and linked as one. Therefore we must remove filth from the world, thereby restoring all, every single day—like that beloved offering, in which the blessed Holy One delighted” (Zohar 2:218b-19a).
And YHWH said to Moses, “Take you the סַמִּים (samim), fragrances, balsam and onycha and galbanum, fragrances, and clear frankincense, equal part for part shall it be. And you shall make of it incense, a perfume compound, perfumer’s work, tinctured with salt, pure, sacred. And you shall pound it to fine powder and place some of it before the Ark of the Covenant in the Tent of Meeting where I shall meet you. Holy of holies it shall be to you (Exodus 30:34-38).
And Aaron shall burn upon it the aromatic incense morning after morning, when he tends the lamps he shall burn it. And when Aaron lights the lamps at twilight he shall burn it, a perpetual incense before YHWH for your generations. You shall not offer up on it strange incense (Exodus 30:7-8).
“The rabbis taught: How was the incense prepared? It weighed 368 manehs, 365 corresponding to the number of days in a solar year, a maneh for each day, half to be offered in the morning and half in the afternoon, and three additional manehs from which the High Priest took handfuls on Yom Kippur. These were put back into the mortar on the day before Yom Kippur and ground again very thoroughly so as to be extremely fine. The incense contained eleven kinds of spices [אֲדֹנָי (Adonai), Lord, times eleven equals הַקְטֹרֶת (ha-qetoret), the incense]: balsam, onycha, galbanum and frankincense, each weighing seventy manehs; myrrh, cassia, spikenard and saffron, each weighing sixteen manehs; twelve manehs of costus, three of aromatic bark; nine of cinnamon; nine kabs of Carsina lye; three seahs and three kabs of Cyprus wine. If Cyprus wine was not available, old white wine might be used. A quarter of a kab of Sodom salt, and a minute amount of smoke-raising herb. Rabbi Nathan the Babylonian says: also a minute amount of Jordan amber. If one added honey to the mixture, he rendered it unfit for sacred use. If he omitted any one of its ingredients, he is guilty of a capital offence.
Rabban Shim’on son of Gamliel says: ‘Balsam’ refers to the sap that drips from the balsam tree. The Carsina lye was used for bleaching the onycha to improve it. The Cyprus wine was used to soak the onycha in it to make it pungent. Though urine is suitable for this purpose, it is not brought into the Temple out of respect.
It was taught, Rabbi Nathan says: While it was being ground, another would say הָדֵק הֵיטֵב הֵיטֵב הָדֵק (hadeq heitev, heitev hadeq), ‘Grind well, well grind,’ because the [rhythmic] sound is good for [those who grind] spices. If it was mixed in half-quantities, it is fit for use, but we have not heard whether this applies to a third or a quarter. Rabbi Yehudah said: The general rule is that if it was made in the correct proportions, it is fit for use even if made in half-quantity, but if he omitted any one of its ingredients, he is guilty of a capital offence (BT Kareitot 6a).
“It was taught, Bar Kappara says: Once every sixty or seventy years, the accumulated surpluses amounted to half the yearly quantity. Bar Kappara also taught: If a minute quantity of honey had been mixed into the incense, no one could have resisted the scent. Why did they not put honey into it? Because Torah says, For you shall not turn to smoke any leaven nor any honey from it as a fire offering to YHWH (Leviticus 2:11)” (JT Yoma 4:5).
And Moses said to Aaron, “Take the fire-pan and place fire upon it from the altar and put in incense and carry it quickly to the community and atone for them, for the furry has gone out from before YHWH, the scourge has begun.” And Aaron took as Moses had spoken, and he ran into the midst of the assembly, and, look, the scourge had begun against the people, and he put in incense and atoned for the people. And he stood between the dead and the living, and the scourge was held back (Numbers 17:11-13).
“The Angel of Death confided his secret to him [Moses], for it is said, and he put in incense and atoned for the people (Numbers 17:11); and it is said, And he stood between the dead and the living, [and the scourge was held back] (ibid. 13). Had he not told it to him, where had he known it ? [Since this act of intervention to save the people is not dictated by God but is a device Moses on his own initiative orders Aaron to implement]” (BT Shabbat 89a, cf. Ibn Ezra: Take the fire-pan… and put in incense. [Because of the definite article] the reference is to a specific fire-pan. [However,] it does not say and put in the incense. The intelligent will understand—Ibn Ezra seems to be hinting that the burning of incense was a sanitary technique done to drive off the plague).
