“And from Mattanah to Nahaliel and from Nahaliel to Bamoth. And from Bamoth to the valley that is in the steppes of Moab, by the top of Pisgah looking out over the wasteland (Numbers 21:19–20)? [Rava said:] If a man allows himself to be treated as the wilderness upon which everybody treads, Torah will be given to him as מַתָּנָה (mattanah), a gift; and as soon as it is given to him as a gift, נְחַלוֹ אֵל (neḥalo El), he is ‘the inheritance of God,’ as it says: וּמִמַּתָּנָה נַחֲלִיאֵל (u-mi-mattanah naḥaliel), And from Mattanah to Nahaliel; and as soon as he is ‘the inheritance of God,’ he rises to greatness, as it says: and from Nahaliel to בָּמוֹת (Bamoth), Heights. But if he is arrogant, the blessed Holy One humbles him, as it says: And from Bamoth to the valley. If, however, he repents, the blessed Holy One raises him, as it says: Every valley shall be lifted high (Isaiah 40:4)” (BT Eruvin 54a, cf. M Avot 6:2).
“How do we know that each of the seven qualities is called נָחַל (naḥal), river? Because it is written And fromMattanahtoNahalieland from Nahaliel to Bamoth (Numbers 21:19). Do not read נַחֲלִיאֵל (naḥaliel), Nahaliel, but נַחֲלֵי אֵל (naḥalei El), rivers of God. And all six then go on one way to the Sea. What is this way? The one that holds the balance between them. Therefore it is written: Before Him pestilence goes, and plague comes forth at His feet (Habakkuk 3:5) [cf. BT Megillah 25b; Rabbi Yosef Hamadan, Sefer Tashaq, 267–68]. All of them go to that channel, and from that channel to the Sea. This is: And from מַּתָּנָה (mattanah), Gift,toNahaliel—a place which is נִתַן (nitan), given, namely from the brain toNahalieland from Nahaliel to Bamoth. What is Bamoth? The Targum renders it: רָמָתָא (ramatha), Heights. This is the סְגֻלָּה (segullah), treasure, which follows זַרְקָא֮ (zarqa).
And from Bamoth to the valley that is in the steppes of Moab, by the top of Pisgah looking out over the wasteland (Numbers 21:20). And from Bamoth to the valley—which He prepared. And what is that which was in the steppes of Moab? Do not read מוֹאָב (mo’av), Moab, but מִאָב (mi-av), from father. This is the patriarch of whom is written, Because Abraham has listened to My voice and has kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, [and My teachings] (Genesis 26:5). And what is הַשָּׂדֶה (ha-sadeh), the steppes? It is at the top of Pisgah, also, looking out over the wasteland. יְשִׁימֹן (Yeshimon), the wasteland—the Targum renders this as שְׁמַיָּא (shemayya), heavens.
Of that channel is written: A garden spring, a garden of fresh water and streams from Lebanon (Song of Songs 4:15). What is Lebanon? We say: Ḥokhmah. What are the עַרְבֵי נָחַל (arvei naḥal), willows of the brook? We say: That which gives נַחֲלָה (naḥalah), an inheritance, to Israel—two אוֹפַנִי הַמֶרְכָּבָה (ofani ha-merkavah), wheels of the Chariot” (Bahir §178).
“Rabbi El’azar said, ‘The people of Israel are destined to chant a song from below to above, and from above to below, and to tie the knot of faith—as is written: Then יָשִׁיר יִשְׂרָאֵל (yashir yisra’el), will Israel sing, this song (Numbers 21:17)—it is not written Then שָׁר (shar), did [Israel] sing, but rather Then yashir, will [Israel] sing, and similarly with all of them. This song—from below to above.
Rise, O well! Sing to it! (Numbers ibid.). Rise, O well!—that is, ascend to Your place, to be joined with Your Husband. This is from below to above, afterward from above to below—for until now She is in exile with us.
The well dug by princes (Numbers 21:18)—for Father and Mother engendered Her above. Delved by nobles of the nation (ibid.)—the Patriarchs, who are called nobles of nations (Psalms 47:10). Delved—a place for the King to couple with Her with blessings. And by what is the coupling? With a scepter (Numbers ibid.)—Yesod. With their staves—Netsaḥ and Hod. This is from above to below.
וּמִמִּדְבָּר (U-mi-midbar), And from the desert [alluding to the ascent of Shekhinah, known as divine דִבּוּר (dibbur), ‘speech’], to Mattanah.And from Mattanah to Nahaliel, and from Nahaliel to Bamoth (Numbers 21:18–19)—here, complete bond, bond of faith, enduring bond wherein is all.
Of that time is written YHWH will be king over all the earth; on that day YHWH will be one and His Name one (Zechariah 14:9). And it is written Then will our mouth fill with laughter and our tongue with glad song. Then they will say among the nations: ‘Great things has YHWH done for these’ (Psalms 126:2–3)” (Zohar 3:286a).
“The disciples asked Rabbi Berekhiah, ‘Allow us [to speak] words before you,’ but permission was not given. Once he did permit them only to see if they had focused themselves. He scrutinized them saying: Let me hear your wisdom. They opened, saying: In the beginning (Genesis 1:1)—one. Though a spirit grows faint before Me, the life-breath—it is I who made it (Isaiah 57:16) [—two]. God’sstream is filled with water (Psalms 65:10) [—three]. What is פֶּלֶג אֱלֹהִים (peleg Elohim), God’s stream? Thus our Rabbi taught us ‘The blessed Holy One took up the primordial waters and divided them. He placed half of them in the firmament and half of them in the ocean, this is פַּלַג אֱלֹהִים מְלֹא מָיִם (palag Elohim melo mayim), God split the fullness of water‘ (Bereshit Rabbah 4:4). And by it man learns Torah. Rabbi Ḥama said: Through the merit of rendering kindness a man learns Torah, as is written, Oh, every one who thirsts go to the water, and who has no silver, buy food and eat (Isaiah 55:1). Go to Him and He will render kindness to you, and you will buy food and eat. Another interpretation: And who has no silver, as is written, Mine is the silver and mine the gold, says YHVH of Armies (Haggai 2:8)” (Bahir §51).
