The Nut Garden

לקוטים מזוהר (Gleanings of Zohar)

Tag: מִשְׁבְּצוֹת

All the Glory of the King’s Daughter is Inward

“Rabbi Neḥunia son of ha-Qannah said: One verse says, They have not seen the light, bright though it be in the skies (Job 37:21). And another verse says, He set darkness His hiding-place (Psalms 18:12); it is also written, Cloud and dense fog around Him (ibid. 97:2). This is difficult. However, a third verse comes to hold the balance: Darkness itself does not darken for You, and the night lights up like the day, the dark and light are one (ibid. 139:12)” (Bahir §1).

He set darkness His hiding-place round Him, His abode darkness of water, the clouds of the skies (Psalms 18:12). But is there any darkness before Heaven? For behold it is written: He lays bare the deep and the hidden things, knows what is in darkness, and light dwells with Him (Daniel 2:22)—this is not difficult: the one refers to inner houses [in which there is only light], the other to outer houses [hidden in darkness of water, cloud and dense fog]” (BT Ḥagigah 12b–13a).

When you light up [the lamps, opposite the front of the lamp stand shall the seven lamps give light] (Numbers 8:2).

Darkness itself does not darken for You, and the night lights up like the day, the dark and light are one (Psalms 139:12). Yet to us He says When you light up!

To what may this be compared? To a king who had a beloved friend. The king said to him, ‘Know that I will eat with you [even though I am royalty]. Go and prepare for me!’ His beloved friend went and prepared a common couch, a common lamp, and a common table. When the king arrived there came with him ministers who encompassed him on this side and that, and a lamp of gold before him. When his beloved friend saw all the glory of the king, he felt ashamed and put away everything that he had prepared for him, since it was all common. The king said to him, ‘Did I not tell you that I would eat with you? Why have you not prepared anything for me?’ His beloved friend said to him, ‘I saw all the glory that accompanied you, and I felt ashamed and put away all that I had prepared for you, since they were common vessels.’ The king said to him, ‘By your life! I will discard all the vessels that I have brought, and for the sake of your love I will use none but yours!’

And so, the blessed Holy One is entirely light, as is said, He lays bare the deep and the hidden things, knows what is in darkness, and light dwells with Him (Daniel 2:22). Yet He says to Israel ‘Prepare for Me a lamp and lights.’ And why is it written, They shall make Me a Tabernacle, that I may abide in their midst (Exodus 25:8); And you shall make a lamp stand of pure gold (ibid., 31)? When they had completed everything שְׁכִינָה (Shekhinah), [divine] Presence, came.

Why is it written, [And the cloud covered the Tent of Meeting and the glory of YHWH filled the Tabernacle.And Moses could not come into the Tent of Meeting (ibid. 40:35)? Immediately He called to Moses: And when Moses came into the Tent of Meeting to speak with Him, he would hear the voice (Numbers 7:89). What did He say to him? When you light up [the lamps]” (Bemidbar Rabbah 15:8).

“Why is it called זָהָב (zahav), gold? Because three qualities are included in it. זָכָר (Zakhar), male—ז (zayin). הַנְּשָׁמָה (Ha-neshamah), the soul—ה (he), for ה״ (five) names of the soul [which are feminine nouns]: ruaḥḥayahyeḥidahneshamahnefesh. What is the function of he? She is a throne for zayin, as is written, For he who is high has a higher one watching him (Ecclesiastes 5:7). And ב (bet)? She is their existence, as is said, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא (Bereshit bara), In the beginning created… (Genesis 1:1).

A parable: A king had a daughter who was good, sweet, lovely, and perfect. He married her to a royal prince—and clothed, crowned, and bejewelled her, giving her abundant wealth. Is it possible for the king to ever leave his daughter? Certainly not! Is it possible for him to remain with her constantly, the entire day? Certainly not! What then must he do? He places a חַלּוֹן (ḥallon), window, between the two, and whenever the father needs his daughter, or the daughter needs her father, they can unite through the window [cf. Bereshit Rabbah 74:7]. As is written, All the glory of the king’s daughter is inward, filigree of gold her raiment (Psalms 45:14) [on the association of this verse with the Sanctuary, see TanḥumaBemidbar 3; Tanḥuma (Buber), Bemidbar 3; Bemidbar Rabbah 1:3; Zohar 3:171a]” (Bahir §53–§54).

And YHWH spoke to Moses in the Wilderness of Sinai [in the Tent of Meeting] (Numbers 1:1).

Before the Tent of Meeting was set up, He spoke with him from the bush, as is said, And Elohim called out to him from the midst of the bush (Exodus 3:4). And afterward, He spoke to Moses in the land of Egypt, as is said, And YHWH said to Moses and to Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying… (ibid. 12:1).

