The Nut Garden

לקוטים מזוהר (Gleanings of Zohar)

Tag: הֲלָכָה

Just as Big Fish Swallow Up Small Fish

Talmud Teacher“Tannaim and Amoraim, you come from the aspect of the qualities of the blessed Holy One. You have labored much to purify my daughter the Halakhah [Malkhut] from the husks of the mixed multitude, which are the evil questions which cannot be interpreted or explained away. Of them it says: The crooked cannot תְקֹן (teqon), turn, straight nor can the lack be counted (Ecclesiastes 1:15). But תִּיקוּ (tiqu), ‘It is undecided,’ applies to them [a phrase employed in the Gemara and interpreted as an acronym: תִּשְׁבִּי יְתָרֵץ קֻשְׁיוֹת וְאִבַּעְיוֹת (Tishbi yetarets qushyot ve-iba’eyot), the Tishbite (i.e., Elijah) will resolve difficult questions and problems]. Anything undecided concerning a prohibition is handled as a stricture. It is a תִּיקּוּן (tiqqun), correction, without final ן (nun), [indicating] it can not be corrected, since it lacks final ן (nun), which is the World that is Coming [namely, Binah and Her ן״ (fifty) gates]. For תִּיקוּ (tiqu), undecided, in the World that is Coming is שְׁתִיקָה (shetiqah), silence, as in ‘שְׁתוֹק (shetoq), Silence! For so it arose in thought.’

There are questions that are the garments of the Halakhah of which it says filigree of gold—as is written: All the princess’s treasure is pearls, filigree of gold her raiment. [In embroidered stuff she is led to the king, maidens in train, her companions] (Psalms 45:14). You [Amoraim], cut into several legal sentences and later fix and explain them away using various arguments.

If one chapter of the Mishnah is missing, and it has been maintained that something is missing from the Mishnah, you מְתַקְּנִין (me-taqqnin), repair it. [For example, where it is stated in the Gemara: ‘A clause has been omitted, for this is the way we have learned it’] such is a lack that can be counted. If a simpleton comes and spreads an evil report of the craftsman that cuts the garments, saying: The Torah is lacking. Yet, it is written: The תּוֹרַת (torat), teaching, of YHWH is perfect (Psalms 19:8)—perfect, in all the members of the body, the 248 positive decrees, as is written: You are all beautiful, my love, and there is no flaw in you (Song of Songs 4:7)—perfect, in Her garments. How can anything be lacking in the Mishnah?

Say to him: Look carefully and find the [missing] piece. You may find it mixed with other verses and Mishnahyot [meaning, it is the custom of Torah to be lacking in one place and abundant in another], for it is the way of the craftsman to cut garments into several pieces [and that which is missing in one place is filled out in another]. The students, inexperienced in connecting the Halakhah to those pieces confuse the sentences and questions, and cannot explain the dilemmas until the craftsman comes and explains all the doubts they have. At that time, Halakhah, the princess [Malkhut], rises before the King, perfect in everything, in body, garments and jewelry. And in it is fulfilled: And I will see it, to remember the everlasting covenant (Genesis 9:16). Sometimes the craftsman has an experienced student whom he sends to correct them.

They all rose and said: Faithful Shepherd, surely you are the craftsman, for it says of you, ‘Moses received the Torah at Sinai’ (M Avot 1:1). From that time onward, everyone is your student, from Joshua to the end of all generations. This is what we learned, that he ‘handed it on to Joshua; Joshua to the elders; the elders to the prophets; [and the prophets handed it on to the men of the Great Assembly]’ to the end of all (ibid.). And who is your skilled student? We see that it has been said to let everything wait until Elijah comes” (Zohar 3:27b, Ra’aya Meheimna Tsav).

“We learned that fish and locusts do not require [ritual] slaughter [in order to be eaten, rather, it is their gathering which makes them permissible, see BT Ḥullin 27b]. Such are the Masters of Mishnah. They are consumed without slaughter [by the Angel of Death]. It says of them, And was gathered to his kinfolk (Genesis 49:33). Like fish of the sea live in the sea, so do the pupils of sages and Masters of Mishnah live in the sea—if they are separated from Torah they immediately die. תַּנִּינָא דְּמַתְנִיתִין (Tannina de-Matnitin), Rehearser of Mishnah, wherein proliferate תַנִינֵי יַמָּא (taninei yama), sea monsters. If those [beasts] who live on dry land [i.e., those without Torah and mitsvot] fall into the water but cannot swim they die. However, [only] the Masters of Kabbalah who are above all are אָדָם (adam), human [and know how to tread deep water, i.e., the sea of Torah and Her hidden depths, cf. BT Baba Metsi’a 114b; Keritot 6b]. Of them it says Hold sway over the fish of the sea and the fowl of the heavens (Genesis 1:26), who are מָארֵי מַתְנִיתִין תַּנִּינָיָּא (marei Matnitin taninaya), Masters of Mishnah—sea monsters [who prey on small fish]. הַתַּנִּינִם הַגָּדוֹל (Ha-taninim ha-gadol), the great sea monster (Genesis 1:21), is the נָחָשׁ בָּרִחַ (naḥash bariaḥ), fleeing serpent (Isaiah 27:1), corresponding to: וְהַבְּרִיחַ (ve-ha-beriaḥ), and the crossbar, in the middle board [shall מַבְרִחַ (maberiaḥ), shoot through, from end to end] (Exodus 26:28).