“On the third day all the earth was flat like a plain and the waters covered the surface of all the earth. When the word of Gevurah was uttered, Let the waters [under the heavens] be gathered [in one place so that the dry land will appear] (Genesis 1:9)… the waters were rolled together and gathered into the valleys, as is said, and the gathering of waters He called Seas, [and Elohim saw that it was good] (ibid., 10). The waters became הֵעִיזוּ פְּנֵיהֶם (heizu peneihem), insolent, and attempted to ascend to heaven as at first until He rebuked and subdued them and placed them beneath the soles of His feet, as is said, Who makes a way in the sea and a path in עַזִּים (azzim), fierce, waters (Isaiah 43:16)” (Pirqei de-Rabbi Eli’ezer 18 [MS Oxford], cf. Alfa Beita de-Ven Sira, 232–34).
“Elohim said, ‘Let the waters under heaven be gathered to one place’ (Genesis 1:9). Rabbi [Yehudah ha-Nasi] opened, saying, ‘More than the sound of many waters, the sea’s majestic breakers, majestic on high is YHWH (Psalms 93:4). More than the sound of many waters—when the blessed Holy One commanded the waters to gather in one place, they dashed to and fro, exalting themselves on high.’
Rabbi Yitsḥaq said, ‘At that time the waters surged over the earth, which was immersed within them, covering it over. The blessed Holy One said to them, ‘Not like this! Rather, שֶׁיִּתְכַּנְּסוּ בְּצִמְצוּם כֻּלָּם אֶל מָקוֹם אֶחָד (she-yitkansu be-tsimtsum kullam el maqom eḥad), gather yourselves together to one place, and let the dry land appear’ (Genesis ibid.), implying that the earth existed previously as dry land without moisture amidst the waters. It is not written dry land, but rather the dry land….
David said further, ‘You are the one who made the entire world, and You made the waters. In their great abundance the waters engulfed the whole world, but You decreed that they assemble, entirely be-tsimtsum, contracted, to one place. So may it be Your will before You that Your Shekhinah that fills the entire world be contracted in Your house, for it is more fitting that She abide there, as is written: holiness befits Your house (Psalms 93:5); and not for a short while, but rather, for all time (ibid.)” (Zohar Ḥadash 12c).
“Rabbi Berekhiah said: The upper waters receded from the lowers waters with weeping, as is written, The wellsprings of rivers he blocked from weeping (Job 28:11). Rabbi Tanḥuma proves it from here: He makes the earth through His power… as He sounds His voice—a roar of water in the heavens (Jeremiah 10:12). Voice—nothing but weeping, as is said, A voice in Ramah is heard, lament and bitter weeping (ibid. 31:14)” (Bereshit Rabbah 5:4, cf. Schäfer, Synopse zur Hekhalot-Literatur, §438; Rabbenu Baḥya on Leviticus 2:13).
“Rabbi Akiva expounded: When אִישׁוְאִשָּׁה (ish ve-ishah), husband and wife, are worthy, Shekhinah [יהוה] abides between them; if not אֵשׁ (esh), fire, consumes them” (BT Sotah 17a).
“What is the Tree you spoke of? He said to him: The powers of the blessed Holy One—this one on the back of that one. Just as a tree produces fruit by means of water, so too the blessed Holy One multiplies the powers of the Tree by means of water. And what is ‘water’ of the blessed Holy One? [Lower] Ḥokhmah—soul of the righteous פּוֹרְחִין (porḥin), gushing, from the spring to the great channel, ascending and clinging to the Tree. What causes פּוֹרֵחַ (poreaḥ), blossoming? Israel: when they are righteous and good Shekhinah שְׁרוּיָה (sheruyah), abides, in their midst—[above] because of their [good] deeds שֶׁרְוָיָה (she-revayah), She overflows, in the blessed Holy One’s lap, making them fruitful and multiplied [cf. BT Shabbat 30b; Yevamot 64a]. And how do we know that the Shekhinah is called ‘water’? As is written, Riding through heavens with your help—in His triumph through the skies (Deuteronomy 33:26), and it is written, skies stream justice (Isaiah 45:8). And tsedeq, justice, is the Shekhinah, as is written, Tsedeq, righteousness, lodged in Her (ibid. 1:21). Tsedeq was given to David, as is written, YHVH shall reign forever, your God, O Zion, for all generations (Psalms 146:10). It is also written, [And David captured the stronghold of] Zion,which is the city of David (1 Chronicles 11:5)” (Bahir §119).
“Desire of the female toward the male arouses only when a spirit enters her and she gushes water toward upper, masculine waters [cf. Bereshit Rabbah 13:13]. Similarly Assembly of Israel arouses desire towards the blessed Holy One only by the spirit of the righteous entering Her. Then waters flow within Her toward waters of the male, all becoming one desire, one cluster, one nexus. Rapture, total rapture! An amble by the blessed Holy One with souls of the righteous” (Zohar 1:60b, cf. ibid. 1:244a–b).
