The Nut Garden

לקוטים מזוהר (Gleanings of Zohar)

Tag: אוֹר

All the Glory of the King’s Daughter is Inward

“Rabbi Neḥunia son of ha-Qannah said: One verse says, They have not seen the light, bright though it be in the skies (Job 37:21). And another verse says, He set darkness His hiding-place (Psalms 18:12); it is also written, Cloud and dense fog around Him (ibid. 97:2). This is difficult! However, a third verse comes to hold the balance between them: Darkness itself does not darken for You, and the night lights up like the day, the dark and light are one (ibid. 139:12)” (Bahir §1).

He set darkness His hiding-place round Him, His abode darkness of water, the clouds of the skies (Psalms 18:12). But is there any darkness before Heaven? For behold it is written: He lays bare the deep and the hidden things, knows what is in darkness, and light dwells with Him (Daniel 2:22)—this is not difficult: the one refers to inner houses [in which there is only light], the other to outer houses [hidden in darkness of water, cloud and dense fog]” (BT Ḥagigah 12b–13a).

When you light up [the lamps, opposite the front of the lamp stand shall the seven lamps give light] (Numbers 8:2).

Darkness itself does not darken for You, and the night lights up like the day, the dark and light are one (Psalms 139:12). Yet to us He says When you light up!

To what may this be compared? To a king who had a beloved friend. The king said to him, ‘Know that I will eat with you [even though I am royalty]. Go and prepare for me!’ His beloved friend went and prepared a common couch, a common lamp, and a common table. When the king arrived there came with him ministers who encompassed him on this side and that, and a lamp of gold before him. When his beloved friend saw all the glory of the king, he felt ashamed and put away everything that he had prepared for him, since it was all common. The king said to him, ‘Did I not tell you that I would eat with you? Why have you not prepared anything for me?’ His beloved friend said to him, ‘I saw all the glory that accompanied you, and I felt ashamed and put away all that I had prepared for you, since they were common vessels.’ The king said to him, ‘By your life! I will discard all the vessels that I have brought, and for the sake of your love I will use none but yours!’

And so, the blessed Holy One is entirely light, as is said, He lays bare the deep and the hidden things, knows what is in darkness, and light dwells with Him (Daniel 2:22). Yet He says to Israel ‘Prepare for Me a lamp and lights.’ And why is it written, They shall make Me a Tabernacle, that I may abide in their midst (Exodus 25:8); And you shall make a lamp stand of pure gold (ibid., 31)? When they had completed everything שְׁכִינָה (Shekhinah), [divine] Presence, came.

Why is it written, [And the cloud covered the Tent of Meeting and the glory of YHWH filled the Tabernacle.And Moses could not come into the Tent of Meeting (ibid. 40:35)? Immediately He called to Moses: And when Moses came into the Tent of Meeting to speak with Him, he would hear the voice (Numbers 7:89). What did He say to him? When you light up [the lamps]” (Bemidbar Rabbah 15:8).

“Why is it called זָהָב (zahav), gold? Because three qualities are included in it. זָכָר (Zakhar), male—ז (zayin). הַנְּשָׁמָה (Ha-neshamah), the soul—ה (he), for ה״ (five) names of the soul [which are feminine nouns]: ruaḥḥayahyeḥidahneshamahnefesh. What is the function of he? She is a throne for zayin, as is written, For he who is high has a higher one watching him (Ecclesiastes 5:7). And ב (bet)? She is their existence, as is said, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא (Bereshit bara), In the beginning created… (Genesis 1:1).

A parable: A king had a daughter who was good, sweet, lovely, and perfect. He married her to a royal prince—and clothed, crowned, and bejewelled her, giving her abundant wealth. Is it possible for the king to ever leave his daughter? Certainly not! Is it possible for him to remain with her constantly, the entire day? Certainly not! What then must he do? He places a חַלּוֹן (ḥallon), window, between the two, and whenever the father needs his daughter, or the daughter needs her father, they can unite through the window [cf. Bereshit Rabbah 74:7]. As is written, All the glory of the king’s daughter is inward, filigree of gold her raiment (Psalms 45:14) [on the association of this verse with the Sanctuary, see TanḥumaBemidbar 3; Tanḥuma (Buber), Bemidbar 3; Bemidbar Rabbah 1:3; Zohar 3:171a]” (Bahir §53–§54).

And YHWH spoke to Moses in the Wilderness of Sinai [in the Tent of Meeting] (Numbers 1:1).

Before the Tent of Meeting was set up, He spoke with him from the bush, as is said, And Elohim called out to him from the midst of the bush (Exodus 3:4). And afterward, He spoke to Moses in the land of Egypt, as is said, And YHWH said to Moses and to Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying… (ibid. 12:1).

He also spoke to him in Midian, as is said, And YHWH said to Moses in Midian (ibid. 4:19). He also spoke to him on Sinai, as is said, And YHWH spoke to Moses on Mount Sinai, saying… (Leviticus 25:1). However, as soon as the Tent of Meeting was set up, [the blessed Holy One] said, ‘הַצְּנִיעוּת (Ha-tsninut), modesty, is beautiful,’ as is said, [He has showed you, O man, what is good; and what does YHWH require of you, but to do justly, and to love kindness,and to walk הַצְנֵעַ (ha-tsne’a), humbly, with your God (Micah 6:8), [and so from now on] I will speak to him in the Tent of Meeting. Thus, David said, All the glory of the king’s daughter is פְּנִימָה (penimah), inward, filigree of gold her raiment (Psalms 45:14). 

The daughter of the king—[Torah of] Moses, as is said, And the Egyptians will I give over into the hand of harsh masters (Isaiah 19:4)—the plagues that came upon Egypt [called harsh אֲדֹנִים (adonim), masters]; and a fierce king shall rule over them, [says הָאָדוֹן (ha-Adon), the Lord, YHWH of armies] (ibid.)—Moses who was king of Torah which is called Strength, as is said, May YHWH give strength to His people (Psalms 29:11). Therefore: All the glory of the king’s daughter is inwardFiligree of gold her raiment—Aaron, as is said [of the priestly garments worn by the High Priest:] And you shall make a filigree of gold (Exodus 28:13).

From here they said: A woman who conducts herself with מַצְנַעַת (matsena’at), becoming modesty, even if she is an Israelite [i.e., her father is not a Cohen or a Levi], deserves to be married to a priest and to raise High Priests, as is said, filigree of gold her raiment. The blessed Holy One said, ‘So too it befits My honor that I should speak מִלִּפְנִים (millifenim), within,’ as is said, And when Moses came into the Tent of Meeting [to speak with Him…] (Numbers 7:89) [on the association of Psalms 45:14 with the Sanctuary, see TanḥumaBemidbar 3; Tanḥuma (Buber), Bemidbar 3; Zohar 3:171a]” (Bemidbar Rabbah 1:3, cf. Pesiqta de-Rav Kahana 1; Zohar 2:22b).

My lover is like a deer or like a stag. Oh, he stands behind our wall peering through the windows, peeping through the crannies (Song of Songs 2:9).

“Come and see: When a man builds a house and makes windows within he wants the light to enter. He makes windows narrow on the outside and broad on the inside. Why? So that the light will enter from the outside and shine on the inside. But when Solomon built the Temple, he did not make the windows in such a way. Rather, they were narrow on the inside and broad on the outside so that the light would emanate from the Temple and shine outside, as is written, And he made broad and narrow windows for the house (1 Kings 6:4)” (Tanḥuma [Buber], Beha’alotkha 2:1).

“Rabbi Ḥanina said: There were windows in the Temple, and from these light used to emanate for the world, as it says, And he made broad and narrow windows for the house (1 Kings 6:4). They were transparent and opaque; narrowing towards the inside and broadening towards the outside so as to let the light out to the world” (Vayiqra Rabbah 31:7).

