The Nut Garden

לקוטים מזוהר (Gleanings of Zohar)

If You Lose Your Way Follow in the Tracks of the Sheep

flock-on-narrow-road“The blessed Holy One scattered Israel among the peoples only so that they may accumulate converts, for it is said: And I will sow her for Myself in the earth; [and I will have mercy upon her that had not obtained mercy; and I will say to them who were not My people, you are My people; and they shall say, You are my God] (Hosea 2:25)—surely, a man sows a se’ah in order to harvest many korin” (BT Pesaḥim 87b, cf. Zohar 1:244a).

Should man or woman commit any of the human offences, [to betray the trust of YHWH, that person shall bear guilt] (Numbers 5:6).

Rabbi Abbahu expounded: They that dwell under His shadow shall return (Hosea 14:8)—converts who come and take refuge in the shadow of the blessed Holy One; they shall sustain themselves with grain (ibid.)—with Talmud; and grow as the vine (ibid)—in Haggadah. Their remembrance shall be as the wine of Lebanon (ibid.): The blessed Holy one says: ‘The names of converts are as dear to Me as the wine of libation which is poured out upon the altar.’ Why is [the altar] called Lebanon? Because it מַּלְבִּין (malbin), turns white, as snow the crimes of Israel, as it says, Though your offences be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; [though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool] (Isaiah 1:18). Rabbi Shim’on son of Yoḥai says: Because all לְּבָבוֹת (levavot), hearts, rejoice in it, as is written, Lovely in heights, all the earth’s joy (Psalms 48:3). The rabbis say: on account of And My eyes and My heart shall be there for all time (1 Kings 9:3) [this is arrived at by a play on לְבָנוֹן (Levanon), Lebanon, and לֵב וְעַיִן (lev ve-ayin), ‘heart and eye’].

Another interpretation: They shall revive as the grain—they will become of equal importance with Israel, as is written, grain shall make the young men cheerful, [and new wine the young women] (Zechariah 9:17); and grow as the vine—like Israel, as is written, You carried a vine out of Egypt, [You drove away nations and planted it] (Psalms 80:9). So you will also find that just as the Torah contains a section regarding one Israelite and another and laying down that if one transgresses against another he incurs a sacrifice, as is written, Should a person offend… and dissemble with his fellow (Leviticus 5:21), so the blessed Holy One inserted a section in the Torah regarding Israel and converts, teaching that if an Israelite takes anything by violence from a convert it is as if he had taken something by violence from an Israelite. You will find that He used the expression offence of the latter—should a person offend—and in the case of one who robs a convert it is written: any of the human offences. In the case of the former it is written And it shall be, when he offends and is guilty, [he shall return the theft that he stole or the fraud that he committed…] (Leviticus 5:23), and in the case of the convert it is written, that person shall bear guilt (Numbers 5:6). In the case of the former it is written, and he shall pay back the principal (Leviticus 5:24) and in the case of the convert it is written, and he shall render back for his guilt the sum of its principal (Numbers 5:7). In the case of the former it is written, and add a fifth (Leviticus 5:23). In the case of the former it is written, and his guilt offering he shall bring to YHWH, an unblemished ram (ibid., 25), and in the case of one who robs a convert it is written, besides the ram of atonement (Numbers 5:8). Thus we learn that converts are as important as Israel, and so we have explained the text: They shall sustain themselves with grain, and grow as the vine.

Man or woman (Numbers 5:6), as is written, YHWH loves the righteous. YHWH guards sojourners (Psalms 146:8–9). Thus, the blessed Holy One said: I, all my lovers I love (Proverbs 8:17); For those who honor Me will I honor [and My spurners shall be dishonored] (1 Samuel 2:30). They love Me and so I also love them. Why does the blessed Holy One love the righteous? Because their worth is due neither to heritage nor to family. You find that the priests constitute a father’s house and the Levites constitute a father’s house; for it says, House of Aaron, bless YHWH. House of Levi, bless YHWH (Psalms 136:19). If a man desires to be a priest, he cannot be one; a Levite, he cannot be one. Why? Because his father was neither a priest nor a Levite. But if a man, even a Gentile, desires to be righteous, he can be so, because the righteous do not constitute a father’s house. Thus it says, Those who fear YHWH, bless YHWH (ibid.). It does not say: House of those that fear YHWH, but Those who fear YHWH, for these do not constitute a father’s house, but have voluntarily come forward and loved the blessed Holy One. Therefore, He loves them, and for this reason it says, YHWH loves the righteous. The blessed Holy One greatly loves converts. To what may this be compared? To a king who had a flock which used to go out to the field and come in at evening. So it was each day. Once a single deer came in with the flock. He associated with the goats and grazed with them. When the flock came in to the fold he came in with them; when they went out to graze he went out with them. The king was told: ‘A certain deer has joined the flock and is grazing with them every day. He goes out with them and comes in with them.’

The king loved him. When he went out into the field the king gave orders: ‘Let him have a lovely pasture, such as he likes; no man shall beat him; be careful with him!’ When he came in with the flock also the king would tell them, ‘Give him to drink;’ and he loved him very much. The servants said to him: ‘Master! How many he-goats do you have? How many sheep do you have? How many kids do you have? Yet you never caution us about them; yet you give us instructions every day about this deer!’ The king said to them: ‘The flock have no choice; whether they want or not, it is their nature to graze in the field all day and to come in at evening to sleep in the fold. The deer, however, sleep in the wilderness. It is not in their nature to come into places inhabited by man. Shall we then not account it as a merit to this one which has left behind the whole of the broad, vast wilderness, the abode of all the beasts, and has come to stay in the courtyard?’

In like manner, ought we not to be grateful to the convert who has left behind him his clan and his father’s house, has left behind his people, and all the other peoples of the world, and has chosen to come to us? Accordingly, He has provided him with special protection, for He warned Israel that they be very careful in relation to converts so as not to do them harm; and so indeed it says and you shall love the sojourner, [for sojourners you were in the land of Egypt] (Deuteronomy 10:19); and You shall not cheat a sojourner [and you shall not oppress him, for you were sojourners in the land of Egypt] (Exodus 22:20). In the same manner also as the Torah has imposed upon one who robs another the obligation of a money payment and of a sacrifice of a ram of atonement, so the Torah has imposed upon one who robs a convert the obligation of paying him his money and of bringing a sacrifice of a ram of atonement, as is written, Man or woman. This section refers to one who robs a convert, as is written, YHWH guards sojourners. Thus He made ample provision for safeguarding them in order that they might not return to their former perversion.

Beloved are converts, for Scripture in every instance compares them to Israel, as is written, But you, Israel, are My servant, Jacob whom I have chosen, the seed of Abraham [My friend] (Isaiah 41:8). ‘Love’ is used of Israel, as is written, I have loved you, says YHWH (Malachi 1:2); and ‘love’ is used of converts, as is written, and loving the sojourner to give him bread and cloak (Deuteronomy 10:18). Israel are called slaves, as is written, For Mine are the Israelites as slaves (Leviticus 25:55); and converts are called slaves, as is written,  To be His slaves (Isaiah 56:6). ‘Acceptableness’ is used of Israel, as is written, And it shall be on his forehead perpetually for their acceptance [before YHWH] (Exodus 28:38); and it is used of converts, as is written, Their burnt offerings and their sacrifices shall be accepted upon My altar; [for My house shall be called a house of prayer for all people] (Isaiah 56:7). ‘Ministering’ is used of Israel, as is written, But you shall be named the Priests of YHWH: men shall call you the ministers of our God (ibid. 61:6); and it is used of converts, as is written, Also the sons of the foreigner, that join themselves to YHWH, to serve Him (ibid. 56:6). ‘Preservation’ is used of Israel, for it says, For You are my hope, Master (Psalms 71:5); and it is used of converts, as is written: YHWH guards sojourners (Psalms 146:9). You will find that it is the same in the case of the four classes of devotees who stand before the Omnipresent; as it says, One shall say, I am YHWH’s (Isaiah 44:5). If One shall say, I am YHWH’s, he must belong wholly to the Omnipresent, having no admixture of offence. And another shall call himself by the name of Jacob (ibid.) refers to righteous converts. And another shall write on his hand, YHWH’s (ibid.) refers to the penitent. And surname himself by the name of Israel (ibid.) refers to the God-fearing. Thus we learn that converts are like Israel. This is the reason for the insertion of the section, Man or woman” (Bemidbar Rabbah 8:1–2).