“His disciples said to him: Rabbi from above to below we know, but from below to above we do not know. He replied: Is it not all one—below to above and above to below? They said: Rabbi, ascending is not like descending. One can run while descending, but it is not so while ascending. Moreover, the one who ascends can do so by a way other than the [way] he descends. He replied: Go out and see! He sat and expounded for them: Shekhinah is below just as Shekhinah is above. And what is ‘Shekhinah‘? Say that this is the light emanated from the primordial light, which is Ḥokhmah. He also surrounds everything, as is written, The fullness of all the earth is His glory (Isaiah 6:3). What is His function here? A parable: To what can the matter be compared? To a king who had seven sons, and [he assigned] each one his place, saying to them, ‘Sit, this one on the back of that one.’ The lowest one said, ‘I will not dwell below! I will not be so far from you!’ He said to them, ‘I will hereby swing round and see you all the entire day [cf. BT Ta’anit 31a].’ Behold: The fullness of all the earth is His glory. And why is He in their midst? To stand them up and make them endure” (Bahir §171, cf. BT Ḥullin 60b; Zohar 1:20a).
“This conflict is for the sake of Heaven, because the lower waters weep, saying: We yearn to be before the supernal King of all supernals! And they ask to be raised on high [cf. Zohar 1:17b: ‘A conflict of passionate love’]” (Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 19b).
And you shall make a lamp stand of pure gold…. Take you clear oil of beaten olives for the light, to kindle a lamp perpetually (Exodus 25:31, 27:20).
“What is Ḥanukkah? The Rabbis taught: On the twenty-fifth of Kislev the eight days of Ḥanukkah begin on which a lamentation for the dead and fasting are forbidden. For when the Greeks entered the Temple they defiled all the oils that were in the Temple, yet when the Hasmonean dynasty prevailed against and defeated them, they searched and found one flask of oil laying undisturbed with the seal of the High Priest. However, there was enough for only one day’s lighting. A miracle occurred and they lit from it eight days. The following year these [days] were appointed a Festival with Hallel and thanksgiving” (BT Shabbat 21b).
“Come and see how the character of the blessed Holy One differs from that of flesh and blood. In the case of flesh and blood, an empty vessel holds [more], but not a full one. However, the blessed Holy One is not so: a full vessel holds [more], but not an empty one” (BT Berakhot 40a).
And a certain woman from the wives of the acolyte prophets had cried out to Elisha, saying, “Your servant, my husband, died. And you know that your servant was a YHWH fearer. And the creditor has come to take my two children to be his slaves.” And Elisha said to her, “What shall I do for you? Tell me, what do you have in the house?” And she said, “Your servant has nothing at all in the house except a flask of oil.” And he said, “Go, borrow vessels for yourself from outside, from all your neighbors—empty vessels, and not just a few. And you shall come and close the door behind you and behind your sons, and you shall pour into these vessels, and the full ones you shall set aside.” And she went from him and closed the door behind her and behind her sons. They were bringing the vessels to her and she was pouring. And it happened when the vessels were full that she said to her son, “Bring me another vessel,” and he said to her, “There are no more vessels.” And the oil stopped. And she came and told the man of God, and he said, “Go, sell the oil and pay your debt, and you and your sons will live off what is left (2 Kings 4:1–7).
“Tell me, what do you have in the house? (2 Kings 4:2)… for supernal blessings settle only upon a place that is complete [i.e., full and not empty]. This is the mystery of In the heart of all who are wise-hearted I have set wisdom (Exodus 31:6), and similarly, He gives wisdom to the wise (Daniel 2:21) [cf. BT Berakhot 55a in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan. On blessing not appearing in an empty place, see BT Sanhedrin 92a, in the name of Rabbi El’azar; Naḥmaindes on Exodus 25:24; Zohar 1:88a–b, 240a, 250a; 2:63b, 67a, 87b–88a, 154b–155a, 157b; 3:34a]” (Zohar 2:157b).
“Every wise person has his eyes and his words on his head, focused on Who is resting right there. With his eyes there he knows that the light kindled on his head needs oil. For the human body is a wick, and a light is kindled above. King Solomon cried out: Let… your head not lack oil (Ecclesiastes 9:8)—the light on one’s head needs oil, the oil of good deeds!” (Zohar 3:187a).
“Why is Israel compared to an olive? To teach that just as the olive does not produce its oil until it is crushed, so too Israel does not return except through suffering” (BT Menakhot 53b).
“Before souls come to the world, they resemble one who eats the bread of the King without serving Him. And this is why the Sages say that it is good for man to have been created [see BT Eruvin 13b]…. Souls feel ashamed to eat the bread of the King without serving Him, and therefore they yearn to come to the world… so as to leave that shame; they seek to come to this world, to engage in Torah and mitsvot, to till it and watch it (Genesis 2:15) so that they may eat bread without shame” (Rabbi Yosef Karo, Maggid Meisharim, Bereshit; cf. Zohar 2:87a, Sava de-Mishpatim).
“One who eats from his friend’s food is ashamed to look at him” (JT Orlah 1:5, 61b).
“Two people eat from the same bowl, but each one tastes according to his deeds” (Avot de-Rabbi Natan §37).
“Rabbi Natan son of Abba further said in the name of Rav: He who is dependent on another’s table, the world is dark to him, as is said: He wanders for bread—where is it? He knows that the dark day awaits him (Job 15:23). Rabbi Ḥisda says: Also, his life is no life” (BT Beitsah 32b).
“I have the following tradition from my grandfather’s family: At all times shall one [rather] hire himself out to עֲבוֹדָה זַרָה (avodah zarah), idol-worship [lit., foreign worship], than be in need of [his fellow] creatures. He thought that עֲבוֹדָה זַרָה (avodah zarah), [meant] actual [idol worship], but it is not so, [the meaning being,] ‘work which is foreign to him;’ as Rav said to Rabbi Kahana: Flay a carcass in the street and earn a wage, and say not, ‘I am a great man and the work is degrading to me’” (BT Bava Batra 110a).
“One who supports himself from his own labor is greater than one who fears Heaven” (BT Berakhot 8a).