He also spoke to him in Midian, as is said, And YHWH said to Moses in Midian (ibid. 4:19). He also spoke to him on Sinai, as is said, And YHWH spoke to Moses on Mount Sinai, saying… (Leviticus 25:1). However, as soon as the Tent of Meeting was set up, [the blessed Holy One] said, ‘הַצְּנִיעוּת (Ha-tsninut), modesty, is beautiful,’ as is said, [He has showed you, O man, what is good; and what does YHWH require of you, but to do justly, and to love kindness,and to walk הַצְנֵעַ (ha-tsne’a), humbly, with your God (Micah 6:8), [and so from now on] I will speak to him in the Tent of Meeting. Thus, David said, All the glory of the king’s daughter is פְּנִימָה (penimah), inward, filigree of gold her raiment (Psalms 45:14). 

The daughter of the king—[Torah of] Moses, as is said, And the Egyptians will I give over into the hand of harsh masters (Isaiah 19:4)—the plagues that came upon Egypt [called harsh אֲדֹנִים (adonim), masters]; and a fierce king shall rule over them, [says הָאָדוֹן (ha-Adon), the Lord, YHWH of armies] (ibid.)—Moses who was king of Torah which is called Strength, as is said, May YHWH give strength to His people (Psalms 29:11). Therefore: All the glory of the king’s daughter is inwardFiligree of gold her raiment—Aaron, as is said [of the priestly garments worn by the High Priest:] And you shall make a filigree of gold (Exodus 28:13).

From here they said: A woman who conducts herself with מַצְנַעַת (matsena’at), becoming modesty, even if she is an Israelite [i.e., her father is not a Cohen or a Levi], deserves to be married to a priest and to raise High Priests, as is said, filigree of gold her raiment. The blessed Holy One said, ‘So too it befits My honor that I should speak מִלִּפְנִים (millifenim), within,’ as is said, And when Moses came into the Tent of Meeting [to speak with Him…] (Numbers 7:89) [on the association of Psalms 45:14 with the Sanctuary, see TanḥumaBemidbar 3; Tanḥuma (Buber), Bemidbar 3; Zohar 3:171a]” (Bemidbar Rabbah 1:3, cf. Pesiqta de-Rav Kahana 1; Zohar 2:22b).

“What is, And from the west I will gather you (Isaiah 43:5)? From the same quality which perpetually inclines to the west. Why is it called מַּעֲרָב (ma’arav), the west? Because from there all seed is מִתעַרֵב (mit’arev), mixed. A parable: A king’s son had a lovely and modest bride in his chamber. He would take riches from his father’s house and come to her constantly and she would constantly take it all and hide it, mixing it all together. [After some time he] requested to see what he had gathered and stockpiled. Thus: from the west I will gather you. And what is it? His father’s house, since from the east I will bring your seed. To teach that He brings from the east and sows to the west. Afterwards, He gathers in what He has sown” (Bahir §156).

My lover is like a deer or like a stag. Oh, he stands behind our wall peering through the windows, peeping through the crannies (Song of Songs 2:9).

“Come and see: When a man builds a house and makes windows within he wants the light to enter. He makes windows narrow on the outside and broad on the inside. Why? So that the light will enter from the outside and shine on the inside. But when Solomon built the Temple, he did not make the windows in such a way. Rather, they were narrow on the inside and broad on the outside so that the light would emanate from the Temple and shine outside, as is written, And he made broad and narrow windows for the house (1 Kings 6:4)” (Tanḥuma [Buber], Beha’alotkha 2:1).

“Rabbi Ḥanina said: There were windows in the Temple, and from these light used to emanate for the world, as it says, And he made broad and narrow windows for the house (1 Kings 6:4). They were transparent and opaque; narrowing towards the inside and broadening towards the outside so as to let the light out to the world” (Vayiqra Rabbah 31:7).

And he made broad and narrow windows for the house (1 Kings 6:4). It was taught: Broad—without; narrow—within, for I am not in need of light” (BT Menaḥot 86b)

Come My Lover, Let Us Go Out to the Field

“Rabbi Yose [son of Beivah] said: The blessed Holy One appears to peoples of the world only in the hour when people generally take leave of each other, as it says, And to me came a word in secret… in musings from nighttime’s visions when slumber falls upon men (Job 4:12). Rabbi El’azar son of Menaḥem said: YHWH is far from the wicked (Proverbs 15:29)—the prophets of other nations; but the prayer of the righteous He hears (ibid.)—the prophets of Israel. And Elohim appears to the nations only like one who comes from afar, as you read, They have come from a far country unto me (Isaiah 39:3). But in connection with the prophets of Israel we read [And YHWH] appeared to him (Genesis 18:1), And He called (Leviticus 1:1)—implying, from the immediate vicinity.