“About Israel, it is written, And they mingled with the nations and learned their deeds (Psalms 106:35)—until they are trampled under their feet in the exile, they can not be sorted out from them. About them, David of blessed memory said, Why should I fear in evil days, when crime comes round me at עֲקֵבַי (aqevai), my heels? (Psalms 49:6). About them Solomon said, Loveliest of women, if you lose your way, follow in the עִקְבֵי (iqvei), tracks, of the sheep (Song of Songs 1:8)—of יַעֲקֹב (Ya’aqov), Jacob. About him is written concerning the primordial serpent who seduced Eve, He will boot your head and you will bite his עָקֵב (aqev)heel (Genesis 3:15). [But] after leaving exile, they are compared to apples and all matters of fragrance, as when they departed Egypt, as it says, Under the apple tree I awakened you (Song of Songs 8:5)” (Zohar 2:120b, Ra’aya Meheimna Mishpatim).

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Serpentine Sorcery: Whoever is Drawn Near Becomes Defiled

Moshiac ha nachash“Resh Laqish said, ‘… If one comes to defile himself, he is provided an opening; if one comes to purify himself, he is assisted” (BT Shabbat 104a).

“Come and see: In the middle of the sky, a lustrous path is woven—Celestial Serpent—all gossamer stars clustered with mounds upon mounds, encharged with requiting the deeds of inhabitants of the world. Similarly, numerous bands of dazzling demons issue from this supernal, primordial serpent—by whom Adam was seduced—and they are all encharged with requiting deeds of the world.

So if a person comes to purify himself, he is assisted from above; his Lord’s assistance encircles him, and he is protected, called ‘holy.’ If a person comes to defile himself, numerous bands of dazzling demons lie in wait for him; they all hover over him, surrounding him, defiling him, and he is called ‘impure.’ They all go in front of him, proclaiming, ‘Impure! Impure!—as is said: He shall call out, ‘Impure! Impure!’ (Leviticus 13:45). All of them are linked with that primordial serpent, requiting countless deeds of the world.

Rabbi Yitsḥaq and Rabbi Yose were walking from Tiberias to Lydda. Rabbi Yitsḥaq said, ‘I am amazed at that wicked Balaam, all of whose actions stemmed from the side of impurity! Here we learn a mystery: All species of נְחָשַׁיָּא (neḥshayya), sorcery, throughout the world are linked with, and issue from, that primordial נָחָשׁ (naḥash), serpent—slimy spirit of impurity. So all witchcraft of the world is named accordingly: נְחָשִׁים (neḥashim), serpentine sorcery, all issuing from this side. Whoever is drawn here becomes defiled. Furthermore, he must defile himself in order to draw upon himself that side of impure spirit. For we have learned: As one arouses, so he draws upon himself supernal holiness from above—and is sanctified. If one arouses the side of impurity, he draws upon himself a spirit of impurity—and is defiled. As already mentioned, we have learned that if a person comes to defile himself, he is defiled.

So in order to draw upon himself impure spirit from that supernal serpent, that wicked Balaam defiled himself every night with his donkey, engaging with her conjugally [see BT Sanhedrin 105a–b; Zohar 3:207a], in order to become defiled and draw upon himself impure spirit; then he enacted his sorcery.

To begin with, he would take one of those snakes and offer up incense before it. Then he split its head, extracted its tongue, took certain herbs, and burned everything—concocting incense. Next he took the snake’s head, split it in four, and concocted another incense. He traced a circle, recited a formula, and performed further rites—until he had drawn upon himself impure spirits, who revealed to him what he needed. Through them he accomplished his acts, by their knowledge derived from that celestial serpent. He continued his acts of sorcery until he had drawn upon himself a spirit from that primordial serpent. This is how he discovered and grasped knowledge of sorcery and divination; so it is written: He did not go, as time after time, to encounter נְחָשִׁים (neḥashim), serpentine sorceries (Numbers 24:1)—neḥashim, serpents, literally! The essential root lies in impurity, as has been said; subsequently all begins solely in this….

‘All these practices, all of Balaam’s knowledge—where did he learn it? He replied, ‘From his father. But in those mountains of the East, land of the East, he mastered all kinds of sorcery and divination—for in those mountains reside Uzza and Azael, whom the blessed Holy One had cast down from heaven. Bound in iron chains, they divulge sorcery to human beings; so from there Balaam knew, as is said: From Aram, Balak led me; Moab’s king, from mountains of the East (ibid. 23:7)” (Zohar 1:125a–126a, cf. Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 69, 97a).

 

תולדות ישו (Toledot Yeshu) The Genealogy of Jesus

Salvator Mundi attributed to Leonardo da VinciIn the year 3671 in the days of King Jannaeus, a great misfortune befell Israel, when there arose a certain disreputable man of the tribe of Judah, whose name was Yosef Pandera. He lived at Bethlehem, in Judah.

Near his house dwelt a widow and her lovely and chaste daughter named Miriam. Miriam was betrothed to Yoḥanan, of the royal house of David, a man learned in the Torah and God-fearing.

At the close of a certain Sabbath, Yosef Pandera, attractive and like a warrior in appearance, having gazed lustfully upon Miriam, knocked upon the door of her room and betrayed her by pretending that he was her betrothed husband, Yoḥanan. Even so, she was amazed at this improper conduct and submitted only against her will [the author may well be poking fun at the Christian genealogies when he (too) highlights the Davidic lineage of Yoḥanan, the man who did not impregnate Miriam].

Thereafter, when Yoḥanan came to her, Miriam expressed astonishment at behavior so foreign to his character. It was thus that they both came to know the crime of Yosef Pandera and the terrible mistake on the part of Miriam. Whereupon Yoḥanan went to Rabban Shim’on son of Shetah and related to him the tragic seduction. Lacking witnesses required for the punishment of Yosef Pandera, and Miriam being with child, Yoḥanan left for Babylonia [alt., Egypt].

Miriam gave birth to a son and named him יְהוֹשֻׁעַ (Yehoshu’a), Joshua, after her brother. This name later deteriorated to (Yeshu), Jesus [cf. BT Arakhin 32b: “Scripture reproved Joshua, for in all passages it is spelt: יְהוֹשֻׁעַ (Yehoshu’a), Joshua, but here, יֵשׁוּעַ (Yeshu’a), Joshua (Nehemiah 8:17)”]. On the eighth day he was circumcised. When he was old enough the lad was taken by Miriam to the house of study to be instructed in the Jewish tradition.