“Tanna debe Eliyyahu [taught]: Though Rabbi Akiva said, ‘Treat your Sabbath like a weekday rather than be dependent on men,’ yet one must prepare something small at home [in honor of Sabbath]. What is that [which even the poorest must prepare]? Rav Papa said: Fried fish. As we learned: Rabbi Yehudah son of Teima said, ‘Be as bold as a leopard, swift as an eagle, fleet as a gazelle, and as mighty as a lion, to do the will of your Father in Heaven’ (M Avot 5:24)” (BT Pesaḥim 112a).
“Rabbi Yehudah opened, ‘Is it not to share your bread with the hungry? (Isaiah 58:7). Come and see: Happy is one’s portion when he encounters a poor person! For a poor person is a gift that the blessed Holy One has sent to him. Happy is the share of one who receives that gift cheerfully!…’ Is it not to share your bread with the hungry? What is פָרֹס (paros), to share? לְמִפְרַס (Le-miphras), to spread, a tablecloth with bread and food to eat. Alternatively, Is it not פָרֹס (paros), to share?—as is said: פְּרֵס פְּרִיסַת (Peres perisat), פְּרֵס (peres)—has been divided (Daniel 5:28), for one should לְמִפְרַס פְּרִיסִין (le-miphras perisin), break pieces, of bread before him so that he will not feel ashamed, and one should break it before him generously” (Zohar 2:198a).
“Please, LORD our God, do not make us dependent on the gifts or loans of other people, but only on Your full, open, holy and generous hand so that we may suffer neither shame nor humiliation for ever and all time” (Birkat ha-Mazon).
“The Rabbis taught: It happened once that a man’s wife died and she left behind a child to nurse, and he did not have the wages [to pay] a wet-nurse. A miracle was performed for him and his breasts opened like a woman’s breasts and he nursed his child. Rav Yosef said, ‘Come and see how great a man this is that such a miracle was performed for him!’ Abbaye said to him, ‘On the other hand, how deficient a man this is that סִדְרֵי בְרֵאשִׁית (sidrei ve-reshit), the laws of nature, were changed for him! [if he was worthy he might have come into money, therefore, a miracle was really performed for the child].’ Rabbi Yehudah said, ‘Come and see how difficult [providing] a person’s food [is]: the laws of nature were changed for him!’ Rabbi Naḥman said: Know that miracles are evoked, but food is not created [from nothing; on blessing not appearing in an empty place, see BT Sanhedrin 92a, in the name of Rabbi El’azar; Naḥmaindes on Exodus 25:24; Zohar 1:88a–b, 240a, 250a; 2:63b, 67a, 87b–88a, 154b–155a, 157b; 3:34a]” (BT Shabbat 53b).
“A person should not embolden himself to say: ‘The blessed Holy One will save me,’ or ‘He will do this for me.’ Rather, he should place his strength in the blessed Holy One, to help him fulfill the commandments of Torah and walk in the way of truth, for as soon as one comes to purify himself, he is certainly assisted [cf. BT Shabbat 104a]. So should one fortify himself in the blessed Holy One—in order that He may help him—holding fast to Him, not placing his strength in another. So, whose strength is in You (Psalms 84:5)” (Zohar 1:142a).
Happy all who fear YHWH, who walk in His ways. When you eat of the toil of your hands, happy are you, and it is good for you (Psalms 128:2).
“Rabbi Zeira was evading Rav Yehudah because he wanted to go up to the land of Israel while Rav Yehudah had said, ‘Whoever goes up from Babylon to the land of Israel transgresses a positive commandment, for it is said, To Babylonia shall they be brought, and there shall they be until the day I attend to them and bring them up and return them to this place (Jeremiah 27:22).’ But Rabbi Zeira [says this verse refers] to the vessels of ministry [as is written, For thus said YHWH of Armies God of Israel concerning the vessels remaining in the house of YHWH… (ibid., 21)]. And Rav Yehudah?—it is also written: I make you swear, O daughters of Jerusalem by the deer or the gazelles of the field… (Song of Songs 2:7; 3:5).
And Rabbi Zeira?—this implies that Israel shall not go up [all together as if surrounded] by a wall [alt., ‘like a wall’]. And Rav Yehudah?—another swear to Me is written in Scripture. And Rabbi Zeira?—this is required for [an exposition] like that of Rabbi Yose son of Rabbi Ḥanina who said: ‘What was the purpose of those three adjurations [see Song of Songs 2:7; 3:5; 5:8]? One, that Israel shall not go up [altogether as if surrounded] by a wall; the second, that whereby the blessed Holy One adjured Israel that they shall not rebel against the nations of the world; and the third is that whereby the blessed Holy One adjured the nations that they shall not oppress Israel יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי (yoter middai), too much’ [cf. Zohar Ḥadash 56c: ‘It will be discovered that they had oppressed excessively by a measure and a half. In response, He demotes them from every realm and branch’].
And Rav Yehudah?—it is written that you will not rouse not stir love until it is ripe (Song of Songs 2:7). And Rabbi Zeira?—that text is required for [an exposition] like that of Rabbi Levi who stated: ‘What was the purpose of those six adjurations [each of the three adjurations is repeated]?—three for the purposes just mentioned and the others, that [the prophets] shall not make known the end, that [the people] shall not delay the end [by their misdeeds], and that they shall not reveal the secret to the nations.’ By the deer or the gazelles of the field—Rabbi El’azar explained: The blessed Holy One said to Israel, ‘If you will keep the adjuration, well and good; but if not, I will permit your flesh [to be a prey] like [that of] the deer or the gazelles of the field’” (BT Ketubbot 110b–111a).
“Resh Laqish was swimming in the Jordan. Thereupon Rabbah son of Son of Ḥana came and gave him the hand: If she is a wall, we will build on her a silver turret. If she is a door, we will besiege her with cedar boards (Song of Songs 8:9). Had you [Assembly of Israel] made yourself like a wall and had all come up in the days of Ezra, you would have been compared to silver, which no rottenness can ever affect. Now that you have come up like doors, you are like cedar boards, over which rottenness prevails” (BT Yoma 9b).