What is the difference between the prophets of Israel and the prophets of other nations? Rabbi Ḥanina [son of Papa] said: A parable: A king was with his friend in a chamber but separated by a curtain; whenever he desired to speak to his friend, he folded up the curtain and spoke with him. However, He speaks to the prophets of other nations without folding the curtain back, rather from behind it. The Rabbis compared it to a king who has a wife and a concubine; to his wife he goes openly, but to his slavegirl he goes in stealth [cf. Ecclesiastes 2:7]. Similarly, the blessed Holy One appears to the nations only at night, as it says, And Elohim came to Balaam in the night (Numbers 22:20); And Elohim came to Laban the Aramean in a night-dream (Genesis 31:24); And Elohim came to Abimelech in a night-dream (ibid. 20:3)” (Bereshit Rabbah 52:3, cf. Tiqqunei Zohar 11b).

“Rabbi Abba son of Qahana opened, רִגְזוּ (Rigzu), quake, and do not offend (Psalms 4:5). David said to the blessed Holy One ‘How long will מִתְרַגְּזִים (mitraggezim), they rage against, me and say, Is he not of tainted descent? Is he not a descendant of Ruth the Moabite? Speak in your hearts on your beds (ibid.). You also, are you not descended from two sisters [namely, Rachel and Leah who married the same man]? Look upon your own genealogy and be still (ibid.). And Tamar who married your ancestor Judah—is it not a tainted descent? She was but a descendant of Shem the son of Noah [who married his sister, see Jubilees 4:11]. Do you then have an honorable descent?’…

Rav Huna said: It is written, ‘God has granted me other seed’ (Genesis 4:25)—seed from another place, referring to the Messiah.

Rabbi Berekhiah and Rabbi Shim’on said: We may illustrate with a parable: A king who was travelling from one place to another, when a precious pearl fell from his head. So the king and all his retinue stopped there. All the passers-by asked, ‘What are the king and his retinue doing here?’ They discerned the reason and said, ‘A pearl has fallen from his head.’ What did he do? He gathered all the soil into heaps and brought brooms [alt., sieves]. He had one heap swept, but did not find it; a second heap, and he did not find it; but in the third, he found it, and they announced ‘The king has found his pearl!’ So the blessed Holy One said to Abraham, Go forth (Genesis 12:1). It was to you that I looked forward. What need had I to record the lineage of Shem, Arpachshad, Shelah, Eber, Peleg, Reu, Serug, Nahor, and Terah (1 Chronicles 1:24–26)? Only on account of you, Abram; the same is Abraham (ibid.); And found his heart faithful before You (Nehemiah 9:8). So said the blessed Holy One to David, ‘What need had I to record the lineage of Perez, Hezron, Ram, Aminadab, Nahshon, Salmah, Boaz, Obed, and Jesse? Only on account of you; I found David My servant (Psalms 89:21)” (Rut Rabbah 8a, cf. Bereshit Rabbah 23:5, 51:8).

“The Messiah, what is his name?… The House of Rabbi Yannai said: His name is Yinnon for it is written, May his name be forever. As long as the sun may his name יִנּוֹן (yinnon), bear seed (Psalms 72:17)” (BT Sanhedrin 98b).

“The name of Messiah was contemplated [before the creation of the world], as is written, As long as the sun may his name יִנּוֹן (yinnon), bear seed (Psalms 72:17)” (Bereshit Rabbah 1:4).

“They asked [Rabbi Berekhiah], ‘What is the letter צ (tsadi)?’ He said: יוֹ״ד (yod) נוּן (nun); tsadi—coupling of yod nun. As is written, צַדִּיק (Tsaddiq), the Righteous One, is a lasting foundation (Proverbs 10:25)” (Bahir §61).

“Why should the נ (nun) have two forms, bent and long? Because it is written, As long as the sun may his name יִנּוֹן (yinnon), bear seed (Psalms 72:17)—from נוּניִן (nunin), two nuns, the bent נ (nun) and the long ן (nun), and [the Messiah] must be [conceived] through a man and a woman” (Bahir §86).

“They asked [Rabbi Berekhiah]: And he took him to the Lookouts’ field [… and YHWH chanced upon Balaam and put a word in his mouth(Numbers 23:14–16). What is Lookouts’ field? As is written, Come my lover, let us go out to the field, [spend the night in the henna. There will I give my love to you] (Song of Songs 7:12). Do not read הַשָּׂדֶה (ha-sadeh), the field, but הַשִׁדָּה (ha-shiddah), the concubine [see Ecclesiastes 2:8]. And why the concubine? The blessed Holy One’s Heart said to Him, ‘Come my lover, let us go out to the concubine for a stroll and not always lie in one place.’

And what is His Heart? He said to him: If Son of Zoma is outside you are with him [see BT Ḥagigah 14b–16a]! The לֵב (lev) Heart, is ל״ב (thirty-two). These are sealed and with them the world was created [i.e., with the thirty-two iterations of אֱלֹהִים (Elohim) in the Account of Creation (Genesis 1), see Zohar 3:82b, 256b–257a (all RM), cf. Zohar 2:123a]. What are these thirty-two? He said: These are thirty-two paths [see Sefer Yetsirah §§1–2].