One day Jesus walked in front of the sages with his head uncovered, showing shameful disrespect. At this, the discussion arose as to whether this behavior did not truly indicate that Jesus was an illegitimate child and the son of a niddah. Moreover, the story tells that while the rabbis were discussing the tractate Neziqin, he gave his own impudent interpretation of the law and in an ensuing debate he held that Moses could not be the greatest of the prophets if he had to receive counsel from Jethro. This led to further inquiry as to the antecedents of Jesus, and it was discovered through Rabban Shim’on son of Shetah that he was the illegitimate son of Yosef Pandera. Miriam admitted it. After this became known, it was necessary for Jesus to flee to Upper Galilee.

After King Jannaeus, his wife Helene [Salome Alexandra] ruled over all Israel. In the Temple was to be found the Foundation Stone on which were engraved the letters of the Ineffable Name. Whoever learned the secret of the Name and its use would be able to do whatever he wished. Therefore, the sages took measures so that no one should gain this knowledge. Lions of brass were bound to two iron pillars at the gate of the place of burnt offerings. Should anyone enter and learn the Name, when he left the lions would roar at him and immediately the valuable secret would be forgotten.

Jesus came and learned the letters of the Name; he wrote them upon the parchment which he placed in an open cut on his thigh and then drew the flesh over the parchment. As he left, the lions roared and he forgot the secret. But when he came to his house he reopened the cut in his flesh with a knife an lifted out the writing. Then he remembered and obtained the use of the letters.

He gathered about himself three hundred and ten young men of Israel [cf. BT Sanhedrin 100a: “The blessed Holy One will give to every righteous man three hundred and ten worlds, as is written, So I may endow those who love Me with substance, and fill their treasuries (Proverbs 8:21)—now the numerical value ofׁ יש (yesh), substance, is 310”]. He accused those who spoke ill of his birth of being people who desired greatness and power for themselves. Jesus proclaimed, “I am the Messiah; and concerning me Isaiah prophesied and said, Behold, a young woman shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel (Isaiah 7:14).” He quoted other texts, insisting, “David my ancestor prophesied concerning me: YHWH, He said to me: You are My son. I Myself today did beget you (Psalms 2:7).”

The insurgents with him replied that if Jesus was the Messiah he should give them a convincing sign. They therefore, brought to him a lame man, who had never walked. Jesus spoke over the man the letters of the Ineffable Name, and the one afflicted with skin blanch was healed. Thereupon, they worshipped him as the Messiah, Son of the Highest.

When word of these happenings came to Jerusalem, the Sanhedrin decided to bring about the capture of Jesus. They sent messengers, Annanui and Ahaziah, who, pretending to be his disciples, said that they brought him an invitation from the leaders of Jerusalem to visit them. Jesus consented on condition the members of the Sanhedrin receive him as a lord. He started out toward Jerusalem and, arriving at Knob, acquired a donkey on which he rode into Jerusalem, as a fulfillment of the prophecy of Zechariah [see Zechariah 9:9: Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, your king comes unto you: he is just, and rescued; lowly, and riding upon a donkey, and upon a colt the foal of a donkey].

The sages bound him and led him before Queen Helene, with the accusation: “This man is a sorcerer and entices everyone.” Jesus replied, “The prophets long ago prophesied my coming: And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, [and a Branch shall grow out of his roots] (Isaiah 11:1), and I, I am He (Deuteronomy 32:39); but as for them, Scripture says Happy the man who has not walked in the wicked’s counsel (Psalms 1:1).”

Queen Helene asked the sages: “What he says, is it in your teaching?” They replied: “It is in our teaching, but it is not applicable to him, for it is in Scripture: But the prophet who willfully speaks a word in My name, which I have not charged him to speak in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die (Deuteronomy 18:20). He has not fulfilled the signs and conditions of the Messiah.”

Jesus spoke up: “Madam, I am the Messiah and I revive the dead.” A dead body was brought in; he pronounced the letters of the Ineffable Name and the corpse came to life. The Queen was greatly moved and said: “This is a true sign.” She reprimanded the sages and sent them humiliated from her presence. Jesus’ dissident followers increased and there was controversy in Israel.

Jesus went to Upper Galilee. The sages came before the Queen, complaining that Jesus practiced sorcery and was leading everyone astray. Therefore she sent Annanui and Ahaziah to fetch him.

They found him in Upper Galilee, proclaiming himself the Son of God. When they tried to take him there was a struggle, but Jesus said to the men of Upper Galilee: “Wage no battle.” He would prove himself by the power which came to him from his Father in Heaven. He spoke the Ineffable Name over the birds of clay and they flew into the air. He spoke the same letters over a millstone that had been placed upon the waters. He sat in it and it floated like a boat. When they saw this the people marveled. At the behest of Jesus, the emissaries departed and reported these wonders to the Queen. She trembled with astonishment.

Then the sages selected a man named Yehudah Isqarioto and brought him to the Sanctuary where he learned the letters of the Ineffable Name as Jesus had done.

When Jesus was summoned before the queen, this time there were present also the sages and Yehudah Isqarioto. Jesus said: “It is spoken of me, I will ascend into the heavens (Isaiah 14:13).” He lifted his arms like the wings of an eagle and he flew between the heavens and earth, to the amazement of everyone.

The elders asked Isqarioto to do likewise. He did, and flew toward heaven. Isqarioto attempted to force Jesus down to earth but neither one of the two could prevail against the other for both had the use of the Ineffable Name. However, Isqarioto defiled Jesus, so that they both lost their power and fell down to the earth, and in their condition of defilement the letters of the Ineffable Name escaped from them [according to an Italian manuscript (Leipzig BH 17 1–18): … he performed anal sex on him. Once he soiled him, and his seed went out from him (Leviticus 15:32), both of them fell to the ground. And all of the sages of the nations knew this secret and hid it, and cursed and banned Yehudah Isqarioto. And when they have a quarrel with another person, they say to him, “May what Yehudah Isqarioto did to Jesus be done to you!”]. Because of this deed of Yehudah they weep on the eve of the birth of Jesus [the Ninth of Tevet (December 24th C.E.)].

Jesus was seized. His head was covered with a garment and he was smitten with pomegranate twigs; but he could do nothing, for he no longer had the Ineffable Name.

Jesus was taken prisoner to the synagogue of Tiberias, and they bound him to a pillar. To allay his thirst they gave him vinegar to drink. On his head they set a crown of thorns. There was strife and wrangling between the elders and the unrestrained followers of Jesus, as a result of which the followers escaped with Jesus to the region of Antioch [alt., Egypt]; there Jesus remained until the eve of the Passover.

Jesus then resolved to go the Temple to acquire again the secret of the Name. That year the Passover came on a Sabbath day. On the eve of the Passover, Jesus, accompanied by his disciples, came to Jerusalem riding upon an donkey. Many bowed down before him. He entered the Temple with his three hundred and ten followers. One of them, Yehudah Isqarioto apprised the sages that Jesus was to be found in the Temple, that the disciples had taken a vow by the Ten Commandments not to reveal his identity but that he would point him out by bowing to him. So it was done and Jesus was seized. Asked his name, he replied to the question by several times giving the names Mattai, Nakki, Buni, Netzer, each time with a verse quoted by him and a counter-verse by the sages.

Jesus was put to death on the sixth hour on the eve of the Passover and of the Sabbath. When they tried to hang him on a tree it broke, for when he had possessed the power he had pronounced by the Ineffable Name that no tree should hold him. He had failed to pronounce the prohibition over the cabbage stalk [alt., carob stalk], for it was a plant more than a tree, and on it he was hanged until the hour for afternoon prayer, for it is written in Scripture, [And should there be against a man a death-sentence offense and he is put to death, and you hang him on a tree,you shall not let his corpse stay the night on the tree [but you shall surely bury it on that day, for a hanged man is God’s curse…] (Deuteronomy 21:23). They buried him outside the city.