And he made broad and narrow windows for the house (1 Kings 6:4). It was taught: Broad—without; narrow—within, for I am not in need of light” (BT Menaḥot 86b)

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Mother of Pearl and Dark Pearl: He Took a Thousandth of Her Radiance and from Her Produced a Lovely Precious Stone

Pearl Nature Black Work Shell HD Background

“Was light created on the first day? For, behold, it is written: And God placed [the two great lights] in the vault of the heavens (Genesis 1:17), and it is written: And it was evening and it was morning, fourth day (ibid., 19)—this is according to Rabbi El’azar. For Rabbi El’azar said: With the light the blessed Holy One created on the first day one could gaze from one end of the universe to the other; but as soon as the blessed Holy One foresaw the generation of the Flood and the generation of the Dispersion [i.e., the generation which built the Tower of Babel], and saw that their actions were corrupt, He arose and hid it away from them, as is said: The light of the wicked is withheld (Job 38:15). And for whom did He hide it? For the righteous in the time to come, for it is said: And God saw the light, that it was good (Genesis 1:4); and good means only the righteous, for it is said: Say you to the righteous, that it shall be good: [for they shall eat the fruit of their deeds] (Isaiah 3:10). As soon as the light saw that it had been treasured away for the righteous, it rejoiced, as is said: The light of the righteous rejoices (Proverbs 13:9)” (BT Ḥagigah 12a).

“It was taught: The light which was created in the six days of Creation cannot shine during the day because it dims the orb of the sun, nor by night, because it was created only to shine by day. Then where is it? It is treasured away for the righteous in the time still to come, as it says, Moreover the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of the seven days, [in the day that YHWH binds up the hurt of His people, and heals the stroke of their wound] (Isaiah 30:26). Seven! surely there were only three, seeing that the luminaries were created on the fourth day! It is like a man who says, ‘I am providing so much for the seven days of my [wedding] feast. Rabbi Neḥemyah said: It refers to the seven days of mourning for Methuselah, when the blessed Holy One lavished light upon them [see BT Sanhedrin 108b]” (Bereshit Rabbah 3:6).

“Rabbi Yehudah son of Simon said, ‘With the light created by the blessed Holy One on the first day, one could gaze and see from one end of the universe to the other. When the Holy One foresaw the corruption of the generation of Enosh and the generation of the Flood, He hid it away from them, as is written: The light of the wicked is withheld (Job 38:15). Where did He hide it? In the Garden of Eden. אוֹר זָרֻעַ לַצַּדִּיק וּלְיִשְׁרֵי לֵב שִׂמְחָה (Or zaru’a la-tsaddiq u-le-yishrei simḥa), Light is sown for the righteous, joy for the upright in heart (Psalms 97:11) [ר עֲקִיבַה (R. Akiva)]” (Vayiqra Rabbah 11:7).

“God said, ‘Let there be light!’ And there was light (Genesis 1:3)—primordial, transcendent light, already existent. From here issued all powers and forces, so Earth turned firm and fragrant, generating Her potencies. As the light shone, its radiance blazed from one end of the universe to the other. When it gazed upon the wicked of the world, it hid itself away, emerging only by its paths, concealed, unrevealed….

God said, ‘Let there be light!’ This is the light that the blessed Holy One created at first. It is the light of the eye. This is the light that the blessed Holy One showed Adam, who gazed with it from one end of the universe to the other” (Zohar 1:30b, 31b).

“Look at what we have learned in our Mishnah: With the light that the blessed Holy One created at first, one could gaze and see from the beginning of the world to its end. Come and see: The light of the sun is a sixty-thousand-and-seventy-fifth of the light of the speculum of the concealed light. If even at this light of the sun a person cannot gaze, how much more so at that light!

Yet we have said that a person could see with it from the beginning of the world to the end of the world! Well, so have we decreed in our Mishnah: With that light, a person could know and see—with the radiance of wisdom—all that was and all that will be, from the beginning of the world to the end of the world, and it has been concealed for the righteous in the world to come. What is meant by ‘in the world to come’? When the holy soul leaves this world and enters the world to come [cf. Tanḥuma, Vayiqra, 8: ‘The wise call it הַעוֹלָם הַבּא (ha-olam ha-ba), the world to come, not because it does not exist now, but for us today in this world it is still to come’; Zohar 3:290b (IZ): ‘The world that is coming, constantly coming, never ceasing’]” (Zohar Ḥadash 15b, Midrash ha-Ne’lam).

Rabbi Neḥunya son of ha-Qannah said: One verse says, They have not seen the light, bright though it be in the skies (Job 37:21). And another verse says, He set darkness His hiding-place (Psalms 18:12); it is also written, Cloud and dense fog around Him (ibid. 97:2). This is difficult! However, a third verse comes to hold the balance between them: Darkness itself will not darken for You, and the night will light up like the day, the dark and light will be one (ibid. 139:12) [cf. Bemidbar Rabbah 15:8]” (Bahir §1).

Torah is light (Proverbs 6:23).

“Rabbi Boi said: From eternity I was shaped, at the start, before the earth (Proverbs 8:23). What is מֵעוֹלָם (me-olam), from eternity? A matter necessary לְהֵעַלֵּם (le-he’allem), to conceal, from all, as is written: The world, too, He has put in their heart, [without man’s grasping at all what it is God has done from beginning to end] (Ecclesiastes 3:11). Do not read הָעֹלָם (ha-olam), the world, but rather הָעַלֵּם (ha-allem), the concealment. Torah says, ‘I preceded all, so that I might be head of the world,’ as is said, From eternity I was shaped, at the start, before the earth. You may think that the earth was before her, thus: before the earth. And what [was] בָּרָא (bara), created (Genesis 1:1)? All that was needed, then: אֱלֹהִים (Elohim) (ibid.). Only then is it written, the heavens and the earth (ibid.)” (Bahir §10).

“Rabbi Berekhiyah said, ‘Why is it written, God said, ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light (Genesis 1:3), and not [simply] ‘And there was?’ This can be compared to a king who had a beautiful object and set it aside until he had prepared a place for it; then he placed it there, as is written: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light—for it already was” (Bahir §25).

Unveil my eyes that I may look upon the wonders of Your Torah (Psalms 119:18).

“And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: There were two [iterations of] ‘light,’ as is written, [And God said, ‘Let there be light.’] And there was light (Genesis 1:3). Regarding both of them it is written, it was good (ibid., 4). The blessed Holy One took one and hid it for the righteous in the World that is Coming. Of this is written, How great Your goodness that You hid for those who fear You. You have wrought for those who shelter in You [before the eyes of humankind] (Psalms 31:20). To teach that the primordial light cannot be seen by any creature, as is written, it was good [cf. Shemot Rabbah 35:1]. Furthermore it is written, And God saw that it was good (Genesis 1:21). The blessed Holy One saw all that He had made, and saw goodradiant בָּהִיר (bahir), brightness. He took of that good, and included in it the thirty-two paths of Wisdom, giving it to this world. This is the meaning of, For good learning I have given you, do not forsake My teaching (Proverbs 4:2). Alas, say this is treasury of Oral Torah.

The blessed Holy One said, ‘This quality is included in this world, and it is Oral Torah. If you guard this quality in this world, then you will be worthy of the World that is Coming, which is the good treasured away for the righteous.’ What is it? It is His strength, as is written, And His brilliance will be as the light (Habakkuk 3:4). The brilliance that was taken from the primordial light will be [manifest] light if His children keep the teaching and the commandments that I have written to instruct them (Exodus 24:12) [cf. Zohar 2:166b].’ Therefore it is written, Hear, My son, your father’s reproof, and do not forsake your mother’s teaching (Proverbs 1:8).

And it is written, He has rays at His side: and there is His strength hidden (Habakkuk 3:4). What is His strength hidden? The light that was concealed: that You hid for those who fear You (Psalms 31:20). As is said: You have wrought for those who shelter in You (ibid.)—those who take refuge in Your shadow in this world, who keep Your teaching, and fulfill Your commandments. Who sanctify Your great Name, unifying it in private and in public, as it says: before the eyes of humankind (ibid.)” (Bahir §147–§148).