When תַּנִּינִם (tanninim), sea monsters [punning on תַּנָּאִים (Tannaim), Rehearsers]—the Masters of Mishnah—have a disagreement among them, asking each other difficult questions, [one then] swallows his colleague [as large fish swallow small fish]. This concerns a young pupil who has not reached the rank of teaching yet teaches, which is punishable by death. But if they are matched [both being big fish] and have an argument or difficulty, it says of them in the end, וָהֵב בְּסוּפָה (waheb be-sufah), against Waheb in a whirlwind (Numbers 21:14), which has been interpreted: אַהֲבָה בְּסוֹפָהּ (ahava be-sofa), love at its end (BT Qiddushin 30b) [cf. Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 6a].

In the meantime a נוּנָא רַבָּא (nuna raba), great fish, came [namely, Rav Hamnuna Saba], saying, ‘[Moses] Faithful Shepherd, אֵיתָן (Etan), Staunch, is your settlement, and set in the rock your nest (Numbers 24:21). [The תַּנָּאִים (Tannaim), Rehearsers, say] תַּנְיָ (tanya), ‘It was taught‘ [and this] assists you because the fish have their nest in the Rock [Malkhut]. אֵיתָן (Eitan), staunch, is [the letters of] תַּנְיָ (tanya), ‘It was taught,’ rearranged; אֵתָנִים (Etanim), Mighty (Job 12:19), is [the letters of] תַּנָּאִים (Tannaim), Rehearsers, rearranged. Beware of them, because you are heavy-mouthed and heavy-tongued (Exodus 4:10). And whoever wishes to attack the fish of the sea in the Rock—Masters of Mishnah, the תַּנָּאִים (Tannaim)—needs to be fierce and of a sharp and polished tongue to bore to the great abyss which lies there.

For the vision is yet for an appointed time, but at the end he shall speak, and not lie: [though he tarries, wait for him; because he will surely come, he will not delay] (Habakkuk 2:3). It has been explained that this verse pierces and descends to the great abyss. Who is it that shall descend to the great abyss to find that time [of the End] but You, of whom it says, Your justice like the unending mountains, Your judgment, the great abyss (Psalms 36:7). Many Masters of Mishnah wanted to penetrate the depth of הֲלָכָה (Halakhah), [religious] performance, to find there the time of the coming of redemption, but went down and did not come up [הֲלָכָה (Halakhah), conduct, alludes to הַכַּלָה (ha-Kalah), the Bride, i.e., Malkhut, Shekhinah]. Though their tongue was Like a hammer that shatters the rock in pieces (Jeremiah 23:29), their hammer was too weak and could not penetrate that Rock [to discover the End]. Whoever penetrates that Rock without permission, a serpent will come to bite him; others bore into Her until they reach the great abyss but do not come up from there [cf. Ecclesiastes 10:8: He who digs a pit will fall in it, and he breaches a wall, a snake will bite him]…’ 

And you [Moses, Faithful Shepherd] aid yourself by תַּנְיָא (tanya), ‘it was taught,’ more than all of them, since you are the Leviathan of the sea of Torah. For the master of all fishes is called לִוְיָתָן (Livyatan), Leviathan, named after Torah, of which it says, For they are a לִוְיַת (livyat), garland of grace, on your head (Proverbs 1:9). Because of you Man and beast YHWH rescues (Psalms 36:7). Man—of him it has been said [The Torah (is maintained by)] a man who dies in a tent (Numbers 19:14), and the Masters of Mishnah have taught that Torah does not remain except for one who kills himself for Her, and death is only poverty [cf. M Avot 6:4; BT Tamid 32a: What shall a man do to live? Let him kill himself. What should a man do to kill himself? Let him keep himself alive]. Beast—the ignorant, who are submissive like horses and mules to the Masters of Mishnah” (Zohar 3:278a-80b, Ra’aya Meheimna Ki Tetse).

