The Nut Garden

לקוטים מזוהר (Gleanings of Zohar)

Tag: בַּת רָאשֵׁי

Mother of Pearl and Black Marble: He Took a Thousandth of Her Radiance and from Her Built a Lovely Precious Stone

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“Was light created on the first day? For, behold, it is written: And God placed [the two great lights] in the vault of the heavens (Genesis 1:17), and it is written: And it was evening and it was morning, fourth day (ibid., 19)—this is according to Rabbi El’azar. For Rabbi El’azar said: With the light the blessed Holy One created on the first day one could gaze from one end of the universe to the other; but as soon as the blessed Holy One foresaw the generation of the Flood and the generation of the Dispersion [i.e., the generation which built the Tower of Babel], and saw that their actions were corrupt, He arose and hid it away from them, as is said: The light of the wicked is withheld (Job 38:15). And for whom did He hide it? For the righteous in the time to come, for it is said: And God saw the light, that it was good (Genesis 1:4); and good means only the righteous, for it is said: Say you to the righteous, that it shall be good: [for they shall eat the fruit of their deeds] (Isaiah 3:10). As soon as the light saw that it had been treasured away for the righteous, it rejoiced, as is said: The light of the righteous rejoices (Proverbs 13:9)” (BT Ḥagigah 12a).

“It was taught: The light which was created in the six days of Creation cannot shine during the day because it dims the orb of the sun, nor by night, because it was created only to shine by day. Then where is it? It is treasured away for the righteous in the time still to come, as it says, Moreover the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of the seven days, [in the day that YHWH binds up the hurt of His people, and heals the stroke of their wound] (Isaiah 30:26). Seven! surely there were only three, seeing that the luminaries were created on the fourth day! It is like a man who says, ‘I am providing so much for the seven days of my [wedding] feast. Rabbi Neḥemyah said: It refers to the seven days of mourning for Methuselah, when the blessed Holy One lavished light upon them [see BT Sanhedrin 108b]” (Bereshit Rabbah 3:6).

“Rabbi Yehudah son of Simon said, ‘With the light created by the blessed Holy One on the first day, one could gaze and see from one end of the universe to the other. When the Holy One foresaw the corruption of the generation of Enosh and the generation of the Flood, He hid it away from them, as is written: The light of the wicked is withheld (Job 38:15). Where did He hide it? In the Garden of Eden. אוֹר זָרֻעַ לַצַּדִּיק וּלְיִשְׁרֵי לֵב שִׂמְחָה (Or zaru’a la-tsaddiq u-le-yishrei simḥa), Light is sown for the righteous, joy for the upright in heart (Psalms 97:11) [ר עֲקִיבַה (R. Akiva)]” (Vayiqra Rabbah 11:7).

“God said, ‘Let there be light!’ And there was light (Genesis 1:3)—primordial, transcendent light, already existent. From here issued all powers and forces, so Earth turned firm and fragrant, generating Her potencies. As the light shone, its radiance blazed from one end of the universe to the other. When it gazed upon the wicked of the world, it hid itself away, emerging only by its paths, concealed, unrevealed….

God said, ‘Let there be light!’ This is the light that the blessed Holy One created at first. It is the light of the eye. This is the light that the blessed Holy One showed Adam, who gazed with it from one end of the universe to the other” (Zohar 1:30b, 31b).

“Look at what we have learned in our Mishnah: With the light that the blessed Holy One created at first, one could gaze and see from the beginning of the world to its end. Come and see: The light of the sun is a sixty-thousand-and-seventy-fifth of the light of the speculum of the concealed light. If even at this light of the sun a person cannot gaze, how much more so at that light!

Yet we have said that a person could see with it from the beginning of the world to the end of the world! Well, so have we decreed in our Mishnah: With that light, a person could know and see—with the radiance of wisdom—all that was and all that will be, from the beginning of the world to the end of the world, and it has been concealed for the righteous in the world to come. What is meant by ‘in the world to come’? When the holy soul leaves this world and enters the world to come [cf. Tanḥuma, Vayiqra, 8: ‘The wise call it הַעוֹלָם הַבּא (ha-olam ha-ba), the world to come, not because it does not exist now, but for us today in this world it is still to come’; Zohar 3:290b (IZ): ‘The world that is coming, constantly coming, never ceasing’]” (Zohar Ḥadash 15b, Midrash ha-Ne’lam).