“What atonement is there which obtains evenly for oneself, his household, his brethren, the priests, and the whole assembly of the house of Israel? It is the smoking of the incense. But does the incense obtain atonement?—Indeed, for Rabbi Ḥananiah cited: We learn that the incense obtains atonement for what was said: And he put in incense and atoned for the people (Numbers 17:12). And the school of Rabbi Ishmael taught: Why does incense obtain atonement for evil speech? Let that which is in secret [i.e. since none but the high priest may enter the Holy of Holies] come and obtain atonement for what is committed in secret!” (BT Yoma 44a).
“Rabbi Aḥa went to כְפַר טַרְשָׁא (Kefar Tarsha), Clod Village, where he stayed at an inn. The people of that village whispered about him, saying, ‘A great man has arrived here; let us go to him.’ They said to him, ‘Do you not have compassion on us because of the plague?’ He said to them, ‘What plague?’ They replied, ‘A plague struck the village seven days ago. And every day that passes, it becomes worse.’
He responded, ‘Let us go to the house of assembly and plead for compassion before the blessed Holy One.’ As they were on their way, people came up to them and told them the names of people who had died or were about to die. Rabbi Aḥa said to them, ‘This is not the time to stand around talking, time presses. Choose forty men from the worthiest among you and divide them into four groups. I shall be among you. Let ten men go to each of the four corners of the city. There, you shall recite, with the might of your souls, the phrases of the incense offering, which the blessed Holy One handed over to Moses [cf. BT Shabbat 89a]. And you should also recite the phrases of the sacrificial offerings.’
And so they recited those phrases three times in each of the four corners of the city [cf. Zohar 2:219a: It is forbidden to burn incense anywhere else except in the fire-pan (of the Temple)]. He then told them, ‘Let us visit those who are about to die. Choose from among you and to their houses [go] and recite. When they finish, say these verses, And Moses said to Aaron, ‘Take the fire-pan…’ And Aaron took… And he stood between the dead [and the living, and the scourge was held back] (Numbers 17:11-13). They followed these instructions, and it ceased.
They heard a voice that said, ‘Secrets of Secrets have been sweetened above; for the Judgment of heaven does not apply here, because people know how to nullify!’ Rabbi Aḥa’s heart became faint, and he fell asleep. He heard them say to him, ‘As you have done this, go and tell them to repent, because they have sinned before Me! He woke up and made them repent and atone completely for their deeds. And they took it upon themselves never to cease studying Torah. And they changed the name of the village to מָאתָא מַחְסֵיָא (Mata Maḥseya), Village of Mercy.
Rabbi Yehudah said, ‘It is not enough for the righteous to nullify the decree, they must bless them as well.’ And you should know that it is indeed so! Because the soul says to the body, Hurry! Knead three seahs of choice semolina flour (Genesis 18:6) and other phrases. And so it nullifies the Judgment. And what is then written? And he said, I will surely return to you at this very season (ibid. 10). Behold, this is the blessing.
Now what do the angels do after seeing that this person has taken good advice upon himself? They go to the wicked and examine their cases, in order to judge them, as is written, And the men arose from there and looked out over Sodom (Genesis 18:16) to the place of the wicked, in order to sentence them.
Rabbi Yehudah continued, ‘This is the way of the righteous. As soon as he realizes that the angels are examining his case, he immediately repents, prays, and offers his fat and blood [i.e. fasts] as a sacrifice before his Maker until judgments have vanished!” (Zohar 1:100b-101a Midrash ha-Ne’elam).
May my prayer stand as incense before You (Psalms 141:2).
“Come and see: Incense binds bonds, spreading joy from above and below. This eliminates death, accusation, and wrath, which cannot prevail in the world” (Zohar 1:230a, cf. Bahir §109).
“And when the highest point and the world that is coming ascend, they know only the aroma, as one inhaling an aroma is sweetened” (Zohar 3:26b).