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A Jealous Fire: One Who Writes Down Halakhot is as One Who Burns the Torah

burnttorah“Rabbi El’azar said,… ‘You, cleaving to YHWH your God, are alive everyone of you today (Deuteronomy 4:4). Now is it possible to cleave to Shekhinah, of whom it is written: YHWH your God is a devouring fire (ibid. 24)? Rather the meaning is: whoever marries his daughter to a disciple of the sages, conducts business on their behalf, or benefits them from his assets is regarded by scripture as if he cleaves to Shekhinah [cf. BT Sotah 14a, where Rabbi Ḥama son of Ḥanina explains that one can approach and withstand the consuming fire of Shekhinah by imitating the divine, e.g., by clothing the naked, visiting the sick, comforting mourners, and burying the dead]” (BT Ketubbot 111b).

“Rabbi Huna son of Rabbi Yehoshua would not walk four cubits bareheaded, saying: the Shekhinah is above my head” (BT Qiddushin 31b).

“The General Agrippa asked Rabban Gamaliel, ‘It is written in your Torah, For YHWH your God is a devouring fire, a jealous God (Deuteronomy 4:24). Is a wise man jealous of any but a wise man, a warrior of any but a warrior, a rich man of any but a rich man?’ He replied, ‘I will give you a parable: To what is the matter like? To a man who marries an additional wife. If the second wife is her superior, the first will not be jealous of her, but if she is her inferior, the first wife will be jealous of her’” (BT Avodah Zarah 55a).

“Rabbi Shim’on said, ‘A word lingers here with us.’ He opened, saying, ‘Two verses are written: YHWH your God is a devouring fire (Deuteronomy 4:24), and You, cleaving to YHWH your God, are alive every one of you today (ibid., 4). We have established these verses in various places, and the Companions have been aroused by them.

Come and see: For YHWH your God is a devouring fire. The word has been discussed among the Companions: There is a fire devouring fire, devouring and consuming it, for there is fire fiercer than fire, as they have established [see BT Yoma 21b]. But come and see: Whoever desires to penetrate the wisdom of holy unification should contemplate the flame ascending from a glowing ember or a burning candle. For flame ascends only when grasped by course substance” (Zohar 1:50b–51a).

“The blue [light of a flame] is the Shekhinah, the Judgment that devours sacrifices and burnt offerings. If She finds men to be as dry wood, like dry wicks without oil, which is Torah and Compassion, [She] is a fire to them and burns them” (Zohar 3:33a, Ra’aya Meheimna Tsav, cf. Zohar 2:166a).

“Rabbi Abba son of Rabbi Ḥiyya son of Abba said in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan [son of Nappaha]: One who writes down halakhot (rules of conduct) is as one who burns the Torah, and he who learns from them does not receive reward… Rabbi Yehudah the son of Naḥum, the declaimer of Resh Lakish expounded: One may not recite oral teachings from a written document and one may not recite written teachings from memory. The school of Rabbi Yishma’el taught: ‘Write for yourself these words’ (Exodus 34:27). These words [i.e. the Written Torah] you may write, but you may not write halakhot” (BT Temurah 14b, cf. Gittin 60a–b; Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed 1:71).

“The Companions saw the face of Shekhinah and were encompassed by fire. Rabbi Abba’s face blazed in fire from rapture of Torah. It has been taught: All that day, none of them left the house, and the house was swathed in smoke. Words among them were fresh and ecstatic as if they were receiving Torah that very day from Mount Sinai! When they departed they did not know if it was day or night” (Zohar 1:94b, cf. Vayiqra Rabbah 16:4; Avot de-Rabbi Natan B, 13).

“As to what the rabbis have said: ‘Now is it possible for one to cleave to Shekhinah?—it certainly is!… Know and believe that there is a special quality to the essence of the purity of limbs that allows for man to hold fast to the Shekhinah even if She is a consuming fire” (Rabbi Yosef Gikatilla, Sha’arei Orah 166).

Second in Command

roman-vishniac“From forty–nine facets [of pure] and forty–nine facets [of impure] shine the Masters of מִשְׁנָה‎ (Mishnah), Rehearsing, which is second to Halakhah, Her slavegirl [cf. Midrash Tehillim 12:4]. For Mordecai the Jew was מִשְׁנֶה (mishneh), second, to King Ahasuerus (Esther 10:3), like this Mishnah is second to the King. From him shine the Masters of Mishnah: like the splendour of the sky (Daniel 12:3)Halakhah, and She is a tradition to Moses from Sinai. She has very many young women, and they are the laws which have been decided. As it says, עֲלָמוֹת (alamot), young women, beyond number (Song of Songs 6:8). And She [Halakhah] is above all of them, this is what is written, [Many daughters have done worthy things,] but you—you surpass all of them (Proverbs 31:29). And She is with everyone, as we have stated, ‘Halakhah as the many’ [see Baba Metsi’a 59b: ‘After the majority must one incline,’ cf. Exodus 23:2; BT Ḥulin 11a; Sanhedrin 2a; Qiddushin 40b; Zohar 1:53a].