On the first day of the week his bold followers came to Queen Helene with the report that he who was slain was truly the Messiah and that he was not in his grave; he had ascended to heaven as he prophesied. Diligent search was made and he was not found in the grave where he had been buried. A gardener had taken him from the grave and had brought him into his garden and buried him in the sand over which the waters flowed into the garden.

Queen Helene demanded, on threat of a severe penalty, that the body of Jesus be shown to her within a period of three days. There was a great distress. When the keeper of the garden saw Rabbi Tanḥuma walking in the field and lamenting over the ultimatum of the Queen, the gardener related what he had done, in order that Jesus’ followers should not steal the body and then claim that he had ascended into heaven. The sages removed the body, tied it to the tail of a horse and transported it to the Queen, with the words, “This is Jesus who is said to have ascended to heaven.” Realizing that Jesus was a false prophet who enticed the people and led them astray, she mocked the followers but praised the sages.

The disciples went out among the nations—three went to the mountains of Ararat, three to Armenia, three to Rome and three to the kingdoms buy the sea, they deluded the people, but ultimately they were slain.

The erring followers amongst Israel said: “You have slain the Messiah of the Lord.” The Israelites answered: “You have believed in a false prophet.” There was endless strife and discord for thirty years.

The sages desired to separate from Israel those who continued to claim Jesus as the Messiah, and they called upon a greatly learned man, Shim’on Kefa, for help. Shim’on went to Antioch, main city of the Nazarenes and proclaimed to them: “I am the disciple of Jesus. He has sent me to show you the way. I will give you a sign as Jesus has done.”

Shim’on, having gained the secret of the Ineffable Name, healed one afflicted with skin blanch and a lame man by means of it and thus found acceptance as a true disciple. He told them that Jesus was in heaven, at the right hand of his Father, in fulfillment of YHWH’s utterance to my master: “Sit at My right hand till I make your enemies a stool for your feet” (Psalm 110:1). He added that Jesus desired that they separate themselves from the Jews and no longer follow their practices, as Isaiah had said, Your new moons and your appointed feasts my soul hates: [they are a trouble unto me; I am weary of bearing them] (Isaiah 1:14). They were now to observe the first day of the week instead of the seventh, the Resurrection instead of the Passover, the Ascension into Heaven instead of the Feast of Weeks, the finding of the Cross instead of Rosh Hashanah, the Feast of the Circumcision instead of the Yom Kippur, the New Year instead of Ḥanukkah; they were to be indifferent with regard to circumcision and the dietary laws. Also they were to follow the teaching of turning the right if smitten on the left and the meek acceptance of suffering. All these new ordinances which Shim’on Kefa (or Paul, as he was known to the Nazarenes [cf. Acts 5:34, 22:3]) taught them were really meant to separate these Nazarenes from the people of Israel and to bring the internal strife to an end.

From the North Gold Flows

IMG_0953Silver has a crucible and gold a kiln, and YHWH tries hearts (Proverbs 17:3).

“Rabbi Yonatan said, ‘A potter does not test a weak vessel, for if he hits it just once, he will break it….’ Rabbi Yose son of Ḥaninah said, ‘When a flax maker knows that the flax is in good shape, then the more he beats it, the more it will improve and glisten’” (Bereshit Rabbah 55:1).

“This world is like a mustard seed in a ring. Why? Because of the [encircling] wind that beats it and sustains it. If this wind were to stop, the world would wither in an instant” (Bahir §179).

“Rav Ḥanan son of Abba has said in the name of Rav: Four winds blow every day and the north wind with all of them, for without this the world could not endure a single moment. The south wind is the most harsh, and were it not that the [angel] Son of Hawk stays it with his wings it would destroy the world, as it says, The hawk wing opens by Your understanding, spreads his wings toward the south (Job 39:26)—no; what it means is that it is the תְּדִירָה תְּדִירָה (tedirah tedirah), constant abode, of Shekhinah [שְׁכִינָה (shekhinah), Divine Presence, from לְשַׁכֵּן (le-shaken), ‘to dwell.’ She is also called דַּר (dar), Dweller]. For so said Rabbi Yehoshu’a son of Levi: Let us be grateful to our ancestors for showing us the place of prayer, as is written, the heaven of heavens, with all their armies bow down to You (Nehemiah 9:6).

Rav Aḥa son of Ya’aqov protested: Perhaps, [the sun and moon bow down to the east], like a servant who has received a reward from his master and retires backwards, bowing as he goes [i.e., the verse refers to the sun and moon at their setting and not at their rising, and hence the Shekhinah is in the east]. This [indeed] is a difficulty. Rabbi Oshaya expressed the opinion that the Shekhinah is בְּכָל מָקוֹם (ba-khol maqom), everywhere. For Rabbi Oshaya said: What is the meaning of the verse, You, even You, are YHWH alone; You have made heaven, the heaven of heavens, [with all their armies, the earth, and all things that are therein, the seas, and all that is therein, and You enliven them all] (ibid.). Your messengers are not like the messengers of flesh and blood. Messengers of flesh and blood return to the place from which they have been sent, but Your messengers return [and report on] their mission from the [very same] place which they have been sent, as it says, You send lighting bolts on their way, and they say to You, ‘Here we are!’ (Job 38:35). It does not say, they will come and say, but rather, on their way and they say, which shows that Shekhinah is everywhere.

Rabbi Yishma’el also holds that Shekhinah is everywhere, since the academy of Rabbi Yishma’el taught: From where do we know that Shekhinah is everywhere? Because it says, And, behold, the messenger that talked with me went forth, and another messenger went out to meet him (Zechariah 2:7). It does not say, went out after him, but went out to meet him. This shows that Shekhinah is everywhere. Rav Sheshet [the blind] also held Shekhinah is everywhere, because [when desiring to pray] he used to say to his attendant: Set me facing any way except the east. And this was not because Shekhinah is not there, but because the sectarians advise turning to the east. Rabbi Abbahu, however, said that Shekhinah is in the west; for so said Rabbi Abbahu: What is אוֹרִיָּה (oriyyah) [a Persian word meaning ‘evening,’ and by extension ‘west’]? It is equivalent to אֲוִיר יָהּ (avir Yah), divine air.

Rav Yehudah said: What is, Let my teaching יַעֲרֹף (ya’arof), drop, like rain (Deuteronomy 32:2)?—the west wind which comes מֵעָרפּוֹ (me-arpo), from the back, of the world [i.e., the sea, which is at the western side of the land of Israel]. My saying תִּזַּל (tizzal), flow, like dew (ibid.): this is the north wind which מַזָּלֶת אֶת הַזָּהָב (mazzelet et ha-zahav), makes gold flow, and so it says: הַזָּלִים זָהָב (Ha-zalim zahav), who pours gold, from the purse (Isaiah 46:6). Like שְׂעִירִם (se’irim), showers, on the green (Deuternomy ibid.): this is the east wind which rages through the world like a שָׂעִיר (sa’ir), goat-demon. And like cloudbursts on the grass (ibid.): this is the south wind which brings up showers and causes the grass to grow.

It has been taught: Rabbi Eli’ezer says that the world is like a veranda, and the north side is not enclosed, and so when the sun reaches the north-west corner, it swings round and returns [to the east] above the firmament. Rabbi Yehoshu’a, however, says that the world is like a tent, and the north side is enclosed [cf. Genesis 4:7: at the tent flap sin crouches], and when the sun reaches the north-west corner it circles and goes back behind the dome [till it reaches the east], as it says, [The sun rises and the sun sets, and to its place it glides, there it rises.It goes to the south and swings round to the north (Ecclesiastes 1:5–6): it goes to the south—by day, and swings round to the north—by night. Round and round goes the wind, and on its rounds the wind returns (ibid.): this refers to the eastern and western sides of the heavens, of which the sun sometimes goes round them and sometimes traverses [i.e., it goes round them in winter when it is below the horizon, and it traverses them in summer when it is above the horizon].

