Radiance Surrounding It
“Rabbi Shim’on son of Gamli’el says that [apart from Hebrew] even [Torah] scrolls are permitted to be written only in Greek’ (M Megillah 1:8). Rabbi Abbahu said in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan: The Halakhah follows Rabbi Shim’on son of Gamli’el. Rabbi Yoḥanan also said: What is the reason of Rabbi Shim’on son of Gamli’el? It says, May God enlarge Japheth, may he dwell in the tents of Shem (Genesis 9:27)—that the words of Japheth shall be in the tents of Shem [cf. ibid. 10:2: The sons of Japheth: Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan…. Javan was the legendary ancestor of the Ionians, a section of the Greek people]. But why not say [the words of] Gomer and Magog? Rabbi Ḥiyya son of Abba said: The reason is because it is written, יַפְתְּ אֱלֹהִים לְיֶפֶת (Yaft Elohim le-Yefet), May God enlarge Japheth—let יָפְיוּתוֹ (yafyuto), the beauty, of יֶפֶת (Yefet), Japheth, be in the tents of Shem [eldest son of Noah, father of the ‘Semitic’ peoples, including the Jewish people]” (BT Megillah 9a–b).
“That has no blemish (Numbers 19:2)—kingdom of Greece, who are near the paths of faith” (Zohar 2:237a, cf. Bereshit Rabbah 2:4–5).
“Radiance surrounding it (Ezekiel 1:4)—Greece, surrounded by radiance, but not itself radiant, as is written: surrounding. For there is none among all the kingdoms that approach the path of faith as they do. Here, too, among these shells, none approach the kernel [Israel] like this one. Surrounded by radiance, but radiance is not in it. Radiance emerges from the kernel—shining and encircling” (Zohar Ḥadash 38b).