And those who guide the many to be righteous (Daniel 12:3)—they are like the stars, forever and ever (ibid.). Certainly like stars beyond number, each and every star is called its own world and this is young women beyond number. These young women do not call them עֲלָמוֹת (alamot), young women, but rather עוֹלָמוֹת (olamot), worlds. The righteous are the stars and each one has a star, as the ancients said, ‘each and every righteous has his own world,’ and anyone who merits one Halakhah merits one world, certainly one who merits one tractate [of Mishnah] or two, or sixty as it says, Sixty are there queens and eighty concubines (Song of Songs 6:8).

Each tractate is a matronita unto herself, praiseworthy is he who merits her in this world, because Halakhah [lit., ‘conduct’] is the escort of the Matronita, which is קַבָּלָה (Qabbalah), Kabbalah. Praiseworthy is he who is occupied with the Shekhinah, because She is greater than all of Halakhah. To take Her out of exile as it says, And for your transgressions is your mother put away (Isaiah 50:1)—to escort Her to Her husband, so She will be מְקוּבָּל (mequbbal), received, in His arms, to fulfill His left hand beneath my head, his right hand embracing me (Song of Songs 2:6).

In exile the Mishnah, which is the angel מְטַּטְרוֹן (Metatron), rules [cf. Zohar 1:223b]. He is second to the King. As viceroy he sits on the side of the מַטְרוֹנִיתָא (Matronita) [Shekhinah], and this is, A slavegirl who dispossesses her mistress (Proverbs 30:23). In the days of Moses never did the slavegirl rule, only the גְּבִרְתָּהּ (Gevirtah), Mistress [cf. BT Menaḥot 59b; Zohar 1:232a]. Since Moses died and Joshua inherited, who is the Youth [Metatron], the slave rules in the place of kingship [Malkhut], as is said, For I am the commander of YHWH’s army. Now have I come (Joshua 5:14) [cf. Genesis 23:21; BT Yevamot 16b; Arakhin 32b; Sanhedrin 107a]” (Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 14a-b, cf. Zohar 2:65b).

“Masters of Mishnah, awaken your souls and spirits, each of you! Remove שֵׁנָה (shenah), sleep, from yourself, for certainly this is מִשְׁנָה (mishenah), Mishnah, the simple way of this world. I only rouse you with supernal mysteries of the World that is Coming, for you are engaged in them, as is written: Look, he does not slumber nor does he sleep, Israel’s guard (Psalms 121:4) [תִקּוּן חֲצוֹת (tiqqun ḥatsot), midnight vigil: Kabbalists are expected to rise at midnight and adorn Shekhinah with words of Torah in preparation for Her union with Tif’eret. Cf. Zohar 1:92b; 3:119a; BT Berakhot 3b; Ḥagigah 12b; Tamid 32b; JT Berakhot 1:1, 2d]” (Zohar 3:244b, Ra’aya Meheimna Pineḥas).

The Maids Who Grind Grow Idle, for They are Now Few

Image“This קְלִפָּה (qelipah), shell… is thin and cooresponds to the bran of  wheat, for here it sticks to the wheat and cannot be separated from there without grinding it in the mill-stones, which are correspond to the grinding molar in a man’s jaw, with which matters of Torah have to be ground until they are as fine flour. And in a sieve, which is the lips, the waste matter, which is the bran of Torah, is sorted out until the Halakhah is as pure fine flour. At that time, the heart and the brain and all those parts of the body through which the soul spreads, take that and the soul lives on it just as the body lives on things from this world. One against the other God has set (Ecclesiastes 7:14)—just as food for the body, so food for the soul, as is written: Come, partake of my bread (Proverbs 9:5).

And this shell, is like the shell that sticks to the kernel of the nut, for when the nut is soft the shell separates from the kernel without difficulty, but when the nut is dry, it is difficult for man to remove it from there, and the difficult problem still remains. For this reason the blessed Holy One commanded man to return [in repentance] during his youth, before the evil impulse makes him old, as is written: Before a gray head you shall rise (Leviticus 19:32)—before your own old age. And this shell, is fire, about which is written: [And after the fire,] a sound of minute stillness (1 Kings 19:12). [Another shell: darkness over the] deep (Genesis 1:2)—the space that is in the nut about which is written: [And after the fire,] a sound of minute stillness (1 Kings 19:12), for this is where the King comes: [And I looked, and, behold, a whirlwind came out of the north, a great cloud,] and a fire engulfing itself, and a brightness was about it, and out of its midst as the color of חַשְׁמַל (ḥashmal), amber, out of the midst of the fire (Ezekiel 1:4)…