He [Rabbi Yehoshu’a] used to say: We have arrived at the view of Rabbi Eli’ezer, [since we have learnt]: From the sky-chamber comes the tempest (Job 37:9): this is the south wind; and from the wind’s dispersal the cold (ibid.): this is the north wind [which is open, and from which a cold wind comes]. From the breath of אֵל (El) the ice is made (ibid., 10): this is the west wind: and wide waters turn solid (ibid.): this is the east wind.’ But doesn’t the Master say that it is the south wind which brings showers and makes the grass grow?—there is no contradiction; when the rain falls gently [it is from the south], and when it falls heavily [it is from the east].

Rav Ḥisda said: What is meant by the verse, From the north gold comes (Job 37:22)? This refers to the north wind which makes gold flow; and so it says: Who pours gold from the purse (Isaiah 46:6).

Rafram son of Papa said in the name of Rav Ḥisda: Since the day when the Temple was destroyed the south wind has not brought rain, as it says, And he decreed on the right hand, and there was hunger; and he devoured on the left hand, and they were not satisfied: [they shall eat every man the flesh of his own arm] (Isaiah 9:19); and it is written, The north and the south, You created them (Psalms 89:13).

Rafram son of Papa also said in the name of Rav Ḥisda: Since the day when the Temple was destroyed, rain no longer comes down from the ‘good treasury,’ as it says, YHWH will open for you His goodly treasure (Deuteronomy 28:12): When Israel act according to the will of the Omnipresent and are settled in their own land, then rain comes down from a ‘good treasury,’ but when Israel are not settled on their own land, then the rain does not come down from a ‘good treasury’ [cf. Bahir §155; Zohar 2:161b; Rashi on BT Yevamot 62a].

Rabbi Yitsḥaq said: He who desires to become wise should turn to the south [when praying], and he who desires to become rich should turn to the north. And your mnemonic is that the table [in the Tabernacle] was to the north of the altar and the candlestick to the south [the table being the symbol of plenty, and the candlestick of knowledge]. Rabbi Yehoshu’a son Levi, however, said that he should always turn to the south, because through obtaining wisdom he will obtain wealth, as it says, length of days are in her right hand, in her left hand wealth and honor (Proverbs 3:16). But was it not Rabbi Yehoshu’a son of Levi who said that Shekhinah is in the west?—[he means that] one should turn aside [slightly] to the south. Rabbi Ḥanina said to Rav Ashi [of Babylon]: Those like you who live to the north of the land of Israel should turn to the south. How do we know that Babylon is to the north of the land of Israel?—as is written [in a prophecy concerning the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians:] From the north, evil will be let loose on the inhabitants of the land (Jeremiah 1:14)” (BT Bava Batra 25a–b).

“They asked [Rabbi Akiva]: ‘Why is ח (ḥet) open? And why is its vowel a small pataḥ?’ He said: ‘Because all the רוּחוֹת (ruḥot), winds [or: directions], are closed up, except for the north, which is open for good and for evil.’ They said: ‘How can you say that it is for good? Is it not written, And I looked, and, behold, a whirlwind came out of the north, a great cloud, and a fire engulfing itself (Ezekiel 1:4). Fire—nothing other than flaring anger, as is written, And fire came out from before YHWH and consumed them (Leviticus 10:2).’ He said: ‘There is no difficulty. One speaks of when Israel does the will of the Omnipresent, while the other speaks of when they do not do His will. When Israel does not do His will, then the fire draws near. But when they do His will, then the quality of Compassion encompasses and surrounds, as is written, Who pardons offences, and passes over rebellion (Micah 7:18).’

A parable: To what can the matter be compared? A king wanted to punish and whip his servants. One hegemon stood up and asked the reason for this punishment. When the king described the offence he said, ‘Your servants never did such a thing. I will be their bondsman until you investigate it more thoroughly.’ In the meantime, the king’s anger was calmed” (Bahir §34–§35).

From the north, evil will be תִּפָּתַח (tipataḥ), let loose, on the inhabitants of the land (Jeremiah 1:14).

“What is פַּתַח‬ (pataḥ)? It is an פֶּתַח (petaḥ), opening. Which opening? The north wind, open to all the world. It is the gate from which good and evil emerge. And what is good? [Rabbi Akiva] mocked them, saying: ‘Did I not tell you that it is a small pataḥ?’ They said: ‘We have forgotten, teach us a second time.’ He reviewed, saying: ‘A parable: A king had a throne. Sometimes he carried it on his arm, and sometimes on his head.’ ‘Why?’ they asked. ‘Because it was beautiful and he was hesitant to sit on it.’ They asked: ‘And where did he place it on his head?’ He replied: ‘In the open מ (mem), as is written, Truth from the earth will spring up, as justice from the heavens looks down (Psalms 85:12).’

Rabbi Amorai sat and expounded: What is the meaning of YHWH loves the gates of Zion more than all the dwellings of Jacob (Psalms 87:2)? The gates of Zion, are the פִּתְחֵי עוֹלָם (pitḥei olam), portals of the world (Psalms 24:7). Now a gate is nothing other than an portal. Therefore we say, ‘Open the gates of Mercy for us.’ YHWH said: I love the gates of Zion when they are open. Why? Because they are on the side of evil. But when Israel does good before YHWH and are worthy that good be opened for them, then He loves them—more than all the dwellings of Jacob. They are all peace, as is written, Jacob was a simple man, a dweller in tents [cf. Zohar 1:167b: ‘a consummate man’] (Genesis 25:27).

This is like two men, one who is driven to do evil but does good, and the other who is driven to do good but does evil. Who is more praiseworthy? The one who is driven to do evil and does good, for he may do good again. It is therefore written: YHWH loves the gates of Zion more than all the dwellings of Jacob. They are all peace, as is written, Jacob was a simple man, a dweller in tents” (Bahir §37–§39).

“The blessed Holy One has a quality whose name is רָעָה (ra’ah), Evil. It is to the north of the blessed Holy One, as is written: From the north, evil will be let loose on all the inhabitants of the land (Jeremiah 1:14)—any evil that comes to all inhabitants of earth comes from the north.

What is this quality? It is the likeness of a hand. It has many messengers [i.e., fingers], and the name of them all is Evil. Some of them are big and some are small, but they all bring guilt to the world. This is because תֹהוּ (tohu), Chaos, is toward the north. Tohu is nothing other than רָעָה (ra’ah), Evil. It תָּהָא (taha), confounds, the world and causes people to offend. Every evil impulse that exists in man comes from there. And why is it placed to the left? Because it does not have any authority nor any place in the world except in the north [which is to one’s left when facing the rising sun in the east]. It is not accustomed to be anywhere except in the north. It does not want to be any place but in the north. If it remained in the south until it learned the manner of the south, how could it lead others astray? It would have to stay there days until it learned, and then it could not cause people to offend. It therefore is always in the north, to the left. This is the meaning of For the devisings of the human heart are evil from youth (Genesis 8:21). It is evil from his youth, and it does not incline other than to the left, for it is already accustomed to being there. It is regarding this that the blessed Holy One said to Israel If you really heed the voice of YHWH your God, and do what is right in His eyes, and hearken to His commands (Exodus 15:26)—not to the commands of the evil impulse. And keep all His statutes (ibid.)—not the statutes of the evil impulse [all the sickness that I put upon Egypt I will not put upon you,for I am YHWH your healer (ibid).