A parable: a king residing within the innermost chambers, thirty-two in all, each with its own path. Now, is it fitting for this king that everyone enter his chambers by his paths? Certainly not! But is it fitting for him not to display his pearls, his brocades, his hidden treasures, and his precious objects? Certainly not! What did he do? He designated [lit., נֶגַע (nega), touched] the daughter and included all the paths in her and in her garments. Whoever wishes to enter, let him gaze here! He married her to a king, and also gave her to him as a gift. Because of his love for her, he sometimes calls her ‘My sister,’ since they come from a single place. Sometimes he calls her ‘My daughter,’ for she is his daughter; and sometimes he calls her ‘My mother’ [cf. Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah on 3:11]” (Bahir §§62–63).

“[Rabbi Yose] opened, saying, ‘The abundance of the earth is in all, a king for a cultivated field (Ecclesiastes 5:8). The abundance of the earth is in all, indeed, since from there issue spirits, souls, and benefit for the world. A king for a cultivated field. Who is a king? The blessed Holy One. For a cultivated field—when properly tilled. A king—Supernal King, who unites with the field when it is cultivated. Who is the field? The field blessed by YHWH, as is written: like the fragrance of a field blessed by YHWH (Genesis 27:27), for when it is completely cultivated and tilled, the Supernal King unites with it.’

Rabbi El’azar said, ‘A king for a cultivated field. How many nuances of supernal mystery are embedded here! A kingShekhinah, who does not inhabit a house, establishing Herself there, unless a man is married, coupling with her to engender and yield fruit. Then She generates souls to dwell therein. So, לְשָׂדֶה נֶעֱבָד (le-sadeh ne-evad), for a cultivated field, for none other.

Alternatively, A king—a woman in awe of YHWH, as is written: A woman in awe of YHWH is to be praised (Proverbs 31:30).

Le-sadeh ne-evadEnslaved to a field—a strange woman, as is said: to protect you from a strange woman (Proverbs 7:5). For there is a field, and then, there is a field! There is a field planted with all kinds of blessing and holiness, as is written: like the fragrance of a field blessed by YHWH. Then, there is a field planted with all kinds of destruction, defilement, desolation, killing, and war. Sometimes this king is enslaved to this field, and then this verse applies: At three things the earth trembles: … at a slave who becomes king… and a slavegirl supplanting her mistress (Proverbs 30:21–23). 

The light of this king is concealed—darkened—until he is purified, uniting above. Therefore, the goat of the new moon, for that field is isolated, lacking the king’s blessings. When he is enslaved to a field, then this applies: For in the field he found her; the engaged girl screamed… (Deuteronomy 22:27). For in the field, as has been said” (Zohar 1:122a–b).

Reuben went out during the days of the wheat harvest (Genesis 30:14). We have learned: Cup of Blessing receives blessing only from this side; so as long as the right is aroused toward Cup of Blessing, the left provides no support. For the right finds warrant in that cup to arouse it toward the upper world.

This secret: Out went Reuben—south side; thus, his banner is in the south. For he is head of the twelve boundaries, and his desire—to find a means, an offering—for Matronita, to bless Her. What is written? [Hefound mandrakes in the field. He went searching amid all Her treasures and found, in this field, mandrakes. Of them is written The mandrakes give forth fragrance… (Song of Songs 7:14)—two cherubim, Her embellishments awakening arousal above. For among all those adornments, none arouse besides cherubim.

South side—when does He arouse toward Her, seeking cause to bless Her? During the days of the wheat harvest (Genesis 30:14)—when She distributes shares of fortune to Her legions and all the reapers of the field. At once, [hebrought them to Leah his mother—their fragrance and arousal wafted upward, toward Upper World, concealed world, arousing blessings for the Lower World.

Once She is blessed, those mandrakes collect, then bestow upon all worlds, as is written: the mandrakes give forth fragrance, at our doors all delicacies (Song of Songs 7:14). When they exude their aroma, south side absorbs it, arousing toward the Upper World. At once, at our doors all delicacies—no beneficence lacking from the world. Lower world does not arouse toward Upper World without the cherubim wafting fragrance toward the right. After they bestow aroma to the right, and the right arouses toward Upper World, at once Lower World arouses to petition for its needs. What is written? Rachel said to Leah, ‘Please give me’ (Genesis 30:14). Give me blessings from the arousal of mandrakes, aroused for you by the right side.