And all the people of the world on the outside know not how they eat nor do they know their secret, but the sages that are inside do know and they take from them. For the esophagus cannot be examined from the outside, for they do not know, but on the inside they do know and take until it enters the mill and is pulverized and cooked [cf. BT Behorot 45a; Berakhot 61a]. And the liver takes everything, as we had learnt, but from those offerings by fire issue forth stages that take before the liver. And what are they? They are the molar which eat and grind the sacrifices. Therefore, on the destruction of the Temple, it is written: And the maids who grind grow idle, for they are now few (Ecclesiastes 12:3). These are the first to grind…

Netsaḥ and Hod are the two halves of a body, like two twins, which is why they are called skies (Psalms 78:23). The two of them together are וו (vav, vav) of וֵשֶׁט (veshet), esophagus, from the left side, and they are the two molar teeth from the right side [cf. Exodus 30:36: And שָׁחַקְתָ (shaḥaqta), you shall pound it to fine powder. שְׁחָקִים (Sheḥaqim), skies, and שָׁחַקְתָ (shaḥaqta), you shall pound it to fine powder, share the root שָׁחַקְ (shaḥaq) ‘(to) powder’]…

And from the side of וֵשֶׁט (veshet), esophagus [before which there is grinding in the teeth it is said]: The people would שָׁטוּ (shatu), go about, and gather it (Numbers 11:8). It—the collection of decisions in Mishnah. שָׁטוּ (Shatu), go about [is an anagram of וֵשֶׁט (veshet), esophagus]. And grind it between millstones or pound it in a pestle and cook it in a cauldron and make it into cakes (ibid.). It follows that whoever brings out words of Torah, must grind them in his teeth in order to express words that are called שָׁלֵם (shalem), complete. But as for the others that are scorned, these words are swallowed when eaten greedily, without being ground in their molars and their teeth about them it is written: The meat was still between their teeth, it had not yet been chewed, when the wrath of YHWH flared against the people [i.e., the motley throng] (Numbers 11:33). From the root of him who said: Let me gulp down some of this red red stuff, for I am famished (Genesis 25:30) [עָיֵף (ayef), famished, is numerically equivalent to קַיִן (Qayin), Cain, who is the root of Esau]” (Zohar 3:226b–235a, Ra’aya Meheimna Pineḥas).

Yearning of the Father is Always Exclusively for his Daughter

url“A king once had a daughter who was good, sweet, lovely, and perfect. He married her to a royal prince, and clothed, crowned, and bejeweled her, giving her much wealth. Is it possible for the king to ever leave his daughter? You must say no. Is it possible for him to be with her constantly? You must say no. What then must he do? He places a screen between the two, and whenever the father needs his daughter, or the daughter needs her father, they can come together through this screen. Therefore it is written: All the princess’s treasure is inward, filigree of gold her raiment (Psalms 45:14)” (Bahir §54).

“[Elijah] opened and said, [Moses] Faithful Shepherd, the blessed Holy One gave this bride of yours [Shekhinahהַכַּלָה (ha-kalah), the Bride, alluding to הֲלָכָה (halakhah), conduct] to Abraham to bring up for you. And since he kept her she is called his daughter. This is what is meant by the saying that ‘Abraham had a daughter named בַּכֹּל (Bakol)’ (BT Bava Batra 16b). By her he observed the whole Torah “even to the עֵירוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין (eruvei tavshilin), mixing of cooked dishes [a later rabbinic ordinance allowing one to cook on a holiday for the Sabbath]” (BT Yoma 28b). This is the meaning of [Abraham has listened בְּקֹלִי (be-qoli), to My voice] And has kept My charge [My commandments, My statutes, and My teachings] (Genesis 26:5) [cf. Bahir §192]. And he brought her up, as written, And he brought up Hadassa (Esther 2:7). And the blessed Holy One blessed him for her sake, as written, YHWH had blessed Abraham in בַּכֹּל (ba-kol), all things (Genesis 24:1). He brought her up with every good quality and was kind to her. He raised her to greatness, with the quality of חֶסֶד (ḥesed), Loving-kindness, of Abraham. His house was, for her sake, wide open to do kindness to all the people of the world” (Zohar 3:277b, Ra’aya Meheimna Ki Tetse).

“Lower world does not arouse toward Upper World without the cherubim wafting fragrance toward the right. After they bestow aroma to the right, and the right arouses toward Upper World, at once Lower World arouses to petition for its needs. What is written? Rachel said to Leah, ‘Please give me’ (Genesis 30:14). Give me blessings from the arousal of mandrakes, aroused for you by the right side.