“Rabbi Berekhiyah sat and expounded: Each day we speak of הַעוֹלָם הַבּא (ha-olam ha-ba). Do we then understand what we are saying? The Targum renders this as עָלְמָא דְאָתֵי (alma de-atei), the World to Come. But what is it? This teaches that before the world was created, it arose in thought to create a great light for illumination. A great light was created which no creature could wield [see Tanḥuma, Shemini, 9]. The blessed Holy One foresaw that none could bear it so He took one-seventh and gave it to them in its place. The rest He treasured away for the righteous in the time to come, saying, ‘If they prove worthy of this seventh and guard it, I will give them the rest in the other world.’ It is therefore called the עוֹלָם הַבּא (olam ha-ba), World that is Coming, since it already came [before] the six days of Creation. Regarding this it is written, How great Your goodness that You hid for those who fear You (Psalms 31:20)” (Bahir §160).

“And what is Fear of YHWH (Isaiah 33:6)? It is the primordial light. Thus Rabbi [Berekhiyah] said: Why is it written, God said, ‘Let there be light.’ [And there was light]? (Genesis 1:3). Why does it not say, and it was? But this teaches that the light was so great that no creature could gaze upon it. The blessed Holy One therefore treasured it away for the righteous in the time still to come. This is the quality of all that is סְחֹרָה (seḥorah), valuable, in the world. It is also the power of the precious stones called סֹחָרֶת (soḥaret), Darkness [or: Dark Pearl], and דַּר (dar), Dweller [or: Mother-of-Pearl; see Esther 1:6; BT Megillah 12a ad loc. Perhaps the pearl called Darkness is the supernal sun, too blindingly bright to gaze upon, cf. Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed, 1:59; Zohar 2:188a]. And what is the quality of Soḥaret, Darkness? To teach you that the blessed Holy One took a thousandth of [Soḥaret’s, i.e., the World that is Coming’s] radiance and from Her בֹּנֶה (boneh), produced [alluding to בִּינָה (Binah)] a lovely precious stone. In Her [namely, Dar, i.e., this world] He included all the mitsvot” (Bahir §190).

I am שְׁחוֹרָה (sheḥorah), dark, but desirable (Song of Songs 1:5), the speculum that does not shine but Father and Mother adorned Her so that Her husband be pleased with Her” (Zohar 1:49b).

“And what is from there is the Shepherd, Israel’s Stone (Genesis 49:24)? That מִשָּׁם (mi-sham), from There, Israel’s Stone is sustained [וְשָׁם (ve-sham), and There, is His strength hidden (Habakkuk 3:4)]. What is מִשֶּׁם (mishem), it by name? Ah, say: צֶדֶק עֶליוֹן (tsedeq elyon), supernal Justice [upper ShekhinahBinah]. What is it? The great hidden light called סֹחָרֶת (Soḥaret), Darkness [which סְחוֹר סְחוֹר (seḥor seḥor), surrounds, everything, cf. Zohar 3:120a]. And the stone residing below is called דַּר (dar), Dweller [i.e., lower שְׁכִינָה (Shekhinah), Presence, from לְשַׁכֵּן (le-shaken), ‘to dwell.’ Cf. Seder Rabba de-Vereshit, see Schäfer, Synopse zur Hekhalot-Literatur, §440: ‘Shekhinah is below just as Shekhinah is above’].

What is He has rays at מִיָּדוֹ (mi-yado), His side (Habakkuk 3:4)? These are the five fingers of the right יָד (yad), hand” (Bahir §193). 

“A precious stone set in a crown, as is written, the stone that the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone (Psalms 118:22). It ascends to the place from which it was hewn, as is written, from there is the Shepherd, Israel’s Stone (Genesis 49:24)” (Bahir §91).

Body and Soul; The Wisdom of Kabbalah and Philosophy by Rabbi Yehudah Ashlag (Ba’al ha-Sullam)

Ba'al ha-Sullam PortraitBody and Soul

Before I clarify this exalted matter, I must note that many apparently deem it impossible to clarify and bring closer to human understanding except by means of abstract philosophical concepts, as is usually the case with such investigations. However, since the day I discovered the wisdom of Kabbalah and dedicated myself to it, I have distanced myself from abstract philosophy and all its branches as far as the east is from the west. Everything I write is from a purely empirical perspective, in utter precision, and by means of simple recognition of practical things.

Although I will make mention of their words below, it is only to indicate the difference between what the human mind can imagine and what can be understood using Torah and prophecy, which are based on practical foundations, as I have shown in Mahutah shel Ḥokhmat ha-Qabbalah (The Nature of the Wisdom of Kabbalah).

I would also like to thoroughly clarify the terms “body” and “soul” as they truly are, since truth and a sound mind are one and the same. This is because the truth is available to anyone, but only by the spirit of the holy Torah, and by removing every distorted concept that has taken root among people. These are mostly taken from abstract methods from which the spirit of our holy Torah is far removed.

Three methods in the concept of “body” and “soul”

In general, we find that the methods which abound in the world concerning the concepts of body and soul can be gathered into three methods:

Faith

The method of faith argues that all that exists is spirit, or the soul. They believe that there are spiritual objects separated from one another by quality. They are called “souls of people,” and they exist independently, prior to clothing in a human body. Afterwards, when the body dies, death does not apply to it, since a spiritual object is a simple object. In their view, death is but a separation of the elements comprising the object.

This is possible with physical objects, comprised of several elements which death disintegrates but the spiritual soul, which is an utterly simple object, lacking any complexity, cannot be separated in any way, as this separation would annul its existence. Hence, the soul is eternal and exists forever.

The body, as they understand it, is like a garment over this immaterial object. The immaterial soul clothes in it and employs it to manifest its forces: the good qualities and every kind of concept. Also, it provides the body with life and motion and guards it from harm. Thus, the body itself is lifeless, motionless, and contains nothing but dead matter, as we see once the soul departs upon death, and all the signs of life that we see in human bodies are but manifestations of the soul’s powers.

Duality

Those who believe in duality think of the body as a discrete creation [i.e., Cartesian Dualism, see Descartes, Meditations]. Standing, living, nourishing, and safekeeping its existence with all that is required, it does not need any assistance from any immaterial substance.

Yet, the body is not considered man’s essence. Man’s essence is the perceiving soul, which is an immaterial substance, as in the view of the first method.

The difference between these two methods is only in the concept of the body. Following the extensive developments in physiology and psychology, they have found that providence has provided for all of life’s needs within the machine of the body itself. This, in their view, restricts the role of the soul’s function in the body only to concepts and virtues of the spiritual kind. Thus, while both methods believe in duality, they say that the soul is the reason for the body, meaning that the body is a result emanating from the soul.

Skepticism

The method of the skeptics acknowledges the material only. Proponents of this method completely deny the existence of any abstract immaterial substance within the body [i.e., “the ghost in the machine,” see Ryle, The Concept of Mind]. Evidently they have proven that man’s mind, too, is but a product of the body. They portray the body as an electric machine with wires that stretch from the body to the brain. It operates according to encounters with external stimuli which send sensations of pain or pleasure to the brain, and the brain instructs the organ what to do. Everything is conducted by “wires” and “cords” made for this purpose. They move the organ away from sources of pain and towards sources of pleasure. Thus, from external stimuli this [network of “wires” and “cords”] determines all of man’s thoughts.

Furthermore, cognition is only an impression of the internal physical functioning of the body. Our superiority over animals is that our brains developed to such an extent that all the body’s functions effect the brain which we then experience as שֶׂכֶל וְהִגָּיוֹן (sekhel ve-higayon), cognition [the ability to embed our thoughts within other thoughts, see Corballis, The Recursive Mind: The Origins of Human Language, Thought, and Civilization]. Thus, cognition is merely a consequence of accidents of the body.