Then, Upper World joyfully, playfully, responded to her, saying, ‘Is your taking my husband a small thing?‘ (ibid. 30:15)—like a mother to her daughter. If so, the Husband of the Upper World must be Jacob! Not so! Yearning of the Father is always exclusively for his Daughter. His love is directed toward Her because She is the only daughter, among six sons [sefirot]. He doles out provisions, largesse, and gifts to each of those six sons—but He allocates nothing for Her, nor does She inherit anything. On account of all this, He watches over Her with greater fondness and love than all the rest.

Out of love for Her, He called Her ‘Daughter’ [cf. BT Bava Batra 16b]. This did not satisfy Him, so He called Her ‘Sister’ [cf. Genesis 20:1; Proverbs 7:4]. This did not satisfy Him, so He called Her ‘Mother,’ in the name of His Mother [cf. Proverbs 2:3; BT Berakhot 57a]. This did not satisfy Him, so He called Her by His name, as is written: But הַחָכְמָה (ḥokhmah), Wisdom, found from אַיִן (ayin), Nothing (Job 28:12)—Ḥokhmah, actually! This is why Upper World said to Her, ‘Is your taking my husband a small thing’—for all of His love is drawn toward You” (Zohar 1:156a–b, Sitrei Torah, cf. Zohar 2:100b).

The Graves of Lust: When the Wise Attain this Place They Die with a Kiss

moths_woodcut

And the people became complainers of evil in the ears of YHWH, and YHWH heard and His wrath flared and YHWH’s fire burned against them and consumed along the edge of the camp…. And he called the name of that place Taberah, for YHWH’s fire had burned against them (Numbers 11:3).

“Why is the place called תַּבְעֵרָה (taverah), Burning? Because each and every light that reaches there is burned immediately by virtue of its great purity [or: merit]. However, they said in The Mystery of Souls, ‘One light is drawn out from the blessed Holy One, and when coupling is performed, and the souls sparkle and mate with this light, and this light extends until תַּבְעֵרָה (taverah), Burning, its name is צְבָאוֹת (tseva’ot), Armies.’ Therefore, I say that the souls in Burning endure. But as long as we have this wondrous wisdom we can understand what is written: And at Taberah and at Massah and at Kibroth-Hatta’avah [you infuriated YHWH] (Deuteronomy 9:22)—Ḥokhmah (Wisdom) is found there along the entire way. The blessed Holy One said in His Torah: And at Burning and at Trial and at Graves of Lust is a place in which human beings desire and תַאֲוָה (ta’avah), crave, to attain good and to attain evil. And Israel, seeing the greatness of these three ascents, in which seals were set to make known Who causes them to exist and Who sates them, began to say, ‘From this place descends [both] the good and the evil. But this site of great ascents, there is no ruler in it, since the majesty of the blessed Holy One does not oversee all. Rather, He left three to act in His place as they please.’ Hence, they tried the blessed Holy One in every matter [cf. Zohar 2:64b].

The Sages say three princes whose ascents are without end receive from those three places. From Burning descends the brilliance of Ḥokhmah to the place, נַחַל אַרְנוֹן (naḥal arnon), Wadi Arnon [lit., Ringing River, see Numbers 21:13–26; Deuteronomy 3:8; Judges 11:18. Cf. Zohar 2:56a]. Its name is deep: אַדִירִירוֹן (Adiriron) the place of רִנָּה (rinnah), glad song, portent, and wisdom. It is the organ which sustains the entire body [adirironfrom a root meaning, ‘mighty,’ see Margaliot, Mal’akhe Elyon (Jerusalem, 1964)].

When the host on high see Ḥokhmah shining they begin to sing, as it says, When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy (Job 38:7) [cf. ZḤ 5b–6a (MhN)]. Ḥokhmah reaches them and they rise, certainly receiving from there Ḥokhmah and Gevurah and Gedullah. Ḥokhmah reaches from Wadi Arnon to Wadi Abarim, and from there returns to its place again [on Mount Abarim, see Numbers 27:12–14, 33:47–48; Deuteronomy 32:48–52; Zohar 2:157a].

The thirty-two paths grow stronger, rising and covering all the spheres and all the ascents and the worlds and all the abysses, but next to the brilliance of Ḥokhmah appear as naught. And above, at a distance, a bowshot away (Genesis 21:16) of 600,000 [spans], they appear as a bowl [cf. Bemidbar Rabbah 13:14: ‘One silver bowl (Numbers 7:13)—the world He made is like a (mere) ball thrown from hand to hand’]. The thirty-two paths grow mighty, rising and covering all the spheres and all of their places.