Then, Upper World joyfully, playfully, responded to her, saying, ‘Is your taking my husband a small thing?‘ (ibid. 30:15)—like a mother to her daughter. If so, the Husband of the Upper World must be Jacob! Not so! Yearning of the Father is always exclusively for his Daughter. His love is directed toward Her because She is the only daughter, among six sons [sefirot]. He doles out provisions, largesse, and gifts to each of those six sons—but He allocates nothing for Her, nor does She inherit anything. On account of all this, He watches over Her with greater fondness and love than all the rest.

Out of love for Her, He called Her ‘Daughter’ [cf. BT Bava Batra 16b]. This did not satisfy Him, so He called Her ‘Sister’ [cf. Genesis 20:1; Proverbs 7:4]. This did not satisfy Him, so He called Her ‘Mother,’ in the name of His Mother [cf. Proverbs 2:3; BT Berakhot 57a]. This did not satisfy Him, so He called Her by His name, as is written: But הַחָכְמָה (ḥokhmah), Wisdom, found from אַיִן (ayin), Nothing (Job 28:12)—Ḥokhmah, actually! This is why Upper World said to Her, ‘Is your taking my husband a small thing‘—for all of His love is drawn toward You” (Zohar 1:156a-b, Sitrei Torah, cf. Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah on 3:11; Zohar 2:100b).

To the Daughter’s Father Fifty Weights of Silver

thejewishbride“A bride adorned, crowned, and included in all the mitsvot. She is the Treasury of Torah, the betrothed of the blessed Holy One, as is written, ‘A teaching did Moses charge us, a heritage for Jacob’s assembly! (Deuteronomy 33:4)—do not read מוֹרָשָׁה (morasha), a heritage, but מְאוּרָסָה (me’urasah), the betrothed‘ (BT Pesaḥim 49b) [cf. Avot 2:17; Bemidbar Rabbah 8:2]. How is this so? When Israel engages in Torah for Her own sake, then She is the betrothed of the blessed Holy One, then She is the heritage of Israel” (Bahir §196).

“When Torah was given, Her tablets, likened to virginity, were broken. And the blessed Holy One again gave Her to Israel to keep Her [as] Oral Torah called הֲלָכָה (Halakhah) [alluding to הַכַּלָה (ha-kalah), the Bride] given to Moses on Sinai. And the groom of Torah broke Her virginity. Whoever speaks ill of Her since Her tablets were broken, the blessed Holy One, who is the girl’s Father—that daughter who is in בְּרֵאשִׁית (Bereshit) [i.e., בַּת רָאשֵׁי (bat rashei), ‘first daughter,’ or: בַּת רָאשֵׁי (bat roshi), ‘daughter of My head,’ see TZ 5, 10a] the King’s daughter—spoke: My daughter I gave to this man as wife, and he hated her. And look, he has imputed misconduct, saying, ‘I found no signs of virginity for your daughter,’ but these are the signs of My daughter’s virginity. And they shall spread out the garment before the elders of the town (Deuteronomy 22:17), and the parchment of Torah scroll unfolds, and they shall see written inside, Carve you two stone tablets like the first ones, and I shall write on the tablets the words which were on the first tablets that you smashed (Exodus 34:1).

Immediately Elijah rose with all the heads of the academy and they blessed him. And He said, ‘Sinai, Sinai, it would have been worthy for us to listen to your words and be silent, yet with permission from the blessed Holy One and His Shekhinah, I wish to say something to you, in your honor.’ He said to him, ‘Speak.’

[Elijah] opened, saying [Moses] Faithful Shepherd, ‘The blessed Holy One gave this Bride of yours to Abraham to bring up for you. And since he kept Her She is called his daughter. This is what is meant by the saying that Abraham had a daughter whose name was בַּכֹּל (Bakol) [see BT Bava Batra 16b]. By Her he observed the whole Torah even to the עֵירוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין (eruvei tavshilin), Mixing of Dishes [an action allowing one to cook on a holiday for Sabbath. On the Patriarchs keeping the whole Torah even before it was given, see M Qiddushin 4:14 on Genesis 26:5, cf. Vayiqra Rabbah 2:10]. This is the meaning of [Abraham has listened בְּקֹלִי (be-qoli), to My voice] and has kept My charge [My commandments, My statutes, and My teachings] (Genesis 26:5). And he brought Her up, as written, And he became a guardian to Hadassah (Esther 2:7). And the blessed Holy One blessed him for Her sake, as written, YHWH had blessed Abraham in בַּכֹּל (ba-kol), all things (Genesis 24:1) [cf. Bava Batra 16b]. He brought Her up with every good quality and was kind to Her. He raised her to greatness, with the quality of חֶסֶד (ḥesed), Kindness, of Abraham. His house was, for Her sake, wide open to do kindness to all the people of the world…’