In addition, there are proponents of the second method who completely agree with this method, but add the immaterial eternal substance to it, called “the soul that inheres within the machine of the body.” This soul is man’s essence, and the machine of the body is only its apparel. Thus, I have laid out in general terms all that human wisdom has thus far contrived with regard to concepts of body and soul.

The empirical meaning of “גוּף (guf), body,” and “נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh), soul” according to our holy Torah

Now I shall explain this exalted matter according to our holy Torah, as our Sages have explained it to us. I have already written in several places that there is not a single word of our Sages, not even in the prophetic wisdom of Kabbalah, that relies on a theoretical basis. This is so because it is a known fact that man is naturally doubtful, and each conclusion that the human mind deems certain, it deems uncertain after some time. Hence, one doubles the efforts of his study and invents another inference and declares that as certain.

But if one is a genuine student [of human wisdom], he will walk in circles all his life, since yesterday’s certainty has become today’s uncertainty, and today’s certainty will be tomorrow’s uncertainty. Thus, it is impossible to determine any definite conclusions for more than a day.

The נִגְלֶה (nigleh), revealed, and the נִסתָר (nistar), hidden

The science of our time has come to understand this development and has determined that there is no absolute certainty in reality. Yet, our Sages arrived at this conclusion several thousand years earlier. Hence, concerning religious matters, they have guided and forbidden us to not only refrain from drawing any conclusions based on theory, but even prohibited us from being assisted by such theories, even by way of negotiation.

Our Sages divided the wisdom in two: revealed and hidden. The revealed part contains everything we know from our simple consciousness, as well as axioms built upon practical experience, as our Sages said, “A judge has only what his eyes see” (BT Sanhedrin 6b).

The hidden part contains all the knowledge we have heard from trusted people or have acquired by ourselves through general understanding and perception. However, we cannot sufficiently approach it so as to critique it with a sound mind, with straightforward understanding. And this is regarded as hidden, where we were advised to accept matters on simple faith. And with all that concerns religion, we have been strictly forbidden to even glance at matters that might motivate us to investigate and study them.

Yet, these names, “revealed” and “hidden,” are not permanent names, applying to a certain kind of knowledge, as the uneducated think. Rather, they apply only to human consciousness. Thus, one refers to all those concepts he has already discovered and has come to know through actual experience as “revealed,” and regards all the concepts that are yet to be recognized in this way as “hidden.”

Thus, throughout the generations, all people have these two divisions. The revealed part is permitted for study and research, as it relies on a true basis, and the hidden part is forbidden to even a shred of doubt, since one has no real basis there.

Employing human wisdom: permitted and forbidden

Hence, we who follow in the footsteps of our Sages are not permitted to employ human wisdom, except empirical knowledge, and in whose validity we have no doubt. Therefore, we cannot accept any religious principle from the above three methods. All the more so concerning concepts of “body” and “soul,” which are fundamental concepts and the subject of religion as a whole. We can only accept knowledge derived from the teaching of life itself, taken from experience which none can doubt.

Clearly, such a proof cannot be found in anything immaterial, but only in something material, set up for perception by the senses. Hence, we are permitted to use the third method [of the skeptics] to an extant. It engages only in matters of the body, in all those deductions that have been proven by experiments, and which no one doubts. The rest of the concepts, which combine the logic of their method and other methods, are forbidden to us. One who uses them breaches, Do not turn to the idols (Leviticus 19:4).

Yet, this third method is foreign and loathsome to the human spirit. There is hardly any truly educated person who is able to accept it, since according to them, man’s human form is erased and vanished. Man has been made into a machine that acts and goes about according to other forces. According to them, man has no free choice whatsoever, but is rather compelled by forces of nature, and all his actions are compulsory. Hence, man has no reward or punishment, since no judgment, punishment, or reward apply to one who has no free will.

Such a thing is utterly unthinkable, and not only for the religious, who believe in reward and punishment, since believing in His providence, that all the forces of nature are guided by Him, assures them that everything has a good and desirable cause. Yet, this method is even stranger in the eyes of the non-religious, who believe that everyone is given to the hands of a blind, mindless, and aimless nature. These intelligent ones are like toys in its hands, led astray, and who knows where? Hence, this method has become despised and unaccepted in the world.

But you should know that the method of those who conceive duality came only to correct this aforementioned error. For this reason, they have decided that the body, which is but a machine according to the third method, is not at all the authentic human. Man’s true essence is something altogether different—invisible and imperceptible to the senses. It is an immaterial substance, clothed and hidden within the body. This is man’s “self,” the “I.” The body and everything within it are considered possessions of that eternal and immaterial “I,” as they have written.

Yet, by their own admission, this method is lame, since they cannot explain how an immaterial substance, being the soul or the “self,” can move the body or decide anything concerning it. This is because following philosophical precision itself, the spiritual has no contact whatsoever with the physical. It has absolutely no impact on it, as they have written themselves.

The accusation against Maimonides

Yet, even without this question, their method would have been forbidden among Israel, as we have explained above. It is important to know that the entire accusation against Maimonides by the sages of Israel and the harsh judgment to burn his books, were not because they had any doubt of the righteousness and piety of Maimonides himself. Rather, it was only because he employed [Aristotelian] philosophy and metaphysics, which were at their peak at the time, as assistance in his books. Maimonides wished to save them from it, yet the Sages did not agree with him.

Needless to say, today our generation has already recognized that metaphysical philosophy contains no real content upon which it is worthwhile to spend one’s time. Hence, it is certainly forbidden for anyone to take any spices from their words.

The Wisdom of Kabbalah and Philosophy

What is spirituality?

Philosophy has gone through a great deal of trouble to prove that the physical is the offspring of the metaphysical, and that the soul generates the body. Still, their words are unacceptable to the heart in any manner. Their primary mistake is their erroneous view of spirituality since they postulate that the metaphysical fathered the physical, which is certainly a lie.

For any parent must, somehow, resemble its child. This relation is the path and route by which its offspring emanates. In addition, every agent must have some agency by which to reach it. Since they say that spirituality is denied any physical occurrence, then such a path does not exist, nor any means by which the spiritual can contact and set it into motion.

However, understanding the meaning of the word רוּחָנִיוּת (ruḥaniut), “spirituality,” has nothing to do with philosophy. This is because how can they discuss something that they have never seen or felt? What does their foundation stand on?

If there is any definition that can tell the spiritual from the physical it belongs only to those who have attained a spiritual thing and sensed it and these are the authentic kabbalists. Thus, it is the wisdom of Kabbalah that we need.

Philosophy with regard to His essence

Philosophy loves to occupy itself with His essence and prove which laws do not apply to Him. However, Kabbalah has no dealings with this whatsoever, for how can the unattainable and imperceptible be defined? Indeed, a negative definition is just as relevant as a positive definition. For if you see an object from a distance and apprehend its negatives, meaning all that it is not, that, too, is considered seeing or some degree of apprehension. If an object is truly out of sight even its negative qualities are not apparent.

For example, if we perceive a black image from a distance, but can still determine that it is neither human nor bird, this is considered vision. If it be farther still, we would be unable to determine that it is not human.

This is the cause of their confusion and irrelevance. Philosophy prides itself on understanding all the negatives about His essence [see Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed, 1:58]. However, here the sages of Kabbalah put their hand to their mouth, and do not give Him even a simple name, for we do not define by name or word that which we do not attain [cf. Kant, Critique of Pure Reason]. That is because a word designates some degree of attainment. However, kabbalists do speak a great deal about His illumination in reality, meaning all those illuminations they have actually attained, as legitimate as tangible attainment (in my opinion, philosophy has generally worn a mantle that it does not own, for it has stolen definitions from the wisdom of Kabbalah, and made delicacies with human understanding. Had it not been for that, they would never have conjured such fabrications).

The spiritual is a force without a body

That is what kabbalists define as “spirituality” and that is what they talk about. It has no form, space, time or any physical value. However, it is only a potential force, meaning a force that is not clothed in a material body, but rather a force without a body.