They say Ḥokhmah is supernal man, known as Ezion Geber as I said before [see Numbers 33:35–36; Deuteronomy 2:8. Cf. Targum Yonatan: כְּרַך תַּרְנְגוֹלָא (kerakh tarnegola), City of the Rooster, i.e., a rooster-shaped city]. The Wadi Abarim, which we already mentioned, is called מִשְׁבְּצוֹת (mishbetsot), Brocade, (known with the permutation of the four letter Name, as I will explain with the vocalization of this matter) [on Brocade (or: Filigree), see Exodus 28:13; Psalms 45:14; Bahir §54, §63]. We said of this expansive matter—the Wadi Abarim—that in it certain sages erred grievously, such as Elisha son of Avuyah [see BT Ḥagigah 14b; Zohar 1:26b (TZ); 3:222b (RM); Berit Menuḥa: Eight Vowel. עֲבָרִים (Avarim), Abarim, alludes to עָבְרִים (averim), crossings, and עֲבֵרָה (averah), transgression]. However, the relic of the great and mighty Sages of Israel, heads of the generations, standing in venerable places, took to restore what was lost and to save the sons of man.

Behold the chapter headings of this wondrous wisdom: Three times a day the wisdom ascends higher and higher: at the first hour, at the sixth hour, and at the last hour [see BT Berakhot 26b. Cf. Zohar 2:21b; 3:196a; ZḤ 5b–6a (MhN)]. In these hours everyone of the thirty-two paths is rooted in the first letter of יהוה (YHWH)—in the lower tip [of י (yod)] looking downwards. Since it looks down so too does Ḥokhmah (Wisdom), great in Gevurah (Strength) and Raamim (Compassion). But if it faces upwards even the angels and sons of man cannot attain Ḥokhmah and are as beasts of the field. Therefore, it faces downwards and Ḥokhmah is received by creatures and as it saw, for it is vastly higher above all degrees and none are higher than it, it turns its face to three places. First towards the north, the place of Gevurah, lowering its pride, it remains bowed down in great trembling. This place is a place of awe, it is Burning. [The angel] אַגּלֹאֹ (AGLO) [אַתָּה גִבּוֹר לְעוֹלָם אֲדֹנָי (attah gibbor le-olam Adonai), ‘You are eternally mighty Lord,’ see ZḤ 42a], included in Torah, performs actions for the enlightened without purification by the line of awe. The second place is a place of humility, and its name is called מְנוּחָה (menuḥah), Rest, it is יחדריאל (YeḤiDRI’EL), אֱלֹהִי יִשְׂרָאֵל (Elohi Yisra’el), God of Israel. The third place is a place of שִׂמְחָה (simḥah), joy, and its name is called מַפְרִישְמִיָהְ (Mafrishmiyah) [see Rabbi Ḥayyim Vital, Sha’arei Qedushah, 4:1].

Whoever desires to learn wisdom should cleave to these three rungs: יִראָה (yirah), awe, עֲנָוָה (anavah), humility, and שִׂמְחָה (simḥah), joy—he יִראָה (yirah), fears, sin, is עָנָו (anav), humble, and שַׂמֵחַ (sameaḥ), happy, with his lot [cf. Deuteronomy 28:47]. When he attains the discernment of these three rungs he attains Ḥokhmah [cf. M Avot 3:11; 4:1; 5:19]. These three places are bound to each other, and one is no different than the other; they are all one [cf. M Sotah 9:15; BT Avodah Zarah 20b; Zohar 3:145a; Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 5b]. And the angels who receive from these three places are הויאל (HOVI’EL), גביאל (GaBI’EL), and גבריאל (GaVRI’EL), Gabriel [see Margaliot, Mal’akhe Elyon (Jerusalem, 1964), p. 42]. Names which bless and curse without need of purification and without need of permission from הָאֱלֹהִים (Ha-Elohim), the Judge, but act however they please. Yet they are names of goodness, for they are without inquiry and without limit. The first of these three places is daunting, it’s name is תַּבְעֵרָה שֶׂכֶל (taverah sekhel), Burning Intellect. The lights are fearful when they ascend lest it burn them with its great holiness. However, he who cleaves to the rung of awe escapes burning.

The second [rung] is humility [called:] מַסָּה (massah), Trial (Deuteronomy 9:22). Without limit to its holiness and strength this place is very great. For when all the lights and all the supernal army passes through this place it is known who conducts himself faithfully or not, thus it is called Trial.

The third [rung] is joy, the site of קִבְרוֹת הַתַּאֲוָה (kivrot-hatta’avah), the Graves of Lust (Numbers 11:34). Whoever does not reach this resting place, the Graves of Lust, does not see light and does not attain Ḥokhmah.

There is one place dwelling in the heavens [beyond the heavens…] (1 Kings 8:27), and there is אֵין סוֹף (ein sof), no end, to its discernment but its place is hidden because of the קַטנוּת (qatnut), puniness, of [our] intellect [cf. BT Eruvin 53aBahir §10]. And when the great lights grow mighty, ascending, and see the banner standing in the middle of the palace-chamber they declare ‘In this place is the power of מְנוּחָה (menuḥah), Rest.’ They endure hoping to glimpse its glorious brilliance. When this hidden light increases abundantly, expanding, and emanates its brilliance outside the palace-chamber then they incline to see more and they ascend and reach the place of חֶשְׁבּוֹן (ḥeshbon), Reckoning [see Numbers 21:27; Ecclesiastes 7:27; Song of Songs 7:5]. But when they reach its edge they are burned immediately by the purity of this great hidden light—they are all burned standing in it and none of them ever emerge, for this place is called, in the language of allegory, the Graves of Lust. Most of them that desired to know the essence were consumed in holiness and were not seen again [like moths to a flame, cf. Attar of Nishapur, Manṭeq al-ṭayr].