What does the evil impulse gain? What is this like? A king appointed clerks over the provinces of his kingdom, over his work and over his goods. Everything had its clerk. There was one clerk in charge of the storehouse containing fine food. Another was in charge of the storehouse containing stones. Everyone came to the storehouse containing fine food. The clerk in charge of the storehouse of stones came and saw that people were only buying from the other clerk. What did he do? He sent his messengers to raze the weak house. However, to the strong ones they could not do so. He said, ‘In the time that it takes to raze one of the strong, you can raze ten of the weak. People will then all come and buy stones from me, and I will not be inferior to the other.’ Therefore it is written, From the north, evil will be let loose on all the inhabitants of the land (Jeremiah 1:14). It then continues, For, I will call all the families of the kingdoms of the north, says YHWH; and they shall come, and they shall set everyone his throne at the entrance of the gates of Jerusalem (ibid., 15). Evil will be their trade, and the evil impulse will also constantly strive. הַשָׂטָן (Ha-satan), the adversary, turns aside, since he weighs down the whole world on the scale of liability. How do we know? As is written, and he turned aside to her (Genesis 38:16), and the Targum renders this וּסְטָא (u-seta), and he turned aside. It is likewise written שְׂטֵה (seteh), turn away, from it and pass on (Proverbs 4:15)” (Bahir §162–§164).

“And what is from there is the Shepherd, Israel’s Stone (Genesis 49:24)? That from There Israel’s Stone is sustained. What is it by name? Indeed, say: Supernal Justice [Binah]. What is it? The great צָפוּן (tsafun), hidden, light, called סֹחָרֶת (soḥaret), Dark. And the stone below is called דַּר (dar), Mother-of-Pearl” (Bahir §193).

“As for [Binah] being called צְפוֹנִית (tsefonit), north, this is because She is supernally concealed, and from Her side issues north and judgments are aroused from Her side—even though She is compassion and joy, as we have already established. When She emerges, north emerges within Her, included and connected with דָרוֹם (darom), south” (Zohar 3:120a).

I will Descend and Confine My Shekhinah within One Square Cubit

IMG_0941“Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The blessed Holy One—wherever you find His strength you find His meekness” (BT Megillah 31a).

And they shall make an ark of acacia wood (Exodus 25:10). Thus it is written, Shaddai, whom we find not, is lofty in power (Job 37:23). Our great teacher [Rabbi Yehudah ha-Nasi] said: We are indebted to Job, because he added to everything Elihu said. Job said to his companions: ‘Do you imagine that even all you have said exhausts His praise? Who can declare all the praises and mighty deeds of the blessed Holy One? All the things you have said, Why, these are but the least of His ways [the tag-end of the word that is heard of Him] (ibid. 26:14).

Elihu said: Shaddai, whom we find not lofty in power. He that hears this verse may exclaim: ‘Perhaps, perish the thought, this is blasphemy!’ [since Elihu expressed it so ambiguously as to make it possible to think that he was actually blaspheming]. But this is what Elihu meant: We will never find the blessed Holy One’s power [fully] displayed towards any of His creatures, for He does not visit His creatures with burdensome laws, but comes to each one according to his strength. For know that if blessed Holy One had come upon Israel with the full force of His strength when He gave them the Torah, they would not have been able to withstand it, as it says, If we hear again the voice of YHWH our God, we shall die (Deuteronomy 5:22). However, He came upon them according to their individual strength, for it says, YHWH’s voice in power (Psalms 29:4). It does not say בְּכֹחוֹ (be-khoḥo), in His power, but בַּכֹּחַ (ba-koaḥ), in power, that is, according to the strength of each individual [cf. Pesiqta de-Rav Kahana 12:25].

Another interpretation: Shaddai, whom we find not, is lofty in power—when the blessed Holy One said to Moses, Make Me a Tabernacle, [that I may abide in their midst] (Exodus 25:8), he exclaimed in amazement, ‘The Glory of the blessed Holy One fills the heavens and earth, and yet He commands: Make Me a Tabernacle! Moreover, he saw prophetically that Solomon would one day build a Temple, much larger than the Tabernacle, and yet would say before the blessed Holy One: But can אֱלֹהִים (Elohimreally dwell on earth? Look, the heavens and the heavens beyond the heavens cannot contain You. How much less this house that I have built (1 Kings 8:27).

If Solomon said this of the Temple which was so much greater than the Tabernacle, then how much more could this be said of the Tabernacle? For this reason Moses said: He who dwells in the Most High’s shelter (Psalms 91:1), which Rabbi Yehudah son of Rabbi Shim’on explained: He who dwells in the shelter is Most High above all His creatures; and what does it mean by בְּצֵל (be-tsel), in the shadow of, Shaddai (ibid.)? בְּצַלְ אֵל (Be-tsal El), in the shadow of God. It does not say here In the shadow of the Compassionate, or In the shadow of the Gracious, but In the shadow of Shaddai; that means, in the shadow which בְּצַלְאֵל (Betsalel), Bezalel, constructed; and for this reason it says, In the shadow of Shaddai lies at night. The blessed Holy One said, ‘Not as you think do I think; twenty boards on the north, twenty on the south and eight in the west [suffices Me]; moreover, I will descend וַאֲצַמְצֵם (va-atsamtsem), and confine, My Shekhinah within one square cubit [cf. BT Berakhot 8a: ‘Rabbi Ḥiyya son of Ammi in the name of ‘Ulla: Since the day that the Temple was destroyed, the blessed Holy One has nothing in this world but the four cubits of Halakhah alone’]” (Shemot Rabbah 34:1).

Close is YHWH to all who call Him, to all who call to Him in truth (Psalms 145:18).

“Rabbi Pinḥas said in the name of Rabbi Yehudah son of Shim’on, ‘An idol appears to be near, but is actually far… the blessed Holy One appears to be far yet nothing is closer than He… like a person who speaks into his fellow’s ear and he hears him. And is it possible that a god could be closer to his creatures than this? For He is so close to His creatures it is as if they speak directly into His ear” (JT Berakhot 9:1, 13b).

“An idol is near but far. The blessed Holy One is far but near” (Devarim Rabbah 2:6).

From afar, YHWH appeared to me, saying, I love you with an everlasting love (Jeremiah 31:3).

Rabbi Shim’on son of Azzai said: The Glory of which is written, The heavens and earth I fill (Jeremiah 23:24)—see how love for Israel caused the Glory to דָחָק (daḥaq), compress, as it were, in order to appear over the cover [of the Ark of the Covenant] between the two cherubim!” (Sifra, Nedavah 2, cf. Tanḥuma, Vayakhel, 7).

I am אֵל שַׁדַּי (El Shaddai). Walk in My presence and be blameless, and I will grant My covenant between Me and you (Genesis 17:1).

“Rabbi Yehudah raised a contradiction: [and the cherubim sheltered the Ark and its poles from above. And the poles extended, andthe ends of the poles could be seen [from the Holy Place in front of the sanctuary] (1 Kings 8:8), and it is written but they could not be seen from without (ibid.)—how is that possible? They were seen and not seen. Therefore it was also taught: ‘The ends of the poles could be seen—one might have assumed that they did not protrude from their place, thus it says: And the poles extended. One might assume that they tore the curtain and emerged, thus it says: but they could not be seen from without. How then? They pressed forth and protruded as the two breasts of a woman, as is said: A sachet of myrrh is my lover to me, all night between שָׁדַי (shaddai), my breasts (Song of Songs 1:13)’” (BT Yoma 54a).