A spiritual vessel is called a force

Here we must note that in spirituality the concept of a force does not refer to the light itself. Since this light is immaterial it emanates directly from His essence, blessed be He, and if so is the same as His essence. This means that we have no perception or attainment of this light that we can define by name. Even the word, אוֹר (or), “light,” is borrowed and is not [actually] true. Thus, we must know that the word כֹּחַ (koa), “force,” without a body, refers specifically to an כְּלִי רוּחָנִי (keli ruḥani), “immaterial vessel.”

Lights and vessels

Therefore, we must not inquire how the sages of the Kabbalah, which fill the entire wisdom with their insights, differentiate between the various lights. Since these observations do not refer to the lights themselves, but to the impression of the vessel, being the aforementioned force, which is affected by its encounter with the light.

Vessels and lights

Here we must add the distinction between the gift and the love that it engenders. The lights, meaning the impression on the vessel, which is detectable, is called צוּרָה וְחוֹמֶר (tsurah ve-ḥomer), “form and matter” together. The impression, she is the form and the aforementioned force, he is the matter.

However, the love that is engendered is considered צוּרָה בְּלִי חוֹמֶר (tsurah beli ḥomer), “form without matter.” In other words, if we strip the love from a gift, as though it was never clothed in any gift, but only in the abstract designation, “love of the blessed Holy One,” then it is regarded as form and it belongs to the formative Kabbalah [cf. Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed, 1:68]. However, unlike formative philosophy it still concerns what is real since the spirit of love remains in the attainment, completely abstracted from the gift, which is the light itself.

Matter and form in Kabbalah

The reason is that although love is merely a result of the gift, it is still far more important than the gift itself. It is like a great king who gives something insignificant to someone. Although the gift itself is worthless, the love and attention of the king make it priceless and precious. Thus, it is completely abstracted from the matter—the light and the gift—so that the whole affair remains engraved only in the attainment of love itself, while the gift is forgotten from the heart. Therefore, this aspect of the wisdom is called חָכְמַת הַקְבָלָה הַצוּרָתִית (ḥakhmat ha-qabbalah ha-tsuratit), the formative wisdom of Kabbalah, and it is the most important part of the wisdom.

אבי״ע (ABiYA)

This love consists of four parts, similar to human love: when we first receive a gift, we do not call the giver of the gift one who loves us, all the more so if the giver of the gift is important and the receiver is not equal to him.

However, the persistence of many gifts will make even the most important person seem like a true and equal lover, since the law of love does not exist between great and small, as two true lovers must feel equal.

Thus, you may gauge four rungs of love. The incident is called עֲשִׂיָה (assiyah), Actualization, the repetition of gift giving is called יְצִירָה (yetsirah), Formation, and the appearance of the love itself is called בְּרִיאָה (beri’ah), Creation.

It is here that the study of the formative wisdom of Kabbalah begins, for it is with this rung that love is abstracted from the gifts. This is the meaning of [I form light,and create darkness (Isaiah 45:7), meaning the light is removed from Yetsirah and the love remains without light, without its gifts.

Then comes אֲצִילוּת (atsilut), Emanation. After one has tasted and entirely stripped form from matter, as is written, and create darkness, he becomes worthy of ascending to the rung of Atsilut, where form clothes matter once more, meaning light and love together.

The origin of the soul

Everything spiritual is perceived as a separate force from the body because it has no physical form. However, due to this, it remains isolated and completely separate from the physical. If so, how can it set anything material in motion, much less generate anything physical, when it has no means of coming in contact with the physical?

The acidic element

However, the truth is that the force itself is actually considered matter as well, just as any physical matter in the material world, and the fact that it has no form that the human senses can perceive does not reduce the importance of the substance, which is the “force.”

For example, take a molecule of oxygen, which most substances in the world are composed of. Yet, if you have a bottle with pure oxygen you will find that it seems as though the bottle is totally empty, and you are unable to discern anything of it, as intangible air invisible to the eye.

If we remove the lid and smell it, we find no scent; if we taste it, we find no flavor; and if we put it on a scale, it will not weigh more than the empty bottle. The same applies to hydrogen, which is tasteless, odorless, and weightless too.

However, when putting these two elements together, they immediately become a liquid—drinking water that possesses both taste and weight. If we put the water inside active lime, immediately it mixes with it and becomes as solid as the lime itself.

Thus, the elements, oxygen and hydrogen, in which there is no tangibility whatsoever, become a solid. Therefore, how can we define forces of nature as not being material substance just because they are not arranged in such a way that our senses can perceive them? Moreover, we can evidently see that most of the tangible materials in our world originally consist of the element of oxygen, which the human senses cannot sense and perceive!

Moreover, even in material reality, solid and liquid, which we perceive vividly in our world, can turn to smoke or vapor at a certain temperature. Likewise, vapors may turn to solids when the temperature drops.

And if so, one wonders how does something give that which it does not possess? For we have clearly seen that all material forms are derived from elements that are in and of themselves intangible, and do not exist as material in and of themselves. Likewise, all the fixed pictures that we know and use to define materials are inconsistent and do not exist in their own right. Rather, they only clothe and unclothe in forms under the influence of conditions such as heat or cold.

However, the essence of material substance is the force in it, though we are not yet able to tell these forces apart, as with chemical elements. Perhaps in the future they will be discovered in their pure form, as we have only recently discovered the chemical elements.

Equal force in spiritual and physical

In a word: all the names that we ascribe substances are imagined, that is they come from our five senses. They do not exist in and of themselves. On the other hand, any definition we ascribe to the force which abstracts it from the material, is also imagined. Even when science reaches its pinnacle, we still must regard only material reality. This means that any physical action we sense, we must perceive its agent which is also material, like the action itself. There is a correlation between them, or they would not have come to it.

We must realize that this erroneous separating of the agent from the agency originates in formative philosophy, which insisted on proving that a spiritual action causes a physical action. This resulted in mistaken conclusions such as the above, which Kabbalah has no need for.

Body and soul of the supernal ones

The opinion of the Kabbalah on this matter is crystal clear, without any admixture of philosophy. Since in the minds of the kabbalists, even spiritual, abstract, conceptual entities, which philosophy denies having any material reality and portrays as purely conceptual substance, although they are indeed spiritual, sublime and abstract, they still consist of a body and soul, just like the physical human being.

Therefore, you need not wonder how two can win the prize and say that they are complex. Furthermore, philosophy believes that anything complex will eventually disintegrate and decompose, meaning die. Thus, how can one declare that they are both complex and eternal?

Lights and vessels

Indeed, their thoughts are not our thoughts, for the way of the sages of the Kabbalah is one of discovering actual proof of attainment, making its intellectual refutation impossible. However, let me make these matters clear for everyone’s understanding.

First, we must know that the difference between lights and vessels is understood immediately with the first emanated being from Ein Sof. Naturally, the first emanation is also the most complete and purer than everything which follows it. It is certain that it receives this pleasantness and wholeness from His essence, which wishes to grant it every pleasantness and pleasure.

It is known that the degree of the pleasure is essentially the desire to receive it. That is because what we most want to receive feels the most pleasurable. Because of this, we should discern two aspects in this first emanation: the desire to receive the essence and the received essence itself.

We should also know that the desire to receive is what we perceive as the “body” of the emanated, meaning its primary essence, being the vessel to receive His goodness. The second is the essence of the good that is received, His light, which is eternally emanated to the emanation.

It follows that we necessarily distinguish two aspects that clothe one another even in the most sublime spiritual that the heart can conceive. It is the opposite of the opinion of philosophy, which postulates that abstract entities are not complex materials. It is necessary that that desire to receive which necessarily exists in the emanated—for without it there would be no pleasure but rather coercion, and no sensation of pleasure—is absent in His essence. This is the reason for the name הַנֶאֱצָל (ha-ne’etsal), “the emanated,” since it is no longer His essence, for from whom would He receive?