Numerous lights and princes, brave and powerful, were consumed in this place called the Graves of Lust, an expression of the essence of יהוה (YHWH). But let me tell you the angels and the lights which were consumed in this place since the time of the Formation [of the world] were numerous, great, strong, and perfect in their degrees. Big and mighty angels were consumed by this great light, those from the camp of שָׂרָפִים (serafim) and from the camp of תַּרְשִׁישִׁים‎‎ (tarshishim) [two classes of angels], since it arose in their minds to strengthen themselves and ascend until this place but there they were consumed, as is written of them, For there the people buried the ones who had been craving (Numbers 11:34). Do not let evil arise in your mind, however, and think that words of Torah only accord with their plain meaning, you are forbidden from believing this. Happy is the man who delves to know, to attain Ḥokhmah in this place called the Graves of Lust” (Berit MenuḥaFirst Way: The Way of Wisdom).

“The fifth נִקּוּד (niqqud), vowel, is the root of the נִקּוּדִים (niqqudim), punctiform lights. Growing mighty in strength and compassion, its din is heard from one end of the earth to the other (Deuteronomy 28:64). Growing mighty, climbing, spreading from its root—the root of the Tree of Life—rising over its rung, above the heads of the living beings, covering all [on the cosmic tree, see Daniel 4:7–9; Bahir §22, §95].

Rising to its place in tumult, utterly destroying various camps and breaking various dominions, the sound of its din is without compare, inconceivable. And in its growing mighty, ascending, it spreads its wings to the east, west, north, and south, above and below, to six קָצֶווֹת (qatse’ot), ends [cf. Sefer Yetsirah §15, §38, §47]. Next to it the upper and lower lights do not compare, as if they were not. [This bears on] the root and the branches too.

There is tumult to the root and to the branches, for it leads them only by its exceedingly great strength, without arms or legs [cf. Zohar 3:278b (RM)]. By beating its wings back and forth all the lights are bundled, tied, and stood up under it [cf. Ezekiel 1:24]. Leading them it is called King even though there are greater, more honored, lights than it. Yet it hastens to perform the matter for those who take refuge in its shadow, for those who know its source which is raised over its companions. And by its exalted radiance and majesty emanate a thousand myriad lights without end to their multitude. None endure its din and none are able to look and gaze at its beauty—there is no intellect, no wisdom to apprehend its greatness, for it is exceedingly magnified.

Emerging it is heeded by all the lights. When they smell its fragrance, a host of spheres ascend קָו הַמִישׁוֹר (qav ha-mishor), the median line, and are invigorated. For from the fragrance they take power, might, radiance, and wisdom according to its exceeding greatness.

Being most strengthened by its surge in pride this light divides into two parts. Upon being divided it is still known that it receives from one place. Next to its source it does not compare, for understanding it heeds words of wisdom; even though they are divided into two heads, both are found clinging to the power of their hidden source. Accordingly, you understand how powerful the source is, that even though they are divided in the supernal way they are both discovered bound, unable to escape from under the power of their source, to go and become mighty such and such, for dominion is not in their hands.

Even though they are conducted toward an honored and awesome power, power comes to them from elsewhere. Upon dividing, one faces upwards and grows mighty, ascending. From it emanate innumerable great lights, called הַצֹּבְאֹת (ha-tsove’ot), the women, who flock to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting (Exodus 38:8). And they are all bound with a sachet of myrrh, for this light facing upwards is called, in the language of allegory, a sachet of myrrh (Song of Songs 1:13).

When it grows mighty, ascending, it faces upwards, spreading its wings, and two lights receive from it. The first is called צְבָאוֹת (tseva’ot), Hosts [or: Armies], and the second is called שַׁדַּי (Shaddai). They [too] grow mighty, ascending, one on its right and one on its left. The song of these כְּנָפַיִם (kenafa’im), wings, can be heard from east to west, as is written, מִכְּנַף (mi-kenaf), from the edge of the earth, we have heard songs: splendor to the righteous (Isaiah 24:16). And this שִׁירָה (shirah), song, issuing from between the [throng of] wings reaches unto הַמְצִיאוּת הַנֶעֱלָם (ha-metsiut ha-ne’elam), the hidden reality, סִבָּת הַסִבּוֹת (Sibbat ha-sibbot), the Cause of Causes. And upon arriving, she turns round and undergoes fifteen more מַּעֲלוֹת הַשִׁיר (ma’alot ha-shir), ascents of the song [see Psalms 120–134; cf. TZ 75–76, 27b].