Should a man find a virgin young woman who is not betrothed… (Deuteronomy 22:28). The decree is to punish the seducer with fifty shekels of silver. Should a man find a virgin young woman who is not betrothed—these are Israel, who, from the aspect of the Shekhinah are called ‘Daughter.’ And take hold of her and lie with her, and they be found, the man lying with her shall give to the young woman’s father fifty weights of silver, and she shall be his wife inasmuch as he abused her. He shall not be able to send her away all his days (ibid., 28-29). The sages and all the members of the academy say: a man—this is Israel from the aspect of the blessed Holy One [Tif’eret]. And take hold of her—with the knot of tefillin and with tsitsit. Who is not betrothed—an only daughter, who is the נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh), life-breath. And lie with her—with the prayer of lying down, namely הַשְׁכִּיבֵנוּ (hashkivenu), ‘Cause us to lie down.’ Shall give to the young woman’s father fifty weights of silver—these are the twenty-five and twenty-five letters of the unification [i.e., the recital of Shema]…

In relation to Secrets of Torah we must employ an allegory. There is a נִשְׁמְתָא (nishmeta), soul, that is the Matronita, and there is a soul that is a slavegirl, such as in, And should a man sell his daughter as a slavegirl (Exodus 21:7). And there is a soul that is a common slavegirl—so are most of the sons of men. There is he who is a slave to the soul. Sometimes the soul goes in the mystery of cycling: but the יּוֹנָה (yonah), dove, found no resting place for the sole of her foot (Genesis 8:9) [יּוֹנָה (yonah), dove, and גִּלְגּוּל (gilgul), life-cycle, are numerically equivalent]. And the evil impulse chases her to enter that body, a slavegirl to the evil impulse. He is a שֵׁד יְהוּדִי (shed yehudi), Jewish demon, and the soul is י (yod), the Hebrew slave [see Exodus 21:2–6; cf. BT Qiddushin 16a. On Jewish demons, see BT Pesaḥim 110a; Yevamot 122a and Rashi; Zohar 3:253a (RM); ZḤ 47 (MhN, Rut), 48d; cf. BT Gittin 66a] in which this שֵׁד (shed), demon, becomes שַׁדַּי (Shaddai) because it kept guard of the soul and repented through her, and with her blessed the blessed Holy One daily with ‘בָרוּך (Barukh), blessed…’ and with it sanctifies the blessed Holy One with ‘Holy, holy, holy,’ (Qedushah) and with it declares the unity of the blessed Holy One with the recital of Shema.

What used to be a demon turns into her angel—Metatron turns into Shaddai, since מְטַטְרוֹן (Metatron) is the sum of שַׁדַּי (Shaddai) [see BT Sanhderin 38b]. Immediately there is fulfilled in her And she shall be his wife, he shall not be able to send her away ever (Deuteronomy 22:19). But if he does not repent she is enslaved in him through the offences he committed and it shall be fulfilled in him, the wife and her children shall be her master’s (Exodus 21:4) [cf. Zohar 2:106a (SdM)], and it says of the demon which is her debtor: and he shall go out by himself (ibid.). That demon is like Moses’ staff that turns from a staff into a snake and from a snake into a staff [see Exodus 4:2]. So does this demon turn from a demon into an angel and from an angel into a demon, according to human deeds” (Zohar 3:277a, Ra’aya Meheimna Ki Tetse).

Mountains Hanging by a Hair, Baked Bread, the Bride and Her Royal Tailors

“The laws concerning the Sabbath, Festal-offerings and acts of trespass are as mountains hanging by a hair, for they have scant Scriptural basis but many הֲלָכוֹת (halakhot), laws” (BT Ḥagigah 10a, cf. Deuteronomy 30:12; BT Baba Metsi’a 59b).

“What is the difference between Scripture and Mishnah [i.e., the Written Torah and the Oral Torah]? They told a parable. To what may this be compared? To a king of flesh and blood who had two servants, whom he loved completely. He gave each of them a measure of wheat and a bundle of flax. The wise one of them—what did he do? He took the flax and wove it into cloth. He took the wheat and made it into flour. He sifted it, grounded, needed, and baked it, and then set it on the table and spread the cloth over it. He left it until the king arrived. The foolish of the two did nothing at all.

After sometime, the king came to his palace and said to them, ‘my children, bring me what I gave to you.’ One brought out the [bread baked with] fine flour on the table covered with cloth, and the other brought wheat in a box with the bundle of flax on top. Woe for that shame! Woe for that disgrace! You must admit: which of them is more beloved? Obviously, he who laid out the table with the [bread baked of] fine flower on it… When the blessed Holy One gave the Torah to Israel, he gave it to them as wheat from which to produce fine flour, and as flax from which to produce both” (Seder Eliyyahu Zuta 2, cf. Zohar 2:176b).