However, the bounty that it receives is necessarily a part of His essence, for here there need not be any innovation. Thus, we see the great difference between the generated body and the received abundance, which is deemed His essence.

How can spiritual generate physical?

It is seemingly difficult to understand how the spiritual can generate and emanate anything material. This question is an ancient philosophical problem for which much ink has been spilt attempting to resolve.

The truth is that this question is a difficult one only if one follows their method. That is because they have defined spirituality without a connection to anything material [i.e., metaphysics]. That produces a difficult question: how can the spiritual lead to or generate anything material?

But it is the view of the sages of the Kabbalah that this is not difficult at all, for their terms are the complete opposite to those of philosophers. They maintain that any spiritual quality equalizes with the physical quality like two drops in a pond. Thus, the relationships are of the utmost affinity and there is no separation between them, except in the substance: the spiritual consists of a spiritual substance and the physical consists of a physical substance.

However, all the qualities in spiritual materials abide in physical materials too, as explained in the article Mahuta shel Ḥokhmat ha-Qabbalah (The Essence of the Wisdom of Kabbalah).

The old philosophy presents three opinions as obstacles before my explanation: The first is their deciding that the power of the human intellect is the eternal soul, man’s essence [cf. Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed, 3:27]. The second is their conjecture that the body is a product of the soul. The third is their saying that spiritual entities are simple and not complex.

Materialistic Psychology

Not only is it the wrong place to argue with them about their speculations, but also the time of supporters of such views has already passed and their authority revoked. We should also thank the experts of materialistic psychology for that, which built its foundation on the ruin of the former, winning the public’s favor. Now everyone admits to the irrelevance of philosophy, for it is not built on solid foundations [materialist psychologists generally agree that consciousness (the mind) is the function of the brain. Mental processes can be identified with purely physical processes in the central nervous system, and that human beings are just complicated physiological organisms, see Ryle, The Concept of Mind. Some identify Rabbi Ashlag’s “materialistic psychology” with Freudian theory, see Garb, Yearnings of the Soul, p. 109].

This old method became a stumbling block and a deadly thorn to the sages of Kabbalah because where they should have subdued themselves before the sages of Kabbalah, and assumed restraint and skepticism, holiness, and purity before the Sages revealed to them even the tiniest thing in spirituality, they easily received what they had wanted from formative philosophy. Without payment or price, they watered them from their fountain of wisdom to satiation, and refrained from delving in the wisdom of Kabbalah until the wisdom has almost been forgotten from among Israel. Hence, we are grateful to materialistic psychology for handing it a deadly blow.

I am Solomon

The above is much like a legend that our Sages tell: Asmodeus drove King Solomon four hundred parsas from Jerusalem and left Him with no money and means of sustenance. Then he sat in King Solomon’s throne while the king was begging at door ways. Every place he went, he said: “I am Qohelet!” but none believed him. And so he went from town to town declaring, “I am Solomon!” But when he came to the Sanhedrin they said: “A fool does not utter the same foolishness all the time, saying, ‘I was once a king’” [see JT Sanhedrin 2:6; Pesiqta de-Rav Kahane (Buber), 169a; Tanḥuma (Buber), 3:55; Qohelet Rabbah 2:2]. 

It seems as though the name is not the essence of a person, but rather the owner of the name is [cf. BT Berakhot 7b; Bahir §80–§81; Zohar 1:60a; 2:179b]. Therefore, how can a wise man such as Solomon not be recognized if he is indeed the owner of the name? Moreover, it is the person that dignifies the name and he should display his wisdom!

Three preventions

There are three reasons that prevent us from knowing the owner of a name: Because of its profundity, the wisdom becomes clear only when all its details appear together. Therefore, before one knows the entire wisdom, it is impossible to see even a fraction of it. Thus, it is the publicity of its truth that we need, so as to have enough belief in it prior to making a great effort.

Just as Asmodeus, the demon, wore the clothes of King Solomon and inherited his throne, philosophy sat on the throne of Kabbalah with easier concepts to grasp, for a lie is quickly accepted. Therefore, there is a twofold difficulty here: first, the wisdom of truth is profound and arduous, while philosophy is false and easily grasped; and second, it is [considered] superfluous, because philosophy is quite satisfying.

As the demon claims that King Solomon is mad, philosophy mocks and dismisses Kabbalah. However, as long as wisdom is sublime, it is elevated above the people and separated from it. Because he was the wisest man, he was also higher than every man. Thus, the finest scholars could not understand him, except those friends, meaning the Sanhedrin, whom he taught his wisdom to every day for days and years. They are the ones who understood him and publicized his name in the entire world.

The reason for it is that minor wisdom is perceived in five minutes, and is thus attainable by anyone and can be easily publicized. However, a weighty concept will not be understood in less than several hours. It may even take days or years, depending on the intelligence. Accordingly, the greatest scholars will be understood only by a selected few in the generation, since profound concepts are founded on much prior knowledge.

It is therefore not surprising that the wisest of all men, who was exiled to a place where he was not known, could not demonstrate his wisdom or even show a hint of his wisdom before they believed that he was the owner of the name.

It is the same with the wisdom of Kabbalah in our time: the hardships and the exile that have come upon us have caused us to forget it (and if there are people who do engage in it, it is not in its favor, but rather harms it, for they did not receive it from a kabbalist sage). Hence, in this generation, it is like King Solomon in exile, declaring, “I am the wisdom, and all the flavors of religion and Torah are with me,” yet none believed it.

But this is perplexing, for if it is a genuine wisdom, can it not display itself like all other wisdoms? It cannot. As King Solomon could not display his wisdom to the scholars at the place of his exile and had to come to Jerusalem, the place of the Sanhedrin, who studied and knew King Solomon, and attested to the depth of his wisdom, so it is with the wisdom of Kabbalah: it requires great Sages who examine their hearts to study it for twenty or thirty years. Only then will they be able to attest for it.

And as King Solomon could not prevent Asmodeus from sitting on his throne, pretending to be him until he arrived in Jerusalem, sages of Kabbalah observe philosophic theology and complain that they have stolen the supernal shell of their wisdom, which Plato and his Greek predecessors had acquired while studying with the disciples of the prophets in the Land of Israel. They stole basic foundations of the wisdom of Israel and wore a mantle that is not theirs. To this day, philosophic theology sits on the throne of Kabbalah, being a slavegirl that is heir to her mistress (Proverbs 30:23).

And who would believe the sages of Kabbalah while others sit on their throne? It is as when they did not believe King Solomon in exile, for they knew him to be the demon Asmodeus sitting on his throne. As with King Solomon, it is hopeless that the truth be exposed, for the wisdom is deep and cannot be revealed by testimony or experimentation except to those believers that dedicate themselves to it with heart and soul.

Just as the Sanhedrin did not recognize King Solomon as long as the falsehood of Asmodeus was not apparent, Kabbalah cannot prove its true nature, and no revelations will suffice for the world to know it before the futility and falsehood of theological philosophy that has taken its throne becomes obvious.

Therefore, there was no such rescue for Israel as when materialistic psychology appeared and struck a lethal blow on the head of theological philosophy.

Now, every person who seeks the blessed Holy One must return Kabbalah to its throne and restore its former glory.

I Endow those who Love Me with Three Hundred and Ten Worlds

“Rabbi Shim’on son of El’azar says: Greater is he who acts from love than he who acts from fear, because with the latter [the merit] remains effective for a thousand generations but with the former it remains effective for two thousand generations. Here it is written: And doing kindness to אֲלָפִים (alafim), thousands, for those that love Me and who keep My commands (Exodus 20:5) and elsewhere it is written: And keeping His commands to the אֶלֶף (elef), thousandth, generation (Deuteronomy 7:9). But in this latter passage it is likewise written: For those who love Him and keeping His commands to the thousandth generation!—in the first verse cited [thousands] is attached [to for those that that love Me,] whereas in the second verse [thousandth] is attached [to keeping His commands. So in the former the motive is love, in the latter fear of punishment]” (BT Sotah 31a).

