And She Took of Its Fruit: A Decree was Ordained Beforehand
“The letter מ (mem) was the original sign for Adam, establishing death upon the world, because this letter was flying over Adam’s head when, as is written: She took מִפִּרְיוֹ (mi-piryo), of its fruit (Genesis 3:6)—מ פִּרְיוֹ (mem, piryo)—and it was waiting for ו ת (vav, tav). When, as is written, וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּתֵּן (va-tokhal va-titten), and she ate, and she gave, וַתִּפָּקַחְנָה (va-tippaqahnah), And [the eyes of the two] were opened (ibid., 6-7), then מָוֶת (mavet), death, was established upon the world” (Zohar 3:237a, cf. Zohar 1:12b).
“Rabbi Shim’on said, ‘A decree was ordained beforehand that Adam should die since he was taken from the ground. As implied by what is written: on the day you eat from it [you will surely die] (Genesis 2:17)—teaching that had he not sinned, he would have had a long life. As soon as he sinned, the punishment was that his days be shortened—and that he die on that very day. After he repented, the blessed Holy One granted him His day—which is one thousand years [cf. Bereshit Rabbah 8:2].
This proves that the decree that he die was prior. For were it not so, when he repented He should have rescinded the decree!
Rabbi Shim’on explained, ‘He repented and He rescinded the decree ordained for him—on the day you eat from it (ibid.); He lengthened his days, granting him His day” (Zohar Ḥadash 18c).
“The נִשְׁמַת (nishmat), breath, of the female comes from the Female, and the breath of the male comes from the Male. This is the reason why the serpent followed Eve [cf. Bereshit Rabbah 20:11]. He said, ‘Her breath comes from the north [i.e., the left side], and so I will soon seduce her.’ And how did he seduce her? Because of mounting her.
The wicked Samael made a bond with all the host on high against his Master. This was because the blessed Holy One said: to hold sway over the fish of the sea and the winged creature of the heavens (Genesis 1:26, cf. Deuteronomy 14:20). He said, “How can we cause him to sin and be driven from before His presence?” He descended with all his host, and sought a suitable mate on earth. At last he found the serpent, which looked like a camel, and he rode on it [cf. Pirkei de-Rabbi Eli’ezer 13; Zohar 1:228a]. He then went to the woman and said to her, ‘Though God said, you shall not eat from any tree of the garden (Genesis 3:1), but I will seek [to discern] more’—I will add in order that she should subtract. She replied, “From the fruit of the garden’s trees we may eat. He did not prevent us, other than: the fruit of the tree in the midst of the garden God has said, ‘You shall not eat from it and you shall not touch it, lest you die’ (Genesis 3:2).
She added two things: the fruit of the tree in the midst of the garden—He only said, From the tree (Genesis 2:17); and you shall not touch it, lest you die [God only spoke of eating]. What did Samael do? He went and touched the tree. The tree cried out and said, ‘Wicked one, do not touch me!’ Therefore it is written: Let no haughty foot overtake me, nor the hand of the wicked repel me (Psalms 36:12).’
There have the workers of iniquity fallen—they are thrust down, they cannot rise. He then said to the woman, ‘See, I touched the tree and did not die. You too can touch and not die.’ The woman went and touched the tree. She saw the Angel of Death approaching her and said, ‘Woe is to me. Now I will die and the blessed Holy One will make another woman and give her to Adam. I will therefore cause him to eat with me. If we die, we will both die, and if we live, we will both live.’ She took the fruit of the tree and ate it, and she also gave some to her husband. Their eyes opened and their teeth were set on edge. He said, ‘What is this that you have given me to eat? Just as my teeth were set on edge, so will the teeth of all generations be set on edge.’
He sat down in true judgement, as it is written: For You upheld my justice, my right, You sat on the throne of the righteous judge (Psalm 9:5). He called to Adam and said ‘Why do you hide from Me?’ He answered, ‘I heard Your sound in the garden (Genesis 3:10). I heard Your sound in the garden—and my bones trembled. And I was afraid, for I was naked, and I hid—I was naked of works, I was naked of mitsvot, and I was naked of actions.’ Therefore it is written: and I was afraid, for I was naked, and I hid.
What was Adam’s garment? It was a skin of fingernail. As soon as he ate of the fruit of the tree, this skin of fingernail was removed from him, and he saw himself naked. Therefore it is written: Who told you that you were naked? (Genesis 3:11). Adam said to the blessed Holy One, ‘Master of all Worlds: When I was alone, did I once sin before You? But the woman that You gave me lured me from Your word.’ Therefore it is written: The woman whom you gave me, [she gave me from the tree, and I ate] (Genesis 3:12). The blessed Holy One said to her, ‘Is it not enough that you sinned? But you also caused man to sin.’ She answered, ‘Master of all Worlds: The serpent deceived me to sin before You.’
He took the three of them, and decreed upon them a sentence of nine curses and death [see Genesis 3:14-19]. He then cast the wicked Samael and his faction from their holy place in the heavens. Then He cut off the feet of the serpent and cursed it more than all the other creatures and beasts of the field. He also decreed that it must shed its skin every seven years [cf. BT Bekhorot 8a; Bereshit Rabbah 20:4; Pirkei de-Rabbi Eli’ezer 14; Zohar 1:18a]. Samael was punished and made the guardian angel over the wicked Esau.
In the future, when the blessed Holy One uproots the Kingdom of Edom, He will lower him first. Therefore it is written: YHWH will punish the host of the exalted ones that are on high (Isaiah 24:21). This statement [of Eve’s]—death and punishment all came because she added to the command of the blessed Holy One. Regarding this it is said, ‘Whoever increases diminishes’” (BT Sanhedrin 29a)” (Bahir §199-200).