Rabbi Neḥunia son of ha-Qannah said: One verse says, They have not seen the light, bright though it be in the skies (Job 37:21). And another verse says, He set darkness His hiding-place (Psalms 18:12); it is also written, Cloud and dense fog around Him (ibid. 97:2). This is difficult. However, a third verse comes to hold the balance: Darkness itself will not darken for You, and the night will light up like the day, the dark and light will be one (ibid. 139:12) [cf. Bemidbar Rabbah 15:8]” (Bahir §1).

Torah is light (Proverbs 6:23).

“Rabbi Boi said: What is In remote eons I was shaped, מֵרֹאשׁ (me-rosh), from the head (Proverbs 8:23)? [As you say, בַּת רֹאשִׁי (bat roshi), ‘Daughter of My head’]. What is מֵעוֹלָם (me-olam), in remote eons? A matter necessary לְהֵעָלֵם (le-he’alem), to conceal, from all the world, as is written, The world, too, He has put in their heart, [without man’s grasping at all what it is ha-Elohim has done from beginning to end] (Ecclesiastes 3:11)—do not read הָעֹלָם (ha-olam), the world, but rather הֶעְלֵם (he’elem), concealment. Torah says, ‘I preceded [all] to be רֹאשׁ לָעוֹלָם (rosh la-olam), head of the world,’ as is said, me-olam, in remote eons, I was shaped, me-rosh, from the head. And if you say: perhaps the earth preceded her, it says, before the earth (ibid.). As is the case elsewhere: In the beginning created Elohim (Genesis 1:1)—what created [Elohim]? The needs of all, then Elohim. And what is written next? The heavens and the earth (ibid.)” (Bahir §10, cf. Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 42, 82a).

“Rabbi Berekhiah said, ‘Why is it written, God said, ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light (Genesis 1:3), and not [simply] ‘And there was?’ This can be compared to a king who had a beautiful object and set it aside until he had prepared a place for it; then he placed it there, as is written: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light—for it already was” (Bahir §25).

Unveil my eyes that I may look upon the wonders of Your Torah (Psalms 119:18).

“And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: There were two [iterations of] ‘light,’ as is written, [And God said, ‘Let there be light.’] And there was light (Genesis 1:3). Regarding both of them it is written, it was good (ibid., 4). The blessed Holy One took one and hid it for the righteous in the World that is Coming. Of this is written, How great Your goodness that You hid for those in awe of You. You have wrought for those who shelter in You [before the eyes of humankind] (Psalms 31:20). To teach that the primordial light cannot be seen by any creature, as is written, it was good [cf. Shemot Rabbah 35:1]. Furthermore it is written, And God saw that it was good (Genesis 1:21). The blessed Holy One saw all that He had made, and saw good—radiant בָּהִיר (bahir), brightness. He took of that good, and included in it the thirty-two paths of Wisdom, giving it to this world. This is the meaning of, For good learning I have given you, do not forsake My teaching (Proverbs 4:2). Alas, say this is treasury of Oral Torah.

The blessed Holy One said, ‘This quality is included in this world, and it is Oral Torah. If you guard this quality in this world, then you will be worthy of the World that is Coming, which is the good treasured away for the righteous.’ What is it? It is His strength, as is written, And His brilliance will be as the light (Habakkuk 3:4). The brilliance that was taken from the primordial light will be [manifest] light if His children keep the teaching and the commandments that I have written to instruct them (Exodus 24:12) [cf. Zohar 2:166b].’ Therefore it is written, Hear, My son, your father’s reproof, and do not forsake your mother’s teaching (Proverbs 1:8).

And it is written, He has rays at His side: and there is His strength hidden (Habakkuk 3:4). What is His strength hidden? The light that was concealed: that You hid for those in awe of You (Psalms 31:20). As is said: You have wrought for those who shelter in You (ibid.)—those who take refuge in Your shadow in this world, who keep Your teaching, and fulfill Your commandments. Who sanctify Your great Name, unifying it in private and in public, as it says: before the eyes of humankind (ibid.)” (Bahir §§147–148).

