The Nut Garden

לקוטים מזוהר (Gleanings of Zohar)

Tag: פּוּרִים

He is Sleeping Among His People

And Haman said to King Ahasuerus: “There is a certain people scattered and separate from the peoples in all the provinces of your kingdom, and their rules are different from every people’s and they do not observe the king’s rules, and it does not pay for the king to leave them in peace. If it please the king, let it be written to wipe them out, and ten thousand talents of silver will I measure out to the court overseers to bring into the king’s treasury.” And the king removed his ring from his hand and gave it to Haman son of Hammedatha the Agagite, foe of the Jews (Esther 3:8–9, cf. Exodus 1:8).

“Just as oil will not mix with other liquids, so Israel do not mix with the other peoples of the world, as is written, You shall not intermarry with them (Deuteronomy 7:3)” (Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah 1:21).

“[However,] Rabbi El’azar said: The blessed Holy One did not scatter Israel among the peoples except that converts be added to them, for it is said: And I will sow her [Israel] for Myself in the earth (Hosea 2:25); surely a man sows a se’ah in order to harvest many korin! And from this Rabbi Yoḥanan said: and I will have compassion upon her that had not obtained compassion [and I will say to them who were not My people, you are My people; and they shall say, You are my God] (ibid.)” (BT Pesaḥim 87b).

And Haman said to King Aheshurues: יֶשְׁנוֹ עַם אֶחָד (Yeshno am ead), there is one people (Esther 3:8), the very same of whom it is said, [Hear, O Israel! YHWH our God, YHWH is] אֶחָד (ead), One (Deuteronomy 6:4). [Do not read יֶשְׁנוֹ עַם אֶחָד (yeshno am eḥad), there is one people, but rather:] יָשֵׁן לוֹ מֵעַמּוֹ (yashen lo me-ammo), He is sleeping despite [or: among] His people” (Ester Rabbah 7:12, cf. BT Megillah 15b; Abba Guryon 5; Leqaḥ Tov 3:11, 5:14; Aggadat Ester 4:1, 17; Rabbi Ḥayyim Vital, Pri Ets Ḥayyim, Purim 5).

That night the sleep of the king was shaken (Esther 6:1). The heavens, the throne of the King of the King of Kings, the blessed Holy One, were shaken when He saw Israel in such distress. But is there sleep before הַמָּקוֹם (ha-maqom), the Omnipresent?! Is it not said, Behold, He neither slumbers nor sleeps (Psalms 121:4)? Rather, in a time when Israel is in distress and the peoples of the world are at peace, it says, Awake, why sleep, O Master! [Rouse up, neglect not forever. Why do תַסְתִּיר (tastir), You hide, Your face, forget our affliction, our oppression?] (Psalms 44:24–25) [cf. BT Ḥullin 139b: ‘Where is אֶסְתֵּר (ester), Esther, in the Torah? Let Me אַסְתִּירָה (astirah), hide, My face from them (Deuteronomy 32:20)’].

King Ahasuerus’ sleep was also disturbed, because he saw in a dream Haman seizing a sword to kill him, and he awoke in terror from his sleep and told his scribes to bring [the royal annals] the Book of Acts to see what events had occurred, and they opened the book and found how Mordecai had informed against Bigthan and Teresh. So when they said to the king, Look, Haman is standing in the court (Esther 6:5), the king said: ‘What I saw in my dream is true; he has only come at this time of day to kill me'” (Ester Rabbah 10:1).

“[Preparing to impale Mordecai] Haman went about looking for a stake fifty cubits long, but could not find any, save that was in his house, which Parshandatha his son had brought from Kedronia, which is Kerdos. Because Haman’s son was ruler there; and there he saw the stake, which was from Noah’s ark. And Haman uprooted it from his house, so that the curse of Darius might be fulfilled in him, as is written, [Also I have made a decree, that] whosoever shall alter this word, let timber be pulled down from his house, and being set up, let him be impaled (Ezra 6:11). And this word found favor with Haman, and he prepared a gallows for himself; he erected it and perfected it. A heavenly voice called out saying, ‘How proper and fitting is this gallows for you.’