“Rabbi Yose said to him, ‘All this is longer than the Companions have established, namely, one day of exile for Assembly of Israel, no more, as is written: He has made me desolate, faint all the day (Lamentations 1:13).’ He replied, ‘So I learned from father in the mysteries of letters of the Holy Name, the duration of the world and the days of Creation—all a single mystery” (Zohar 1:116a–18b).
“Rabbi Yitsḥaq opened, ‘Before the day breathes and the shadows flee (Song of Songs 4:6). Before the day breathes—the exile of Israel; that they would be subjugated in exile until the day when rule of the peoples is ended.’ For we have learned that Rabbi Yitsḥaq said, ‘The dominion of all peoples together over Israel would last one thousand years. There is no people that would not subjugate them. ‘One day’ corresponds to: But it shall be one day which shall be known to YHWH, [not day, nor night: but it shall come to pass, that at evening time it shall be light](Zechariah 14:7).
Another explanation: Before the day שֶׁיָּפוּחַ (sheyafuaḥ), breathes—before that day the peoples יָפוּחַ (yafuaḥ), expire. And the shadows flee—princes ruling over them. I will hurry to the mountain of myrrh, and to the hill of frankincense (Song of Songs 4:6). Said the blessed Holy One ‘I will betake Myself to shake the peoples from Jerusalem, the הַר הַמּוֹר (har ha-mor), the mountain of myrrh,’ as is written, Jerusalem on הַר הַמּוֹרִיָּה (har ha-moriyah), mount Moriah (2 Chronicles 3:1). And to the hill of frankincense—the Temple that is in Zion, as it is written, Lovely in heights, all the earth’s joy, Mount Zion (Psalms 48:3). And it is written, To seize the earth’s corners, that the wicked be shaken from it (Job 38:13)—as one holds a garment to shake all the filth from it.’
Rabbi Yose said, ‘The blessed Holy One will eventually be revealed in earthly Jerusalem, and purify it from the filth of the peoples, before the day of the peoples is complete [cf. BT Ta’anit 5a].’ For Rabbi Ḥiyya said, ‘Dominion over Israel lasts only one day, and that is a day of the blessed Holy One which is one thousand years [cf. BT Sanhderin 97a; Bahir §5: ‘Each day of the blessed Holy One is a thousand years, as it is written, For a thousand years in Your eyes are like yesterday gone (Psalms 90:4)’]. This is what is written, He has made me desolate, faint all the day (Lamentations 1:13)—one day, and no more.’
Rabbi Yose said, ‘If they are subjugated more than one thousand years, it is not because of the King’s decree, but rather because they do not wish to return before Him [in repentance to the land of Israel]. And it is written, And it shall be, when all these things come upon you, [the blessing and the curse that I have set before you, that your heart shall turn back among all the nations to which YHWH your God will make you to stray] (Deuteronomy 30:1–2), and, Should your strayed one be at the edge of the heavens, from there shall YHWH your God gather you (ibid., 4)’” (Zohar 2:17a, Midrash ha-Ne’lam).
“He opened, saying, ‘Look, the day is still long; it is not time to gather in the herd. Water the sheep and go and let them graze (Genesis 29:7). This verse has already been established, for when the people of Israel arouse teshuvah before the blessed Holy One, by the merit of Torah they will return to the Holy Land and be gathered from exile. For surely the exile of Israel will be for one day and no more, as is written: He has made me desolate, faint all the day (Lamentations 1:13).
If they do not engage in teshuvah, the blessed Holy One says, Look, the day is still long; it is not time to gather in the herd—without merit, without worthy deeds. But there is one remedy for you: Go, water the sheep—delve into Torah and be watered by it—and go and let them graze in a restful place, in the fine, desirable place of your inheritance.’
Alternatively, He said, ‘Look, the day is still long…‘—the day called a day of tumult and din and confusion (Isaiah 22:5), on which the Temple was destroyed and Israel fell into exile. In the face of evil deeds, that day is prolonged and extended, as is written: The day is still long; it is not time to gather in the herd—because they are prolonging that day. Water the sheep—as has been said, with words of Torah, for by the merit of Torah Israel will come out of exile” (Zohar 3:270a–b).
“Open for me, my sister, my friend, my dove, תַמָּתִי (tammati), my perfect one (Songs of Songs 5:2). Because, תַּם (tam), Complete, is thepunishment of your offence, O daughter of Zion; He will no more carry you away into exile (Lamentations 4:22).
For my head is filled with dew (Song of Songs 5:2). Filled with dew? Rather, the blessed Holy One says, ‘Do you then imagine that from the day the Holy Temple was destroyed I have entered My house, or entered My dwelling place? Not so! I have not entered at all since the time of your exile. Behold you have a sign: For my head is filled withdew.‘
הא (He)—Shekhinah in exile [separated from יוה (Yod He Vav)]. Her perfection and Her life is טַל (tal), dew, and this is: יוד הא ואו (Yod He Vav). הא (He) is Shekhinah which is not of the dew. But יוד הא ואו (Yod He Vav) is numerically equivalent to ל״ט (thirty-nine) [and טַל (tal), dew]. He fills Shekhinah from the flowing of all supernal sources” (Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 17b).
For He draws down drops of water, they are distilled in the rain of His wetness, as the skies drip moisture, shower on abounding humankind (Job 36:27–28).
“When the blessed Holy One desires to bless the produce of the earth and to give provisions to the creatures, He opens the good treasuries in the heavens and sends rain upon the earth, namely, the masculine waters. Immediately, the earth becomes fruitful—like a bride who conceives from her first husband and produces offspring of blessing, as is said, YHWH will open for you His goodly treasure, the heavens (Deuteronomy 28:12)” (Pirqei de-Rabbi Eli’ezer 5, cf. Zohar Ḥadash 9d).