A sachet of myrrh is my lover to me (Song of Songs 1:13)—of all the spices, none is sweeter than this myrrh. Similarly, the blessed Holy One is the most fitting thing in the world. And why does he compare the blessed Holy One to a sachet? Because it is written of Him: [Can any hide himself in secret places that I shall not see him? says YHWH.Do I not fill the heavens and earth? says YHWH (Jeremiah 23:24). But He צַמְצֵם (tsamtsem), contracts, His Shekhinah between the poles of the Ark, as it says, all night between my breasts (Song of Songs, ibid.)” (Midrash Shir ha-Shirim 15b [Grünhut]).

Mother of Pearl and Black Pearl: He Took a Fraction of Her Radiance and Made a Lovely Precious Stone

Pearl Nature Black Work Shell HD Background“Was light created on the first day? For, behold, it is written: And God placed [the two great lights] in the vault of the heavens (Genesis 1:17), and it is written: And it was evening and it was morning, fourth day (ibid., 19)—this is according to Rabbi El’azar. For Rabbi El’azar said: With the light the blessed Holy One created on the first day one could gaze from one end of the universe to the other; but as soon as the blessed Holy One foresaw the generation of the Flood and the generation of the Dispersion [i.e., the generation which built the Tower of Babel], and saw that their actions were corrupt, He arose and hid it away from them, as is said: The light of the wicked is withheld (Job 38:15). And for whom did He hide it? For the righteous in the time to come, for it is said: And God saw the light, that it was good (Genesis 1:4); and good means only the righteous, for it is said: Say you to the righteous, that it shall be good: [for they shall eat the fruit of their deeds] (Isaiah 3:10). As soon as the light saw that it had been treasured away for the righteous, it rejoiced, as is said: The light of the righteous rejoices (Proverbs 13:9)” (BT Ḥagigah 12a).

“It was taught: The light which was created in the six days of Creation cannot shine during the day because it dims the orb of the sun, nor by night, because it was created only to shine by day. Then where is it? It is treasured away  for the righteous in the time still to come, as it says, Moreover the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of the seven days, [in the day that YHWH binds up the hurt of His people, and heals the stroke of their wound] (Isaiah 30:26). Seven! surely there were only three, seeing that the luminaries were created on the fourth day! It is like a man who says, ‘I am providing so much for the seven days of my [wedding] feast. Rabbi Neḥemyah said: It refers to the seven days of mourning for Methuselah, when the blessed Holy One lavished light upon them [see BT Sanhedrin 108b]” (Bereshit Rabbah 3:6).

“Rabbi Yehudah son of Simon said, ‘With the light created by the blessed Holy One on the first day, one could gaze and see from one end of the universe to the other. When the Holy One foresaw the corruption of the generation of Enosh and the generation of the Flood, He hid it away from them, as is written: The light of the wicked is withheld (Job 38:15). Where did He hide it? In the Garden of Eden. אוֹר זָרֻעַ לַצַּדִּיק וּלְיִשְׁרֵי לֵב שִׂמְחָה (Or zaru’a la-tsaddiq u-le-yishrei simḥa), Light is sown for the righteous, joy for the upright in heart (Psalms 97:11) [ר עֲקִיבַה (R. Akiva)]” (Vayiqra Rabbah 11:7).

“God said, ‘Let there be light!’ And there was light (Genesis 1:3)—primordial, transcendent light, already existent. From here issued all powers and forces, so Earth turned firm and fragrant, generating Her potencies. As the light shone, its radiance blazed from one end of the universe to the other. When it gazed upon the wicked of the world, it hid itself away, emerging only by its paths, concealed, unrevealed….

God said, ‘Let there be light!’ This is the light that the blessed Holy One created at first. It is the light of the eye. This is the light that the blessed Holy One showed Adam, who gazed with it from one end of the universe to the other” (Zohar 1:30b, 31b).

“Look at what we have learned in our Mishnah: With the light that the blessed Holy One created at first, one could gaze and see from the beginning of the world to its end. Come and see: The light of the sun is a sixty-thousand-and-seventy-fifth of the light of the speculum of the concealed light. If even at this light of the sun a person cannot gaze, how much more so at that light!

Yet we have said that a person could see with it from the beginning of the world to the end of the world! Well, so have we decreed in our Mishnah: With that light, a person could know and see—with the radiance of wisdom—all that was and all that will be, from the beginning of the world to the end of the world, and it has been concealed for the righteous in the world to come. What is meant by ‘in the world to come’? When the holy soul leaves this world and enters the world to come [cf. Tanḥuma, Vayiqra, 8: ‘The wise call it הַעוֹלָם הַבּא (ha-olam ha-ba), the world to come, not because it does not exist now, but for us today in this world it is still to come’; Zohar 3:290b (IZ): ‘The world that is coming, constantly coming, never ceasing’]” (Zohar Ḥadash 15b, Midrash ha-Ne’lam).

“Rabbi Neḥunyah son of ha-Qannah said: One verse says, They have not seen the light, bright though it be in the skies (Job 37:21). Another verse says, He set darkness His hiding-place round Him (Psalms 18:12), and it is also written, Cloud and dense fog around Him (Psalms 97:2). ‘A third verse comes and reconciles them’ (Baraita de-Rabbi Yishma’el 13), as is said, Darkness itself will not darken for You, and the night will light up like the day, the dark and light will be one (Psalms 139:12)” (Bahir §1).

Torah is light (Proverbs 6:23).

“Rabbi Boi said: I was set up from eternity, from the beginning, before the earth (Proverbs 8:23). What is מֵעוֹלָם (me-olam), from eternity? A matter necessary לְהֵעָלֵם (le-he’alem), to conceal, from all, as is written: The world, too, He has put in their heart [without man’s grasping at all what it is God has done from beginning to end] (Ecclesiastes 3:11). Do not read הָעֹלָם (ha-olam), the world, but rather הַעֲלָםָ (ha-alama), the concealing. Torah is saying, ‘I was first, so that I might be the beginning of the world,’ as is said, I was set up from eternity, from the beginning. You may think that the earth was before her, thus: before the earth (ibid). And what [was] בָּרָא (bara), created (Genesis 1:1)? All that was needed, then אֱלֹהִים (Elohim). Only then is it written: the heavens and the earth (ibid.)” (Bahir §10).

“Rabbi Berekhiyah said, ‘Why is it written, God said, ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light (Genesis 1:3), and not [simply] ‘And there was?’ This can be compared to a king who had a beautiful object and set it aside until he had prepared a place for it; then he placed it there, as is written: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light—for it already was” (Bahir §25).

Unveil my eyes that I may look upon the wonders of Your Torah (Psalms 119:18).

“And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: There were two [iterations of] ‘light,’ as is written, [And God said, ‘Let there be light.’] And there was light (Genesis 1:3). Regarding both of them it is written, it was good (ibid., 4). The blessed Holy One took one and hid it for the righteous in the World that is Coming. Of this is written, How great Your goodness that You hid for those who fear You. You have wrought for those who shelter in You [before the eyes of humankind] (Psalms 31:20). We learn that no creature could gaze upon the primordial light, as is written, it was good [cf. Shemot Rabbah 35:1]. Furthermore it is written, And God saw that it was good (Genesis 1:21). The blessed Holy One saw all that He had made, and saw good—מַזְהִיר (mazhir), radiant, בָּהִיר (bahir), brilliance. He took of that good, and included in it the thirty-two paths of Wisdom, giving it to this world. This is the meaning of, For good learning I have given you, do not forsake My teaching (Proverbs 4:2). Alas, say this is treasury of Oral Torah.