“Rabbi Shim’on opened, saying, ‘Oh, Let him kiss me with his mouth’s kisses (Song of Songs 1:2). Oral Torah said this to Written Torah—pursuing His sweetness, uniting with one another through those kisses.

When She is in the midst of her maidens’ dispute regarding Her adornment, all of them striving to be ornaments for Written Torah, She joins and is embraced by the Written Torah in bliss—in a single bond—and He kisses Her amorously. Then, invigorated by Him, She says to Him with affection, ‘How much more precious are Your caresses than Your wine! Your love has seized me, intoxicating me with the wine of love, securing Me to You!’

Oral Torah receives magnificent adornment from Her maidens, uniting with Written Torah. Mishnah—crown of the head, mystery of fitting adornment. Baraita—mystery of embellishment of thighs and feet. Body—maidens approach with the fitting array, coming close to decorate Her. One says, ‘מוּתָר (Mutar), Permissible,’ and one says, אָסוּר (Asur), Forbidden’—this is ornamenting the bride, as they adorn Her. One says, ‘This jewel goes like so,’ and the other responds, ‘No, not like that. Surely, regarding the adornment for the head, the headdress is אָסוּר (asur), tied, and the headdress is fastened like this.’ And the other one says, ‘The headdress is מוּתָר (mutar), loosened, on this side—and אָסוּר (asur), tied, and fastened on this side.’ ‘This golden brooch on the body’s garment—it is פָּסוּל (pasul), unfit, to have this ornament there.’ This one says, ‘It is כָּשֵׁר (kasher), fit, and appropriate to dislay this one together with that one’—all enhancement and adornment of the bride [in speaking of קִשׁוּט (qishut), ornament, an allusion to קֶשׁוֹט (qeshot), truth, may be intended, hinting at the significance of the rabbinic rivalries (Hecker)].

In any event, as long as they beautify, flinging disputes about ornaments, She is enhanced in power, beauty, color, and refinement by them—sitting gloriously among them, feeling beautified by more than a hundred-fold [cf. BT agigah 9b in the name of Hillel]. After She has been adorned by them, they all take hold of Her by Her ornaments and beautiful embellishments, bringing Her to the King—Written Torah. When Matronita sits with the King, refined in Her beauty, and the King sees Her exquisitely adorned, that ornament proclaims that the King should kiss Her—for that is the cleaving of love, being enfolded in one another.

Who initiates those kisses and that love? Those maidens who adorned Her. When She and the King wish to bestow goodness upon the maidens—gifts for them all—they are given to them all at once. Even though they have contended with one another about the ornaments, the King and Matronita bestow gifts and presents with goodwill and affections, endowing them with an inheritance of a thousand worlds of longing for the World that is Coming. All the more so for those who know mysteries of wisdom, adorning embellishments, for there is no measure of their inherited legacy. Of them is written So I may endow my lovers with substance, and fill their storehouses (Proverbs 8:21)'” (Zohar Ḥadash 64a).

“There are likewise a number of verses where the Masters of Mishnah expand or restrict, according to [the principles] of amplification and diminution, and there are also cases [in which a letter is] added, as is said: ‘Do not read מַה (mah), what, but מֵאָה (me’ah), one hundred’ (BT Menaḥot 43b)… Certain words that are written in the abbreviated spelling [are expounded] as though written out in full, and other [words] that are written out in full are as though written out in abbreviated form. About these and about all sorts of explanations that can be made to embellish the bride in Her ornaments, the blessed Holy One commanded us to do as they say, and to trust them, as is written: According to the teaching that they instruct you [and according to the judgment that they say to you, you shall do, you shall not swerve from the word that they tell you right or left] (Deuteronomy 17:11).

[This is like] a tailor who has cut cloth in order to make royal garments, and has made many pieces from them. Those who know the places where those pieces are missing [and are familiar with] the pieces which remain will be able to make the garments, for the pieces that have been collected together are placed where they are missing, and pieces that are too small are added to. And this is the true meaning of: According to the teaching that they instruct you. And you might well ask that, if this is so, what about the case where one of them occasionally errs and says, ‘I recant.’ Before issuing instructions concerning that matter about which there is a difference of opinion, the one who poses the difficulty can say, ‘I withdraw.’ For not all of those who make the parts of a bride’s ornaments know where each piece goes, until the ruling is made [and prior to when] resolutions to the arguments of the הֲלָכוֹת (halakhot), laws, have been given [הֲלָכָה (Halakhah), Conduct, alludes to the many ornaments made for הַכַּלָה (ha-Kalah), the Bride, Oral Torah, Shekhinah]” (Zohar 3:254b, Ra’aya Meheimna Pineḥas).