“Like water face to face thus the heart of man to man (Proverbs 27:19). Like water—the face you show it, it shows you. Thus the heart of man to man—according to how much a man knows that his friend loves him, so he will show him his face” (Rashi).
“Why had He not rained (Genesis 2:5)? Because no arrayal welled up from earth. So from earth below action is aroused above. Come and see: Vapor ascends from the earth at first, a cloud is aroused, and then all conjoins. Similarly, smoke of sacrifice…. If Assembly of Israel did not initiate arousal, the one above would not be aroused toward Her. By desire below, all is consummated” (Zohar 1:35a).
“And the mystery of the matter is as they said in Ta’anit [25b]: Not one drop descends from above without two drops coming up to meet it. And they are in this mystery: their hint corresponds to three minds [lit., brains]: the mind of Memory, the mind of Thought, and the mind of Imagination. Imagination and Memory ascend from the Heart [which is the seat of conscience]. Thought rests above them, Heart receiving them as a king. Because this man, which is Thought, mounts and controls the third living being, descending on it to the two living beings that open their wings to receive him, just as a ֹ [חֹלֶם (Ḥolam)]placed over a ֵ [צֵרֵי (Tserei)] becomes a ֒ [סֶגוֹלְתָּא (Segolta)]—supernal Keter over Ḥokhmah and Binah” (Zohar 3:247a, Ra’aya Meheimna Pineḥas, cf. Bahir §88–§91].
A virtuous woman is a crown for her husband (Proverbs 12:4).
“Rabbi Avin son of Rabbi Adda said in the name of Rabbi Yitsḥaq, ‘How do we know that the blessed Holy One puts on tefillin? For it is said: YHWH has sworn by His right hand and by the arm of His strength (Isaiah 62:8). By His right hand—this is Torah, as is said: From His right hand was a fiery law for them (Deuteronomy 33:2). And by the arm of His strength—this is tefillin, as is said: YHWH will give strength unto His people (Psalms 29:11). How do we know that tefillin are a strength to Israel? For it is written: And all the peoples of the earth will see that the name of YHWH is called over you and they will fear you (Deuteronomy 28:10), and it has been taught: Rabbi Eli’ezer the Great says, ‘This refers to tefillin of the head.’ Rabbi Naḥman son of Yitsḥaq asked Rabbi Ḥiyya son of Avin, ‘These tefillin of the Master of the World—what is written in them? He replied, ‘Who is like Your people Israel, a unique nation on earth’ (1 Chronicles 17:2)” (BT Berakhot 6a).
“I will take away My palm and you will see My back (Exodus 33:23). Rav Ḥana son of Bizna said in the name of Rabbi Shim’on the Devout, ‘This teaches us that the blessed Holy One showed Moses the knot of tefillin [at the back of His head]’” (BT Berakhot 7a).
“He flung from the heavens to earth the beauty of Israel (Lamentations 2:1)…. A parable: A king had a lovely diadem upon his head and a lovely mantle upon his shoulder. An evil rumor came to him and he flung the diadem from upon his head and the mantle from before him [cf. Bereshit Rabbah 75:4]” (Bahir §§32–33).
“What was the King’s daughter? י (Yod) over הוה (HWH), included with the patriarchs. ה (He)—first with Abraham; he—second with Isaac; ו (vav)—with Jacob. Now, yod was head over them, as is said, The crown of our head has fallen (Lamentations 5:16). And the Rabbis compared this to a king who had a diadem on his head and a lovely mantle before him. Anevil rumor came to him, [and] he flung the diadem from his head. And what was י (yod) over יהוה (YHWH)? Yod above became, הוהי (HWHY)—yod below. Thus David said, The stone which the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone (Psalms 118:22)” (Zohar 2:79b, Ra’aya Meheimna Ki Tetse).
“[Rabbi Akiva’s] disciples asked him: Why is ד (dalet) wide [open], at the side? He said to them: The segol which is פַּתָּח הַקָּטָן (pataḥ ha-qatan), the small pataḥ, as it says, [Lift up your heads, O gates, and rise up] פִּתְחֵי (pitḥei),portals, of the world, [that the king of glory may enter] (Psalms 24:7). He set ַ (pataḥ) above and ֶ (segol) below, and [thus] she came [to be] wide [open]. What is pataḥ? פֶּתַח (Petaḥ), an opening. Which opening? The north wind, open to all the world—the gate from which Evil emerges and Good emerges. And what is Good? He mocked them: Didn’t I tell you פֶּתַח קָטָן (petaḥ qatan), a small opening? They said to him: We have forgotten, repeat it for us. He said to them: A parable: To what can the matter be compared? A king had a throne. Sometimes he takes it in his arm, and sometimes on his head. They asked him: Why? [He said to them:] Because it was lovely and it was a pity to sit on it. They said to him: And where does he set it on the head? He said to them: On the open מ (mem), as is said: Truth from the earth will spring up, as justice from the heavens looks down (Psalms 85:12)” (Bahir §37).
“Your deed, in the midst of years revive it (Habakkuk 3:2). A parable: To what can this be compared? To a king had a goodly pearl, beloved of his kingdom. In his time of joy, he would embrace it and kiss it, place it on his head and would love it. Habakkuk said to him: Even though the kings are with you, this pearl is the beloved of your world. Therefore, Your deed, in the midst of years revive it. What is years? As is written, And God said, ‘Let there be light’ (Genesis 1:3). Light—none other than day, as is written, The great light for dominion of day and the small light for dominion of night (Genesis 1:16). Years are [made up of] days, as is written, Your deed, in the midst of years revive it. In the midst of—this pearl that gives birth to years.