“Rabbi Yehudah, son of Rabbi Shim’on, expounded: He who blackens his face for the sake of Torah study in this world, the blessed Holy One will make his lustre shine in the next, as it is written: Like Lebanon he is choice as the cedars (Song of Songs 5:15) [לְּבָנוֹן (Levanon), Lebanon, is cognate with לָבָן (lavan), white]. Rabbi Tanḥuma son of Rabbi said: He who starves himself for the sake of Torah study in this world, the blessed Holy One will fully satisfy him in the next, as it is written: They take their fill from the fare of Your house and from Your stream of delights You give them drink (Psalms 36:9).

When Rabbi Dimi came, he said: The blessed Holy One will give every righteous man His heap [of reward], for it is written: Blessed be the Master day after day. God heaps upon us our rescue. Selah (Psalms 68:20). Abayye demurred: But is it possible to say so? Is it not written: Who has measured the waters in the hollow of His hand, and measured out heaven with the span? [how then can man receive such a vast reward?] (Isaiah 40:12)—he replied, ‘Why are you not found familiar with the aggadah [the nonlegal contents of the Talmud and Midrash]?’ For it was said in the West, [i.e., the Land of Israel] in the name of Rabbah son of Mari: The blessed Holy One will give to every righteous person three hundred and ten worlds, as is written, So I may endow those who love Me with substance and fill their treasuries (Proverbs 8:21)—now the numerical value ofׁ יש (yesh), substance, is 310 [thus man’s receptive capacity will be enormously increased]” (BT Sanhedrin 100a, cf. M Uqtzin 3:12).

“[Son of Rav Safra] opened, saying, ‘For a mitsvah is a lamp and Torah is light, and reproofs of discipline are the way to life (Proverbs 6:23). For mitsvah is a lamp—Mishnah, as is said: the Torah and the mitsvah (Exodus 24:12); the Torah is Written Torah, and the mitsvah is Mishnah, which is a lamp, a lamp ready to be kindled.

A lamp—why is She called a lamp? When She receives, between two arms, 248 supernal members, and She opens Her two arms toward them, then those two arms are included with them and She is called נֵר (ner), lamp [numerically equivalent to 250].

And Torah is light—illumining that lamp, which is kindled by it from the side of primordial light, as is written: from His right hand, a fiery law for them (Deuteronomy 33:2)—given from the right side, although the left was included in it, for thus is perfection of all.

This light is absorbed by 207 worlds, which are hidden away on the side of that light, and it spreads through them all. Beneath the supernal concealed Throne dwell those worlds on that right side. There are 310: 207 on the right side and 103 on the left side, totalling 310. These are the ones that the blessed Holy One constantly prepares, and from these spread countless precious treasures all stored away for delighting the righteous in the world that is coming. Of these is written So I may endow those who love Me with יֵשׁ (yesh), substance, and fill their treasuries (Proverbs 8:21). Of these is written No eye has seen, O God, but You, what You will do for one who awaits You (Isaiah 64:3).

יֵשׁ (Yesh), substance—310 worlds treasured away beneath the World that is Coming. אוֹר (Or), light, primordial light, is named after those 207 on the right side, because even light of the left is called light, but primordial light is destined to generate offspring in the world that is coming. Now, you might say, ‘In the World that is Coming, and no more!’ But even every single day, because if not for this light, the world could not exist, as is written: I declare, ‘The world is built by חֶסֶד (ḥesed), love (Psalms 89:3).

This light was sown by the blessed Holy One in the garden of His delight, and He arranged it in rows by the hand of the Righteous One, who is the gardener of the Garden. He took this light and sowed it as seed of truth, arranging it row by row in the Garden, and it sprouted and grew and yielded fruit, by which the world is nourished, as is written: Light is sown for the righteous… (Psalms 97:11)” (Zohar 2:166b).

“What is יֵשׁ (yesh), substance? חָכְמָה מֵאַיִן (Ḥokhmah me-Ayin), Wisdom from Nothing (Keter) [cf. Sefer Yetsirah §20: ‘He formed מַמָשׁ (mamash), something, from תוֹהוּ (tohu), nothing’]. For in the place of the upper Shekhinah [Binah] there is Ḥokhmah, as is said: So I may endow those who love Me with יֵשׁ (yesh), substance, and fill their treasuries (Proverbs 8:21); And doing חֶסֶד (ḥesed), kindness, to the thousandth generation for those who love Me and for those who keep My commands (Exodus 20:5)—from the side of חֶסֶד (Ḥesed), Loving-kindness, and this substance, which is חָכמָה (Ḥokhmah), Wisdom, is on the right as has been taught: One who desires to become wise should turn to the south [which is at the right hand of one facing the east] (BT Bava Batra 25b). And that is why it is written: So I may endow those who love Me with יֵשׁ (yesh), substance, and fill their treasuries (Proverbs 8:21)” (Zohar 3:238b, Ra’aya Meheimna Pineḥas).

Into this Skull Trickles Dew from the White Head

“Secrecy within secrecy was prepared and arranged in a single skull filled with crystalline dew. Membrane of air, purified and sealed; those strands of clean fleece hanging evenly. Will of Wills is revealed through prayer of those below. Open-eyed watching, never sleeping, ever vigilant; supervision below by supervision of radiance above. Two nostrils of an official arousing breath for all [as a nose supervising commandingly]” (Zohar 2:176b, Sifra di-Tsni’uta, cf. Zohar 3:137b–138a (IR); on טַלָּא דִּבְדוֹלְחָא (talla di-vdulḥa), crystalline dew, cf. Rashi on Numbers 11:7; Ibn Ezra on Genesis 2:12).

“It has been taught: When an impulse arose in the will of the White Head to enhance His glory, He arranged, prepared, and generated from בּוּצִינָא דְּקַרְדִינוּתָא (botsina de-qardinuta), the Lamp of Adamantine Darkness, a single spark. He breathed upon it and it flamed; His will arose and it scattered in 370 directions. Then the spark stood still, and pure air began to issue, whirling and expanding, and a single mighty skull emanated in four directions.

Within this pure air, the spark was absorbed, grasped, and enveloped. Would you ever imagine ‘within it’? Rather, concealed within it, and so this skull expanded in its directions, while this air is secreted in the secrecies of the Ancient of Days, in the breath that is treasured away.

In this skull fire spread on one side and air on the other, with pure air presiding over this side and pure fire presiding over the other. What is fire doing here? Well, it is not fire, but rather this spark enveloped in the pure air, illuminating 270 worlds, and from its side stems Judgment. Therefore this skull is called, ‘the mighty skull.’ In this skull dwell 90,000,000 worlds, moving with it, supported by it. Into this skull trickles dew from the White Head, filling it constantly, and from this dew the dead are destined to be revived.

That dew comprises two colors. From the aspect of the White Head, its color is white, including all whites, entirely white; but when it settles in this head of the זְעֵיר אַנפִּין (ze’eir anpin), Short-Tempered One, red appears in it—like crystal, which is white, yet the color red appears within the color white.

Therefore it is written: Many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake—these to eternal life, those to shame and eternal contempt (Daniel 12:2). To eternal life—because they deserve that white, coming from the aspect of the עַתִּיק יוֹמִין (attiq yomin), Ancient of Days, אֲרִיכָא דְּאַנְפִּין (arikha de-anpin), Elongated Countenance. To shame and eternal contempt—because they deserve that red of the זְעֵיר אַנפִּין (ze’eir anpin), Small Countenance. All is included in the dew, as is written: For Your dew is a dew of lights (Isaiah 26:19)—two! And that dew drips every day to the Apple Orchard, colored white and red” (Zohar 3:135a–b, Idra Rabba).

“Rise Rabbi Shim’on and fashion new words with your hands, because permission has been granted to you to reveal hidden mysteries which have not been revealed by another until now. Rabbi Shim’on opened saying, ‘Yours, O YHWH, is the greatness, and the strength… (1 Chronicles 29:11).