That night [the king could not sleep….] (Esther 6:1): On that night sleep [deserted] the carpenters who were preparing the gallows for Haman. On that night sleep deserted the smiths who were preparing the nails to be set in the gallows. On that night sleep deserted the King of Kings. Were in not written, one would dare not say it, as is written: Awake, why sleep, O Master! (Psalms 44:24); And the Master awoke as one sleeping, [like a warrior shaking off wine] (Psalms 78:65). On that very night the blessed Holy One was revealed. [And they impaled Haman on the stake that he had readied for Mordecai, and the king’s wrath subsided…. On the contrary, it was the Jews who dominated their foes (Esther 7:10, 9:1)]” (Targum Ester, see Kasher and Klein, New Fragments of Targum to Esther, p. 154–55).

“Secrecy within secrecy was prepared and arranged in a single skull filled with crystalline dew. Membrane of air, purified and sealed; those strands of clean fleece hanging evenly. Will of Wills is revealed through prayer of those below. Open-eyed watching, never sleeping, ever vigilant; supervision below by supervision of radiance above. Two nostrils of an official arousing breath for all [as a nose supervising commandingly]” (Zohar 2:176b, Sifra di-Tsni’uta).

“Eyes of the White Head are different from other eyes. There is no lid over the eye, nor any eyebrows. Why? Because it is written: Behold, He neither slumbers nor sleeps, the Guardian of Israel (Psalms 121:4)—Israel above. And it is written: that Your eyes may be open (1 Kings 8:52). And it has been taught: Whatever comes in Compassion has no lid over the eye, nor any eyebrows. All the more so, the White Head, which has no need.

Rabbi Shim’on said to Abba, ‘To what does this allude?’ He replied, ‘To fish, fish of the sea, whose eyes have neither lids nor brows, and they do not sleep and need no protection for the eye. All the more so, the Ancient of Ancients—who needs no protection; and all the more so, since He watches over all, and all is nourished by Him, and He does not sleep, as is written: Behold, He neither slumbers nor sleeps, the Guardian of Israel—Israel above.

It is written: Behold, the eye of YHWH is upon those who revere Him (Psalms 33:18), and it is written: The eyes of YHWH range over the whole earth (Zechariah 4:10). There is no contradiction. One refers to זְעֵיר אַנפִּין (Ze’eir Anpin), Small Countenance, and the other to אֲרִיך אַנְפִּין (Arikh Anpin), Elongated Countenance. Nevertheless, there are two eyes, turning into one. This eye is white within white, and a white including all whites” (Zohar 3:129b, Idra Rabba, cf. Zohar 3:137b–138a, Idra Rabba).

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You May Say that Esther has a Bad Reputation yet She was Worthy that the Holy Spirit be Clothed by Her

IMG_1042“Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Shim’on son of Yehotsadaq: By a majority vote, it was resolved in the upper chambers of the house of Nitza in Lydda that in every law of Torah, if a man is commanded: ‘Transgress and do not suffer death’ he may transgress and not suffer death, except for idolatry, incest [including adultery], and murder.… But did not Esther transgress publicly?—Abbaye answered: Esther was merely soil [i.e., only the passive object of the king’s embraces]. But their personal pleasure is different; so here too [the king made Esther transgress for his personal pleasure, not because he desired her to violate her religion]” (BT Sanhedrin 74a–b).

“Rabbi Zera said: Why was Esther compared to a doe [see BT Megillah 15b]? To tell you that just as a doe has a narrow womb and is desirable to her mate at all times as at the first time, so was Esther precious to King Ahasuerus at all times as at the first time” (BT Yoma 29b).

The king loved Esther more than all the other women, and she won his grace and favor more than all the other virgins (Esther 2:17). Rav said, ‘If he wished to taste the flavor of a virgin he tasted it; the flavor of a married woman, he tasted it'” (BT Megillah 13a, cf. Zohar 3:58b).

“[And it happened on the third day that Esther donned מַלְכוּת (malkhut), royal, garb] and stood in the inner court of the king’s house (Esther 5:1). Rabbi Levi said: When she reached the chamber of the idols, the Shekhinah [Malkhut] left her. She said, My God, my God, why have You forsaken me? (Psalms 22:2). Perhaps You judge an inadvertent offence as intentional, or one done under compulsion like one done willingly? Or is it because I called [Haman] ‘cur,’ as it says, Save from the sword my life, from the cur’s hand my person (ibid., 21). She immediately retracted and called him lion, as it says, Rescue me from the lion’s mouth (ibid., 22)” (BT Megillah 15b).

[The Faithful Shepherd said:] ‘Rabbis: We are commanded to punish whoever defames someone’s character, as is written, And they shall fine him a hundred weights of silver and give it to the young woman’s father, for he put out a bad name for a virgin in Israel (Deuteronomy 22:19). This applies to after the wedding, since he says, ‘I found no signs of virginity for your daughter’ (ibid., 17). Not all bad names are alike, since the scouts who put out a bad name on the land were punished for it by dying and not meriting her, and a woman is as earth like the explanation that Esther was [merely] earth.