And [so] it is written, From the east I will bring your seed (Isaiah 43:5). The sun rises in the east yet you say that the pearl is day! [He replied,] I did not say [anything] except and it was evening and it was morning,first day (Genesis 1:5), as is written, On the day YHWH Elohim made earth and heavens (Genesis 2:4)” (Bahir §§72–73).
“’Israel are crowned with three crowns: the crown of priesthood, the crown of kingship, and the crown of Torah which is higher than both’ (M Avot 4:13). Indeed, there is a crown of priesthood, a crown of kingship, and the crown of Torah is above them both. To what may this be compared? To a king who had a lovely and fragrant vessel which he adored. Sometimes he puts it on his head—tefillinof the head. Sometimes he carried it in his hand—the knot of the tefillin of the hand. Sometimes he lends it to his son to sit with him. Sometimes it is called כִּסְאוֹ (kiso), ‘his throne,’ for he takes it in his hand as an amulet—like the appearance of כָּסָא (kasa), a cup [cf. Zohar 1:1a; Zohar 2:43a (RM)]” (Bahir §152).
“’On the heads of your new moons, [you shall present an ascent offering to YHWH] (Numbers 28:11). Now, how many heads does the moon have?’ (Zohar 3:248a)—there are two points, like so: ֶ (segol)—Moon is the lower point. The two heads above are two points of segol over Her. First she was כֶּתֶר (keter), a crown, on two kings, like so: ֒ (segolta). And following this was said, ‘Can two kings possibly wear one crown?’ (BT Ḥullin 60b). The blessed Holy One said, ‘Go, diminish yourself!’ (ibid.). She settled under the two kings’ feet. Like so: ֶ (segol). What had been ֒ (segolta) became ֶ (segol)….
Consequently, ‘”Bring an atonement עָלַי (ali), for Me [because I diminished the moon]”‘ (BT Ḥullin 60b)—for Moon was surely כֶּתֶר (keter), a crown, ‘ali, over Me.’ Like so: ֹ (ḥolem). And afterwards She was diminished and [came to] settle under His feet, like so: ֶ (segol). And at the time of ‘bring an atonement for Me,’ it is said of Her, הִוא הָעֹלָה (hi ha-olah), she is the ascent offering (Leviticus 6:3). For She rises from [under] His feet, as is said, And the earth is My footstool (Isaiah 66:1), [that] it may be said of Her, The heavens are My throne (ibid.). And this is the mystery of [He who rules men,]צַדִּיק (Tsaddiq), the Righteous One, who rules in the fear of Elohim (2 Samuel 23:3). For He overturns Judgment for Compassion [see BT Yevamot 64a]. And the mystery of the matter, The stone that the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone (Psalms 118:22)” (Zohar 3:248a, Ra’aya Meheimna Pineḥas).
“Ten סְפִירוּת בְּלִימָה (sefirot belimah), ciphers of emptiness. Their measure is ten, yet infinite. Their end is embedded in their beginning, their beginning in their end, like a flame bound to a burning coal. Know, contemplate, and visualize that the Maker is one, without a second. Before one what can you count?” (Sefer Yetsirah §6 [MS A]).
“Come and see! In a flame ascending are two lights: one white light, radiant: the other, a light tinged with black or blue. The white light is above, ascending, unswervingly, while beneath it is the blue or black light, a throne for the white, which rests upon it, each embracing the other, becoming one. This black light colored blue, below, is a throne of glory for the white—here lies the mystery of the thread of blue. This blue-black throne is grasped by another substance below, so it can flame, arousing it to embrace the white light. Sometimes this blue-black turns red, while the white light above never wavers, constantly white. This blue one, though, changes color: sometimes blue or black, sometimes red [sometimes green]. This is grasped in two directions: above, by that white light; below, by what lies beneath, by which it is fuelled, primed to glow. This constantly consumes and devours what is placed beneath it, for the blue light consumes anything cleaving below, anything it rests upon, since by nature it consumes and devours. On it depends destruction and death of all… Above the white light hovers a concealed light, encompassing it. Here abides supernal mystery. You will discover all in the ascending flame, wisdoms of the highest” (Zohar 1:51a).
“House of Shammai say that נְהוֹרָא (nehora), a light, is comprised only of one nehora, light, while House of Hillel say that there are several. They also taught: House of Hillel said to House of Shammai: There are several מְאוֹרוֹת (me’orot), lights, in אוֹר (or), light (Isaiah 45:7)” (BT Berakhot 52b).
“Come and see: נֶפֶשׁ (Nefesh), Soul—lower arousal, cleaving to the body like the light of a candle. The lower light, which is black, cleaves to the wick, never parting from it, arrayed by it alone. Once arrayed by the wick, it becomes a throne for the white light settling upon the black light. When both are arrayed, the white light becomes a throne for a concealed light—invisible, unknowable—settling upon the white light. Then the light is perfect” (Zohar 1:83b).
“Wood whose light does not ascend—let them strike it, and it will flash. A body in which the light of the soul does not ascend—let them strike it, and the radiance of the soul will ascend; they will unite with one another, shining” (Zohar 3:168a).
“Every wise person has his eyes and his words on his head, focused on [Shekhinah] who is resting right there. With his eyes there he knows that the light kindled on his head needs oil. For the human body is a wick, and a light is kindled above. King Solomon cried out: Let… your head not lack oil (Ecclesiastes 9:8)—the light on one’s head needs oil, the oil of good deeds!” (Zohar 3:187a).
“Come and see: One flame, slender, burning—[from it] all the world is filled. Regard: A thin piece of wood is kindling for a thick one” (Zohar 3:240b, Ra’aya Meheimna Pineḥas).
“Like a lamp from which many lamps are lit while retaining its vitality” (Zohar 2:86b).