So it was in the Sanctuary: The Levi would ascend the first step and sing the song of the first sphere according to the vocalization I shall make known. And when the host of the first sphere heard their song they would tremble greatly. The priest would burn the Temple incense, the Levi would ascend the second step, sing the song of the second sphere, and so on until the tenth sphere.

When the Levi had ascended the ten steps, step by step, he would pronounce the Name according to its letters and its vocalization which I shall explain. The song was sung according to the movement of the inconceivable light without compare. Thus is the awesome light, and thus was the רִנָּה (rinnah), glad song, which the Levi sang when he stood at the top of the steps, pronouncing the name אֶהְיֶה (Ehyeh), I will be (Exodus 3:14) with awe inspiring expression [see M Sukkah 5:4; BT Sukkah 51a–b]. But if the offering was from a wicked man, resembling the righteous, but who performed his offence in secret—and the offering did not come to atone for such deeds—the smoke would coil up and the priest would tell the Levi to stop singing.

And who can name the strength and radiance and beauty of the light that faces upward? This light ascends to a known place, ascending from one place to another. First it ascends and faces קִבְרוֹת הַתַּאֲוָה (kivrot hatta’avah), the Graves of Lust. Then it faces תַּבְעֵרָה (taverah), Burning, where the channels are invigorated and filled abundantly, overflowing into the Sea Arabah [i.e., the Salt Sea; the Dead Sea, cf. Sefer ha-Temunah 25b] which is the name Tseva’ot, a light emanating from this great light. And from Taberah, Burning, it ascends to Mount Hor [death place of Aaron, see Numbers 20:23–29, cf. ibid. 33:37].

Two מְאוֹרוֹת מוּרכָּבִים (me’orot murkavim), compounded lights, ascend one over the other. When they reach this mountain they are burned entirely—when the wise attains this place he dies with a kiss on account of the great lust [see BT Bava Batra 17a; Mo’ed Qatan 28a; Zohar 2:124b]. From this place the light ascends to Mount Abarim [death place of Moses, see Numbers 27:12–14, 33:47–48; Deuteronomy 32:48–52; 34:1–8; Zohar 2:157a; 3:173b, 183a, 280b. Mount Abarim is probably the mountain range east of the Dead Sea, one of whose prominent peaks is Mount Nebo]. It is the way from which all lights pass when they emanate from the [hidden] reality. There in that place they grow most mighty, and from this place, they ascend to the Sea of Wisdom, lingering there. From there to the outer court (Ezekiel 40:17) and from the outer court to the inner court (1 Kings 6:36) [cf. Ezekiel 46:1; Zohar 1:75b ad loc.; 3:109a (RM); Esther 5:1–2; TZ 21, 57b ad loc.]. From the inner court to the place of the awesome reality, where being embraced she is raised back again to His place where her tent had been before (Genesis 13:3) [cf. BT Arakhin 16b ad loc.; ZḤ 24b (MhN) ad loc.].

From this awesome [hidden] light all lights emanate, endure, and are provided for. Its name: יְיָיִוְאֶשְעַבְיִוַאָיְהוּ. It is the י״ד (fourteen) letter name found in: כִּי יָ״ד עַל כֵּס יָהּ (ki yad al kes Yah), for hand upon Yah’s throne (Exodus 17:16). Happy is the man who knows this name for it acts in purity beyond compare and it issues from the Priestly Blessing, from the initial letters: יְבָרֶכְךָ יָאֵר יִשָּׂא וְשָׂמוּ אֶת שְׁמִי עַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲנִי אֲבָרְכֵם (yevarekhekha ya’er yissa ve-samu et shemi al beni yisra’el), may He bless you… may He light up [His face to you…] and they shall set My name over the Israelites, and I Myself shall bless them (Numbers 6:24–27), and the name יהו (YHW) is affixed at the end. It is apparent from this task, for the light ascends fourteen rungs—the ten sefirot, and four chambers found above the ten sefirot: the chamber אַהֲבָה (ahavah), Love—יהה (YHH); the chamber שָׁלוֹם (shalom), Peace—יוה (YWH); the chamber עֹז (oz), Valor—יהו (YHW); [within] the chamber חֶמְדָּה (ḥemddah), Desire, הֲמְנוּחוֹת (ha-menuḥot), tranquility, abides—ייה (YYH) [cf. Zohar 2:252b (Heik)]. And above the י״ה (fifteenth) step is our God [יָהּ (Yah)]. We are His servants, He is our King, He provides for us and rescues us from the palm of our enemies [as is written, War for YHWH against Amalek from all time (Exodus 17:16)]” (Berit Menuḥa, Second Way: The Way of Love, Fifth Vowel).