Rabbi Berekhiah sat and expounded: Each day we speak of הַעוֹלָם הַבָּא (ha-Olam ha-Ba) but do we know what we are saying? The Targum renders this as עָלְמָא דְאָתֵי (alma de-atei), the World that Came. But what is it? This teaches that before the world was created, it arose in thought to create a great light to illuminate and a great light was created which no creature was able to wield [see Tanḥuma, Shemini, 9]. The blessed Holy One foresaw that none could bear it, He took one-seventh and gave it to them in its place and the rest He treasured away for the righteous in the time yet to come, saying: If they prove worthy of this seventh and guard it, I will give them the rest in the other world. It is therefore called ha-Olam ha-Ba, the World that is Coming, since it is already [always] coming from the six days of creation. Of this is written: How great Your goodness that You hid for those in awe of You (Psalms 31:20)” (Bahir §160).

“And what is Awe of YHWH (Isaiah 33:6)? It is the primordial light. Thus Rabbi [Berekhiah] said: Why is it written, God said, ‘Let there be light.’ [And there was light]? (Genesis 1:3). Why does it not say, and it was? But this teaches that the light was so great that no creature could gaze upon it. The blessed Holy One therefore treasured it away for the righteous in the time still to come. This is the quality of all that is סְחֹרָה (seḥorah), valuable, in the world. It is also the power of the precious stones called סֹחָרֶת (soḥaret), Darkness [or: Black Marble], and דַּר (dar), Dweller [or: Mother-of-Pearl; see Esther 1:6; BT Megillah 12a ad loc. Perhaps the black marble called Darkness is the supernal sun, too blindingly bright, as it were, to gaze upon, cf. Job 10:22: You shine like darkness; Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed, 1:59; Zohar 2:188a]. And what is the quality of Soḥaret, Darkness? To teach you that the blessed Holy One took a thousandth of [Soḥaret’s, i.e., the World that is Coming’s] radiance and from Her בֹּנֶה (boneh), built [alluding to בִּינָה (Binah)] a lovely precious stone [cf. Tanuma, Pequdei 3]. In Her [namely, Dar, i.e., this world] He included all the mitsvot” (Bahir §190).

I am שְׁחוֹרָה (sheḥorah), dark, but desirable (Song of Songs 1:5), the speculum that does not shine but Father and Mother adorned Her so that Her husband be pleased with Her” (Zohar 1:49b).

And what is מִשָּׁם רֹעֶה (Misham ro’eh), from there the Shepherd, Israel’s Stone (Genesis 49:24)? That from There Israel’s Stone is sustained. What is מִשֶּׁם (mishem), it by name? Ah, say: צֶדֶק עֶלְיוֹן (tsedeq elyon), supernal Justice [upper ShekhinahBinah]. And what is it? The great צָּפוֹן (tsafon), hidden, light, called סֹחָרֶת (Soḥaret), Darkness [which סְחוֹר סְחוֹר (seḥor seḥor), surrounds, everything, cf. Zohar 3:120a], and the stone residing below is דַּר (dar), Dweller [i.e., lower שְׁכִינָה (Shekhinah), Presence, from לְשַׁכֵּן (le-shaken), ‘to dwell.’ Cf. Seder Rabba de-Vereshit, see Schäfer, Synopse zur Hekhalot-Literatur, §440: ‘Shekhinah is below just as Shekhinah is above’]. And what are the beams mentioned in the verse [The radiance is like light.] Beams from His hand He has, [and there His might is hidden] (Habakkuk 3:4)? These are the five fingers of the right hand” (Bahir §193). 

“A precious stone set in a crown, as is written, the stone that the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone (Psalms 118:22). It ascends to the place from which it was hewn, as is written, from There feeds Israel’s Stone (Genesis 49:24)” (Bahir §91, cf. Zohar 1:231b).