The blessed Holy One said, ‘This quality is included in this world, and it is Oral Torah. If you guard this quality in this world, then you will be worthy of the World that is Coming, which is the good treasured away for the righteous.’ What is it? It is His strength, as is written, And His glow is as the light (Habakkuk 3:4). The glow that was taken from the primordial light will be [manifest] light if His children keep the teaching and the commandments that I have written to instruct them (Exodus 24:12) [cf. Zohar 2:166b].’ Therefore it is written, Hear, My son, your father’s reproof, and do not forsake your mother’s teaching (Proverbs 1:8).

And it is written, He has rays at His side: and there is His strength hidden (Habakkuk 3:4). What is His strength hidden? The light that was concealed: that You hid for those who fear You (Psalms 31:20). As is said: You have wrought for those who shelter in You (ibid.)—those who take refuge in Your shadow in this world, who keep Your teaching, and fulfill Your commandments. Who sanctify Your great Name, unifying it in private and in public, as it says: before the eyes of humankind (ibid.)” (Bahir §147–§148).

“Rabbi Berakhiyah sat and expounded: Each day we speak of הַעוֹלָם הַבּא (ha-olam ha-ba). Do we then understand what we are saying? The Targum renders this as עָלְמָא דְאָתֵי (alma de-atei), the World to Come. But what is it? We learned that before the world was created, it arose in thought to create a great shining light. A light so bright was created no creature could control it. When the blessed Holy One saw that no one could bear it, He took one-seventh and gave it to them in its place. The rest He treasured away for the righteous in the time to come, saying, ‘If they prove worthy of this seventh and guard it, I will give them the rest in the final world.’ It is therefore called the עוֹלָם הַבּא (olam ha-ba), World that is Coming, since it already came [before] the six days of Creation. Regarding this it is written, How great Your goodness that You hid for those who fear You (Psalms 31:20) [cf. Tanḥuma, Vayiqra, 8; Zohar 3:290b (IZ)]” (Bahir §160).

“And what is the fear of God? It is the primordial light. Thus Rabbi [Me’ir] said: Why is it written God said, ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light?’ (Genesis 1:3). Why does it not say, ‘and it was so?’ But this teaches that the light was so overwhelming that no creature could gaze upon it. The blessed Holy One therefore concealed it for the righteous in the time still to come. This is the quality of all סְחֹרָה (seḥorah), goods, in the world. It is also the power of the precious stones called דַּר וְסֹחָרֶת (dar ve-soḥaret), mother-of-pearl and black pearl (Esther 1:6) [see BT Megillah 12a]. And what is the quality of mother-of-pearl? To teach you that the blessed Holy One took a fraction of her radiance and made a lovely precious stone. In her He included all the commandments” (Bahir §190).

I am שְׁחוֹרָה (sheḥorah), dark, but desirable (Song of Songs 1:5), the speculum that does not shine but Father and Mother adorned Her so that Her husband be pleased with Her” (Zohar 1:49b).

“And what is from there is the Shepherd, Israel’s Stone (Genesis 49:24)? That מִשָּׁם (mi-sham), from There, Israel’s Stone is sustained [וְשָׁם (ve-sham), and There, is His strength hidden (Habakkuk 3:4)]. What is מִשֶּׁם (mishem), it by name? Indeed, say: צֶדֶק עֶליוֹן (tsedeq elyon), supernal Justice [upper ShekhinahBinah]. What is it? The great hidden light called סֹחָרֶת (Soḥaret) [which סְחוֹר סְחוֹר (seḥor seḥor), surrounds, everything, cf. Zohar 3:120a]. And the stone below is called דַּר (dar), Dweller [i.e., lower שְׁכִינָה (Shekhinah), Presence, from לְשַׁכֵּן (le-shaken), ‘to dwell,’ see Seder Rabba de-Vereshit: ‘Shekhinah is below just as Shekhinah is above’].

What is He has rays at מִיָּדוֹ (mi-yado), His side (Habakkuk 3:4)? These are the five fingers of the right יָד (yad), hand” (Bahir §193). 

“A precious stone set in a crown, as is written, the stone that the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone (Psalms 118:22). It ascends to the place from which it was hewn, as is written, from there is the Shepherd, Israel’s Stone (Genesis 49:24)” (Bahir §91).

 

They Searched and Found One Flask of Oil Laying Undisturbed with the Seal of the High Priest: Blessings from Above Manifest Only at a Site of Substance, not Emptiness

tumblr_inline_nxrdmyLDHu1sfjjkp_1280.jpgAnd you shall make a lamp stand of pure gold…. Take you clear oil of beaten olives for the light, to kindle a lamp perpetually (Exodus 25:31, 27:20).

“What is Ḥanukkah? The Rabbis taught: On the twenty-fifth of Kislev the eight days of Ḥanukkah begin on which a lamentation for the dead and fasting are forbidden. For when the Greeks entered the Temple they defiled all the oils that were in the Temple, yet when the Hasmonean dynasty prevailed against and defeated them, they searched and found one flask of oil laying undisturbed with the seal of the High Priest. However, there was enough for only one day’s lighting. A miracle occurred and they lit from it eight days. The following year these [days] were appointed a Festival with Hallel and thanksgiving” (BT Shabbat 21b).

“Come and see how the character of the blessed Holy One differs from that of flesh and blood. In the case of flesh and blood, an empty vessel holds [more], but not a full one. However, the blessed Holy One is not so: a full vessel holds [more], but not an empty one” (BT Berakhot 40a).

And a certain woman from the wives of the acolyte prophets had cried out to Elisha, saying, “Your servant, my husband, died. And you know that your servant was a YHWH fearer. And the creditor has come to take my two children to be his slaves.” And Elisha said to her, “What shall I do for you? Tell me, what do you have in the house?” And she said, “Your servant has nothing at all in the house except a flask of oil.” And he said, “Go, borrow vessels for yourself from outside, from all your neighbors—empty vessels, and not just a few. And you shall come and close the door behind you and behind your sons, and you shall pour into these vessels, and the full ones you shall set aside.” And she went from him and closed the door behind her and behind her sons. They were bringing the vessels to her and she was pouring. And it happened when the vessels were full that she said to her son, “Bring me another vessel,” and he said to her, “There are no more vessels.” And the oil stopped. And she came and told the man of God, and he said, “Go, sell the oil and pay your debt, and you and your sons will live off what is left (2 Kings 4:1–7).

Tell me, what do you have in the house? (2 Kings 4:2)… for supernal blessings settle only upon a place that is complete [i.e., full and not empty]. This is the mystery of In the heart of all who are wise-hearted I have set wisdom (Exodus 31:6), and similarly, He gives wisdom to the wise (Daniel 2:21) [cf. BT Berakhot 55a in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan. On blessing not appearing in an empty place, see BT Sanhedrin 92a, in the name of Rabbi El’azar; Naḥmaindes on Exodus 25:24; Zohar 1:88a–b, 240a, 250a; 2:63b, 67a, 87b–88a, 154b–155a, 157b; 3:34a]” (Zohar 2:157b).

“Every wise person has his eyes and his words on his head, focused on Who is resting right there. With his eyes there he knows that the light kindled on his head needs oil. For the human body is a wick, and a light is kindled above. King Solomon cried out: Let… your head not lack oil (Ecclesiastes 9:8)—the light on one’s head needs oil, the oil of good deeds!” (Zohar 3:187a).

“Why is Israel compared to an olive? To teach that just as the olive does not produce its oil until it is crushed, so too Israel does not return except through suffering” (BT Menakhot 53b).