Supernal ones, sleepers of Hebron, listen. Faithful Shepherd awake from your sleep. Awake and sing, you that dwell in dust (Isaiah 26:19). These are those righteous ones who are from the aspect of, I was asleep but my heart was awake (Song of Songs 5:2). They are not dead, thus it says, Awake and sing. Awake, Faithful Shepherd you and the Patriarchs, awaken the Shekhinah asleep in the exile. Until now all the righteous sleep, asleep in their youth.’

Immediately the Shekhinah aroused three voices for the Faithful Shepherd, saying to him, ‘Rise Faithful Shepherd, of whom it is said, Hark! my lover knocks (Song of Songs 5:2)—with His four letters. Saying, Open for me, my sister, my friend, my dove, תַמָּתִי (tammati), my perfect one (Songs of Songs 5:2). Because, תַּם (tam), Complete, is the punishment of your iniquity, O daughter of Zion; He will no more carry you away into exile (Lamentations 4:22).’

For my head is filled with dew (Song of Songs 5:2). What is filled with dew? Rather, the blessed Holy One says, ‘Do you imagine that from the day the Holy Temple was destroyed I have entered My house, or I have entered My dwelling place? Not so! I have not entered at all since the time of your exile. Behold here is your sign: For my head is filled with טַל (tal), dew.’ הא (He, alef) [of the Holy Name spelled with ten letters] is Shekhinah in exile [separated from Her lover יוד הא ואו (Yod He Vav), the blessed Holy One]. Her completion and Her life is טַל (tal), dew, and this is יוד הא ואו (Yod He Vav); הא (He, alef), the Shekhinah, is not of the טַל (tal), dew, but יוד הא ואו (Yod He Vav) is ל״ט (thirty-nine) [numerically equivalent to טַל (tal), dew]. He fills the Shekhinah from the flowing of all the supernal sources. Immediately the Faithful Shepherd rose, and the holy Patriarchs along with him. Until here the mystery of unification” (Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 17b).

For Your dew is a dew of lights (Isaiah 26:19)—all who make use of light of Torah, light of Torah will revive, but all who do not make use of light of Torah, light of Torah will not revive” (BT Ketubbot 111b).

Like a Lamp from which Many Lamps are Lit while Retaining its Vitality

Hanuca_2010-1“A candle from which hundreds of millions of other candles are kindled. Though some shine brighter than others, compared to the first light they are all the same, all deriving from that one source. The first light and all the others are, in effect, incomparable. Nor can their priority compare with its, for it surpasses them; their energy emanates from it. No change takes place in it—the energy of emanation simply manifests through differentiation” (Rabbi Azriel of Gerona, Commentary on the Ten Sefirot, in Rabbi Me’ir ibn Gabbai, Derekh Emunah, 2b–c, 3a–d, translated in Matt, The Essential Kabbalah: The Heart of Jewish Mysticism, p. 29–30).

“Come and see: One flame, slender, burning—all the world is filled. Regard: A thin piece of wood is kindling for a thick one” (Zohar 3:240b, Ra’aya Meheimna Pineḥas).

“Like a lamp from which many lamps are lit while retaining its vitality” (Zohar 2:86b).

“You will discover all in the ascending flame, wisdoms of the highest” (Zohar 1:51a–52a).

“Come and see: Nefesh—lower arousal, cleaving to the body like the light of a candle. The lower light, which is black, cleaves to the wick, never parting from it, arrayed by it alone. Once arrayed by the wick, it becomes a throne for the white light settling upon the black light. When both are arrayed, the white light becomes a throne for a concealed light—invisible, unknowable—settling upon the white light. Then the light is perfect” (Zohar 1:83b).

“Every wise person has his eyes and his words on his head, focused on Who is resting right there. With his eyes there he knows that the light kindled on his head needs oil. For the human body is a wick, and a light is kindled above. King Solomon cried out: Let… your head not lack oil (Ecclesiastes 9:8)—the light on one’s head needs oil, the oil of good deeds!” (Zohar 3:187a).

“Why is Israel compared to an olive? To teach that just as the olive does not produce its oil until it is crushed, so too Israel does not return except through suffering” (BT Menakhot 53b).

“Once the light of a lamp clings to the wick, that light is never still, but rather sways back and forth, never staying still. Similarly with Israel, whose souls derive from that light of the Lamp. As soon as they cling to words of Torah, the light is kindled—they cannot keep still; they sway back and forth and in all directions like the light of a lamp, for it is written: The soul of a human is the נֵר (ner), lamp, of YHWH (Proverbs 20:27)” (Zohar 3:219a, cf. Ba’al ha-Turim on Exodus 20:15; Kuzari 2:79).

“What is נֵר (ner), candle? נְשָׁמָה (Neshamah), soul, רוּחַ (ruaḥ), spirit” (Zohar 2:99b).

Fear of the King

509px-Chisinau_jew“The mother of Rav Naḥman son of Yitsḥaq was told by Chaldeans [i.e., astrologers], ‘Your son will be a thief.’ [Thus] she did not let him [go] bareheaded, saying to him, ‘Cover your head so that the fear of heaven may be upon you, and pray for compassion’—now, he did not know why she spoke that to him. One day he was sitting and studying under a palm tree, the cloak fell off of his head, he lifted his eyes, and seeing the palm tree, climbed up and bit off a cluster with his teeth” (BT Shabbat 156b).

The wise has his eyes in his head, and the fool walks in darkness (Ecclesiastes 2:14). Now, where are a person’s eyes if not in his head? Perhaps in the trunk of his body or in his arms? Does this distinguish the wise one from all inhabitants of the world? Ah, but the verse surely means as follows. For we have learned: A person should not walk four cubits with his head uncovered. Why? Because Shekhinah rests upon his head. Every wise person has his eyes and his words בְּרֹאשׁוֹ (be-rosho), on his head—focused on the one who is resting and appearing on his head. When his eyes are there, he knows that the light kindled on his head needs oil. For the human body is a wick, and a light is kindled above, and King Solomon exclaimed: Let oil on your head not be lacking (Ecclesiastes 9:8); for the light on one’s head needs oil, namely good deeds. Thus, the wise one has his eyes on his head—and nowhere else!” (Zohar 3:187a).

Only בְּצֶלֶם (be-tselem), with an imagedoes a man goes about (Psalms 39:7) [cf. Zohar 1:218a; 3:43a–b]. Because [צֶלֶם (tselem), an image (i.e., Shekhinah)] is over a man’s head, man is prohibited to walk four cubits with his head uncovered. If She departs from over his head, his life is immediately gone” (Zohar 3:121b, Ra’aya Meheimna Naso).

“Because the Shekhinah is over his head the Masters of Mishnah taught: A scholar of the Law is forbidden to walk four cubits with his head uncovered [cf. BT Qiddushin 31a] because, the whole earth is full of His glory (Isaiah 6:3). And even more so to go with uncovered head during a blessing or the mention of the Holy Name! [And the reason for the prohibition of going with an uncovered head:] י (yod) of יהוה (YHWH) is enveloped in אוֹר (or), light, and becomes אֲוִיר (avir), atmosphere [lit., air], since י (yod), which is Ḥokhmah, is in the אֲוִיר (avir), atmosphere [cf. BT Bava Batra 158b; Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 5]. And this is the light with which He enveloped himself when He created the world, as is written: Wrapped in light like a cloak, stretching out heavens like a tent-cloth (Psalms 104:2). Thus Let there be אוֹר (or), light (Genesis 1:1) is, Let there be אֲוִיר (avir), atmosphere. And the Masters of the Secrets of Torah taught: Before anything else was formed, הָהַוָיוֹת (ha-havayot), the existences, were formed. Thus: Let there be light, and there was light—that had existed previously” (Zohar 3:245a, Ra’aya Meheimna Pineḥas, cf. Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 37b).