Yearning of the Father is Always Exclusively for his Daughter

“A parable: a king once had a daughter who was good, sweet, lovely, and perfect. He married her to a royal prince, and clothed, crowned, and bejeweled her, giving her much wealth. Is it possible for the king to ever leave his daughter? You must say no. Is it possible for him to be with her constantly? You must say no. What then must he do? He places a screen between the two, and whenever the father needs his daughter, or the daughter needs her father, they can come together through this screen [cf. Shemot Rabbah 52:5]. Therefore it is written: All the princess’s treasure is inward, filigree of gold her raiment (Psalms 45:14)” (Bahir §54).

“From where [is it known] Abraham had a daughter? As is written, And YHWH had blessed Abraham בַּכֹּל (ba-kol), in all things (Genesis 24:1) [see BT Bava Batra 16b; cf. ibid., 25a]. It is also written, כֹּל (kol), All—called by שְׁמִי (shemi), My name: for My glory I have created him, I have formed him; yea, I have made him (Isaiah 43:7) [cf. Berit MenuḥaIntroduciton]. Was this blessing his daughter or not? Yes, it was his daughter.

A parable: A king had a servant who was innocent and perfect before him. He tested him with many trials and he endured them all [see Jubilees 17:17; 19:8; M Avot 5:3; Avot de-Rabbi Natan A, 33; B, 36; Midrash Tehillim 18:25; Pirqei de-Rabbi Eli’ezer 26]. The king said, ‘What will I give to this servant? What shall I do for him? There is nothing for me but to entrust him to my older brother [possibly Sandalfon], that he counsel him, guard him, and honor him.’ The servant returned with the older brother and learned his qualities. The brother loved him very much, and called him his lover, as is written, the seed of Abraham, My lover (Isaiah 41:8) [cf. Sefer Yetsirah §61 ad loc.]. He said, ‘What shall I give him? What shall I do for him? Behold I have made a lovely vessel, and in it are lovely jewels. There is nothing like them [in] treasuries of kings. I will give it to him, and he will be worthy in his place.’ This is, And YHWH blessed Abraham in all things” (Bahir §78).

“The Rabbis have taught: בַּכֹּל (ba-kol) (Genesis 24:1)—Abraham’s daughter, is not dead. She still exists, and whoever sees her has made a great find, as is said: [I, all my lovers I love,] and my seekers do find me (Proverbs 8:17)” (Mirash ha-Gadol).

“[Elijah] opened and said, [Moses] Faithful Shepherd, the blessed Holy One gave this bride of yours [Shekhinahהַכַּלָה (ha-kalah), the Bride, alluding to הֲלָכָה (Halakhah)] to Abraham to bring up for you. And since he kept her she is called his daughter. This is what is meant by the saying that ‘Abraham had a daughter named בַּכֹּל (Bakol)’ (BT Bava Batra 16b). By her he observed the whole Torah ‘Even to the עֵירוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין (eruvei tavshilin), mixing of cooked dishes [a later rabbinic ordinance allowing one to cook on a holiday for the Sabbath]’ (BT Yoma 28b). This is the meaning of [Abraham has listened בְּקֹלִי (be-qoli), to My voice] And has kept My charge [My commandments, My statutes, and My teachings] (Genesis 26:5) [cf. Bahir §192]. And he brought her up, as written, And he brought up Hadassa (Esther 2:7). And the blessed Holy One blessed him for her sake, as written, YHWH had blessed Abraham in בַּכֹּל (ba-kol), all things (Genesis 24:1). He brought her up with every good quality and was kind to her. He raised her to greatness, with the quality of חֶסֶד (ḥesed), Loving-kindness, of Abraham. His house was, for her sake, wide open to do kindness to all the people of the world” (Zohar 3:277b, Ra’aya Meheimna Ki Tetse).

“Lower world does not arouse toward Upper World without the cherubim wafting fragrance toward the right. After they bestow aroma to the right, and the right arouses toward Upper World, at once Lower World arouses to petition for its needs. What is written? Rachel said to Leah, ‘Please give me’ (Genesis 30:14). Give me blessings from the arousal of mandrakes, aroused for you by the right side.