You may say that Esther has a bad reputation, that she was defiled with Ahasuerus, yet she was worthy that the Holy Spirit be clothed by her, as is written, Esther donned מַלְכוּת (malkhut), royal, garb (Esther 5:1). Yet the blessed Holy One said, I am YHWH: that is My Name: and My glory will I not give to another, neither My praise to graven images (Isaiah 42:8). [And yet,] the Holy Spirit is the Shekhinah, a name that was clothed by Esther….’

The Masters of Mishnah say: It is said of the Matronita: and מַלְכוּתוֹ (malkhuto), His kingdom, rules over all (Psalms 103:19). After Esther donned [royal garb, i.e., Shekhinah/Malkhut] she ruled over Ahasuerus and his people, and it is said of them, [And the rest of the Jews who were in the king’s provinces assembled and defended their lives and had respite from their enemies] and killed of foes, [seventy-five thousand, but they did not lay hands on the spoils] (Esther 9:16). If you say that [Ahasuerus] coupled with her, perish the thought, though they were in the same house. Rather it was like Joseph [and the wife of Potiphar] of whom it says, and she laid out his garment by her (Genesis 39:16). בִּגְדוֹ (Bigdo), his garment—similarly treacherous dealers have dealt very בָּגָדוּ (bagadu), treacherously (Isaiah 24:16) [on the numerous parallels between the stories of Joseph and Esther, see BT Megillah 13b;  Midrash Abba Guryon 11b; Panim Aherot B, 64, 66, 72; Ester Rabbah 7:7].

There is a great סִתְרָא (sitra), mystery, here, which is why אֶסְתֵּר (Ester), Esther, is derived from סֵתֶר (seter), secret, as is written, You are סֵתֶר (seter), a hiding place, for me (Psalms 32:7)[cf. BT Ḥullin 139b], since the Shekhinah hid her from Ahasuerus and gave him a demoness instead while she returned to Mordecai’s arm. And Mordecai, who knew the explicit Name and the seventy tongues, did all this with wisdom [on having the knowledge of seventy languages, see BT Megillah 13b; Sanhedrin 17a]. And thus the Masters of Mishnah said a man must coo with his wife before he unites with her, for perhaps she has been swapped with a demonness [see BT Nedarim 20b]” (Zohar 3:276a–b, Ra’aya Meheimna Ki Tetse, cf. Zohar 2:277a).

“יוֹם הַכִּפֻּרִים (Yom ha-Kippurim), the Day of Atonements (Leviticus 23:27)—in the future we will delight in that day and transform it from suffering to delight [i.e., יוֹם כִּפּוּר (Yom Kippur), the Day of Atonement, will become יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים (yom ha-ki-Purim), the day like Purim (a joyous holiday)]…. and just as on that day [the priest (Ḥesed)] adorns himself with the garments of atonement so too, regarding Esther it is written, she donned royal garb (Esther 5:1). Just as with these [white garments of the priest] he enters the innermost sanctuary [hoping to obtain atonement for Israel], so too, she stood in the inner court of the king’s house… and she found favor in his eyes (ibid., 2) [cf. Zohar 3:67a; ibid. 109a: ‘And with each and every mere (mention of), הַמֶּלֶךְ (ha-melekh), the king (in the Book of Esther), this is the blessed Holy One’].

Now, what caused the Shekhinah to suffer exile? The mystery of the matter: And so, I shall come to the king not according to rule (Esther 4:16). Because she came without her husband, of whom it says, at His right hand was a fiery law (Deuteronomy 33:2). They abandoned Torah and this caused the destruction of the First Temple and the Second Temple, as is written, and if I perish, I perish! [alluding to two destructions] (Esther 4:16).

Nevertheless, even though she entered without her husband, [namely] words of Torah, she still entered with the [merit of the] patriarchs [who are]: three days, night and day (ibid.), for which she fasted. They were witnesses that the young woman went before the king, as it says, and in this fashion would the young woman come to the king (ibid. 2:13). She who went in to the king indeed remained a virgin, for no man knew her other than her husband….

Regarding this it is written, and he became guardian to Hadassah (Esther 2:7) [cf. BT Megillah 13a]—[Mordecai] was faithful to her, and she was faithful to him, as is written: and Esther did what Mordecai said, for she was under his guardianship (ibid. 2:20)” (Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 21, 57b).