Then, Upper World joyfully, playfully, responded to her, saying, ‘Is your taking my husband a small thing?‘ (ibid. 30:15)—like a mother to her daughter. If so, the Husband of the Upper World must be Jacob! Not so! Yearning of the Father is always exclusively for his Daughter. His love is directed toward Her because She is the only daughter, among six sons [sefirot]. He doles out provisions, largesse, and gifts to each of those six sons—but He allocates nothing for Her, nor does She inherit anything. On account of all this, He watches over Her with greater fondness and love than all the rest.

Out of love for Her, He called Her ‘Daughter’ [cf. BT Bava Batra 16b]. This did not satisfy Him, so He called Her ‘Sister’ [cf. Genesis 20:1; Proverbs 7:4; Song of Songs 4:9, 10, 12; 5:1, 2]. This did not satisfy Him, so He called Her ‘Mother,’ in the name of His Mother [cf. Proverbs 2:3; BT Berakhot 57a]. This did not satisfy Him, so He called Her by His name, as is written: But הַחָכְמָה (ḥokhmah), Wisdom, found from אַיִן (ayin), Nothing (Job 28:12)—Ḥokhmah, actually! This is why Upper World said to Her, ‘Is your taking my husband a small thing‘—for all of His love is drawn toward You” (Zohar 1:156a–b, Sitrei Torah, cf. Pesiqta de-Rav Kahana 1:3; Shemot Rabbah 52:5; Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah on 3:11; Zohar 2:100b).

To the Daughter’s Father Fifty Weights of Silver

The_Jewish_Bride_Rembrandt

“What is this Torah? She says: We are a bride adorned and crowned, and all the mitsvot are included within [us]. She is Treasury of the Torah and the betrothed of the blessed Holy One, as is written, ‘Torah did Moses charge us, a heritage for Jacob’s assembly! (Deuteronomy 33:4). Do not read מוֹרָשָׁה (morashah), a heritage, but rather מְאוֹרָסָה (me’orasah), the betrothed‘ (BT Berakhot 57a; Pesaḥim 49b) [cf. Avot 2:17; Bemidbar Rabbah 8:2]. How is this so? When the people of Israel study Torah for her own sake, then she is the betrothed of the blessed Holy One, then she is the heritage of Israel” (Bahir §196).

“When Torah was given, Her tablets, likened to virginity, were broken. And the blessed Holy One again gave Her to Israel to keep Her [as] Oral Torah called הֲלָכָה (Halakhah) [alluding to הַכַּלָה (ha-kalah), the Bride] given to Moses on Sinai. And the groom of Torah broke Her virginity. Whoever speaks ill of Her since Her tablets were broken, the blessed Holy One, who is the girl’s Father—that daughter who is in בְּרֵאשִׁית (Bereshit) [i.e., בַּת רָאשֵׁי (bat rashei), ‘first daughter,’ or: בַּת רֹאשִׁי (bat roshi), ‘daughter of My head,’ see TZ 5, 10a] the King’s daughter—spoke: My daughter I gave to this man as wife, and he hated her. And look, he has imputed misconduct, saying, ‘I found no signs of virginity for your daughter,’ but these are the signs of My daughter’s virginity. And they shall spread out the garment before the elders of the town (Deuteronomy 22:17), and the parchment of Torah scroll unfolds, and they shall see written inside, Carve you two stone tablets like the first ones, and I shall write on the tablets the words which were on the first tablets that you smashed (Exodus 34:1).

Immediately Elijah rose with all the heads of the academy and they blessed him. And He said, ‘Sinai, Sinai, it would have been worthy for us to listen to your words and be silent, yet with permission from the blessed Holy One and His Shekhinah, I wish to say something to you, in your honor.’ He said to him, ‘Speak.’