All Nursing of Hatred of Israel is Based on This

Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons (Genesis 37:3).

Rabbi El’azar opened, ‘Go, My people, enter your rooms and shut your doors behind you. Hide yourself for the slightness of a moment, until wrath passes (Isaiah 26:20). Come and see how greatly the blessed Holy One loves Israel! Because of His love for them above all other nations, He warns them and seeks to protect them in whatever they do.

Come and see: There are times during the day when judgment looms over the world, and when such a time arrives, one must protect himself from being attacked by judgment. Those times are well known and have been established [see Zohar 1:132; 2:21a (MhN)]….

Moreover, when judgment arouses in the world and prevails in the city, one should not walk alone in the streets, as we have established; rather, he should shut himself in so that he does not venture out—as they have established concerning Noah, who shut himself within the ark so as not to be found in the presence of the Destroyer.

So, Go, my people, enter your rooms—shut yourself in; and shut your doors behind you, so as not to be exposed in the presence of the Destroyer. Hide yourself for the slightness of a moment, until wrath passes, for once judgment has passed, the Destroyer has no power to destroy.

Come and see: Because of the love Jacob felt for Joseph—more than for his brothers—even though they were all his own brothers, what is written? They conspired against him to kill him (Genesis 37:18). All the more so, other nations toward Israel!

Come and see the consequences of that excessive love! It caused him to be exiled from his father, and his father to be exiled along with him; it inflicted exile upon them all as well as upon Shekhinah, who was exiled among them. Although a decree was issued, they have established that because the ornamented tunic that he made for him extravagantly, what is written? His brothers saw that it was he their father loved… (Genesis 37:4) [cf. BT Shabbat 10b]” (Zohar 1:183a, cf. ibid. 3:221a–b).

“An Israelite is forbidden to teach Torah to a Gentile, as is written: He tells His words to Jacob…. He has not done so for any other nation… (Psalms 147:19–20) [cf. BT Sanhedrin 59a; Ḥagigah 13a]. Consequently, Jacob thrust him away and Samuel thrust him away, so that he would have no share in holiness. All nursing of hatred of Israel is based on this” (Zohar 2:111b–12a).

“Even a gentile, even a slave, and even a slave-girl who sit and learn Torah, the Shekhinah is with them” (Tanna debei Eliyyahu 9).

“Rabbi Shim’on son of Yoḥai taught: ‘It is a well-known halakhah: Esau hates Jacob’” (Sifrei Bemidbar, 59).

And Haman said to Ahasuerus: ‘There is a certain people, scattered and separate from the peoples in all the provinces of your kingdom, and their rules are different from every people’s and they do not observe the king’s rules, and it does not pay for the king to leave them in peace. If it pleases the king, let it be written to wipe them out, and ten thousand talents of silver will I measure out to the king’s treasury.’ And the king removed his ring from his hand and gave it to Haman son of Hammedatha the Agagite, צֹרֵר הַיְּהוּדִים (tsorer ha-Yehudim), foe of the Jews (Esther 3:8–10).

“To what can we compare Ahasuerus and Haman at this point? To two men one of whom had a mound in the middle of his field and the other a ditch in the middle of his field. The owner of the ditch said, ‘I wish I could buy that mound,’ and the owner of the mound said, ‘I wish I could buy that ditch.’ One day they met, and the owner of the ditch said, ‘Sell me your mound,’ whereupon the other replied, ‘Take it for nothing, and I shall be only too glad.’ And the king removed his ring. Rabbi Abba son of Kahana said: This removal of the ring was more effective than forty-eight prophets and seven prophetesses who prophesied to Israel; for all these were not able to turn Israel to better courses, yet the removal of the ring did turn them to better courses” (BT Megillah 14a).

In the lap the lot is cast, but from YHWH is all the disposing (Proverbs 16:33).

Water-streams, a king’s heart in the hand of YHWH, wherever He desires, He diverts it (Proverbs 21:1)—Rabbi Yishma’el said: Water-streams—just as when you put water into a vessel you can tilt it to whatever side you wish, so also when flesh-and-blood is elevated to kingship, his heart is placed in the hand of the blessed Holy One. If the world merits it, the blessed Holy One tilts the king’s heart toward good decrees; if the world is guilty, the blessed Holy One tilts his heart toward evil decrees. Thus each and every decree that issues from the king’s mouth originates from the blessed Holy One; hence it is said, wherever He desires, He diverts it” (Midrash Mishlei).