[Elijah] opened, saying [Moses] Faithful Shepherd, ‘The blessed Holy One gave this Bride of yours to Abraham to bring up for you. And since he kept Her She is called his daughter. This is what is meant by the saying that Abraham had a daughter whose name was בַּכֹּל (Bakol) [see BT Bava Batra 16b]. By Her he observed the whole Torah even to the עֵירוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין (eruvei tavshilin), Mixing of Dishes [an action allowing one to cook on a holiday for Sabbath. On the Patriarchs keeping the whole Torah even before it was given, see M Qiddushin 4:14 on Genesis 26:5, cf. Vayiqra Rabbah 2:10]. This is the meaning of [Abraham has listened בְּקֹלִי (be-qoli), to My voice] and has kept My charge [My commandments, My statutes, and My teachings] (Genesis 26:5). And he brought Her up, as written, And he became a guardian to Hadassah (Esther 2:7). And the blessed Holy One blessed him for Her sake, as written, YHWH had blessed Abraham in בַּכֹּל (ba-kol), all things (Genesis 24:1) [cf. Bava Batra 16b]. He brought Her up with every good quality and was kind to Her. He raised her to greatness, with the quality of חֶסֶד (ḥesed), Kindness, of Abraham. His house was, for Her sake, wide open to do kindness to all the people of the world….’

Should a man find a virgin young woman who is not betrothed… (Deuteronomy 22:28). The decree is to punish the seducer with fifty shekels of silver. Should a man find a virgin young woman who is not betrothed—these are Israel, who, from the aspect of the Shekhinah are called ‘Daughter.’ And take hold of her and lie with her, and they be found, the man lying with her shall give to the young woman’s father fifty weights of silver, and she shall be his wife inasmuch as he abused her. He shall not be able to send her away all his days (ibid., 28-29). The Sages and all the members of the academy say: a man—this is Israel from the aspect of the blessed Holy One [Tif’eret]. And take hold of her—with the knot of tefillin and with tsitsit. Who is not betrothed—an only daughter, who is the נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh), life-breath. And lie with her—with the prayer of lying down, namely הַשְׁכִּיבֵנוּ (hashkivenu), ‘Cause us to lie down.’ Shall give to the young woman’s father fifty weights of silver—these are the twenty-five and twenty-five letters of the unification [i.e., the recital of Shema]….

In relation to Secrets of Torah we must employ an allegory. There is a נִשְׁמְתָא (nishmeta), soul, that is the Matronita, and there is a soul that is a slavegirl, such as in: And should a man sell his daughter as a slavegirl (Exodus 21:7). And there is a soul that is a common slavegirl—so are most of the sons of men. There is he who is a slave to the soul. Sometimes the soul goes in the mystery of cycling: but the יּוֹנָה (yonah), dove, found no resting place for the sole of her foot (Genesis 8:9) [יּוֹנָה (yonah), dove, and גִּלְגּוּל (gilgul), life-cycle, are numerically equivalent]. And the evil impulse chases her to enter that body, a slavegirl to the evil impulse. He is a שֵׁד יְהוּדִי (shed yehudi), Jewish demon, and the soul is י (yod), the Hebrew slave [see Exodus 21:2–6; cf. BT Qiddushin 16a. On Jewish demons, see BT Pesaḥim 110a; Yevamot 122a and Rashi; Zohar 3:253a (RM); ZḤ 47 (MhN, Rut), 48d; cf. BT Gittin 66a] in which this שֵׁד (shed), demon, becomes שַׁדַּי (Shaddai) because it kept guard of the soul and repented through her, and with her blessed the blessed Holy One daily with ‘בָרוּך (Barukh), blessed…’ and with it sanctifies the blessed Holy One with ‘Holy, holy, holy,’ (Qedushah) and with it declares the unity of the blessed Holy One with the recital of Shema.

What used to be a demon turns into her angel—Metatron turns into Shaddai, since מְטַטְרוֹן (Metatron) is the sum of שַׁדַּי (Shaddai) [see BT Sanhderin 38b]. Immediately there is fulfilled in her And she shall be his wife, he shall not be able to send her away ever (Deuteronomy 22:19). But if he does not repent she is enslaved in him through the offences he committed and it shall be fulfilled in him, the wife and her children shall be her master’s (Exodus 21:4) [cf. Zohar 2:106a (SdM)], and it says of the demon which is her debtor: and he shall go out by himself (ibid.). That demon is like Moses’ staff that turns from a staff into a snake and from a snake into a staff [see Exodus 4:2]. So does this demon turn from a demon into an angel and from an angel into a demon, according to human deeds” (Zohar 3:277a, Ra’aya Meheimna Ki Tetse).