“Once the light of a lamp clings to the wick, that light is never still, but rather sways back and forth, never staying still. Similarly with Israel, whose souls derive from that light of the Lamp. As soon as they cling to words of Torah, the light is kindled—they cannot keep still; they sway back and forth and in all directions like the light of a lamp, for it is written: The soul of a human is the נֵר (ner), lamp, of YHWH (Proverbs 20:27)” (Zohar 3:219a, cf. Ba’al ha-Turim on Exodus 20:15; Kuzari 2:79).
“Like a rose among the thorns so is my friend among the young women (Song of Songs 2:2)…. Rabbi Azariah in the name of Rabbi Yehudah son of Rabbi Simon said, ‘A parable: A king had פַּרְדֵּס (pardes), an orchard. He planted a row of fig trees and a row of vines and a row of pomegranates and a row of apples. He handed it over לְאָרִיס (le-aris), to a land tenant, a tiller of the soil, and went from him. After [some] days the king came and peeped at the orchard to know what he did, and he found it full of thorns and thistles. [So] he brought wood-cutters to cut it down. Now, he saw in the orchard a single rose blossom, and he took her, וְהֵרִיחַ בָּהּ וְשָׁבַת נַפְשׁוֹ עָלָיו (ve-heriaḥ bah ve-shavat nafsho ‘alav), and smelled her and his very self was restored to him [or: and his soul rested, i.e., and he was calmed; alt., and he came to his senses]. The king said, ‘For the sake of this rose the orchard will be rescued.
Thus the entire world was created only for the sake of Torah. After twenty-six generations the blessed Holy One peeped at His world to know what it had done, and He found it was full of water with water [cf. BT Sanhedrin 108b; Pirqei de-Rabbi Eli’ezer 23 on Genesis 7:19]. The generation of Enosh—water with water. The generation of the Flood—water with water. The generation of the Dispersion—water with water. [So] he brought wood-cutters to cut it down, as is said, YHWH יָשָׁב (yashav), was enthroned, at the flood [וַיֵּשֶׁב יְהוָה (va-yeshev Adonai), and YHWH is enthroned, as king for all time] (Psalms 29:10). He saw in it a single rose blossom—Israel—and he took her and smelled her at the time when Israel was given the Ten Utterances, and his very self was restored to him when they said, we will do and we will heed (Exodus 24:7). The blessed Holy One said, ‘For the sake of this rose, the orchard will be rescued; for the merit of Torah and Israel [who study her] the world will be rescued!” (Vayiqra Rabbah 23:3).
“Rabbi Ḥizkiyah opened, ‘Like a rose among thorns, so is my beloved among the maidens’ (Song of Songs 2:2). Who is a rose? Assembly of Israel. For there is a rose, and then there is a rose! Just as a rose among thorns is colored red and white, so Assembly of Israel includes judgment and compassion. Just as a rose has thirteen petals, so Assembly of Israel has thirteen qualities of compassion surrounding Her on every side [see Exodus 34:6–7]. Similarly, from the moment אֱלֹהִים (Elohim) is mentioned, it generates thirteen words to surround Assembly of Israel and protect Her; then it is mentioned again. Why again? To produce five sturdy leaves surrounding the rose. These five are called Salvation; they are five gates. Concerning this mystery it is written: I raise the cup of salvation (Psalms 116:13). This is the cup of blessing, which should rest on five fingers—and no more—like the rose, sitting on five sturdy leaves, paradigm of five fingers. This rose is the cup of blessing. From the second אֱלֹהִים (Elohim) till the third, five words appear. From here on: light—created, concealed, contained in the covenant, entering the rose, emitting seed into Her. This is the tree bearing fruit with its seed in it (Genesis 1:12)” (Zohar 1:1a).
“He opened, saying, Like a rose among thorns, so is my beloved among the maidens (Song of Songs 1:2). The blessed Holy One wished to fashion Israel according to the supernal pattern, to be one rose on earth corresponding to what is above. A rose emitting fragrance, choicest of all roses in the world, is solely one rising among thorns—this one wafts fittingly. Therefore He sowed seventy couples, who were seventy souls, and inserted them among thorns. As soon as those couples were there, the thorns sprouted branches and leaves, ruling over the world; and then the rose bloomed among them.
Once the blessed Holy One sought to pluck the rose, picking it from among them, the thorns withered and were thrown away, destroyed, and considered worthless. When He went to pick the rose, to bring out His firstborn son, the King proceeded—among many hosts, princes, and chieftains with banners flying. He delivered His firstborn son with many mighty deeds, and brought him to His palace, where he dwelled for long.
When he sinned, as before, and rebelled against his Father, He expelled him from His house. What did Israel do? Seeing that they had been scattered to Babylon, they mingled among the nations, married foreign women, and engendered children with them. Even so, Holy Mother was their guardian.
Because they had acted so, the blessed Holy One said, ‘Since it is a disgrace, let My son come by himself; because he has defiled My honor, it is unseemly for Me to go there and bring him out, performing miracles and mighty deeds as before.’ So they returned without the assistance befitting them, without wonders and miracles; rather, all dispersed, all weary in poverty, returning to the King’s palace in shame, with Holy Mother responsible for them.
They sinned as before. What did the blessed Holy One do? He expelled this son from His palace and his Mother with him, saying, ‘From here on, mother and son, you will suffer much evil together’—as is written: For your crimes, your mother was sent away (Isaiah 50:1). Of this is written When you are in distress and all these things find you בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים (be-aḥarit ha-yamim), with the end of days (Deuteronomy 4:30). What is with the end of days? Well, this is Holy Mother, who is the end of days, and with Her they suffered all that they suffered in exile. And if they engage in תְשׁוּבָה (teshuvah), repentance, even one evil or one affliction will be considered equivalent to their having suffered everything, and as if the evil extremity had been terminated with all its generations—as the Holy Lamp said, for it is written: irreversibly to its buyer throughout his generations (Leviticus 25:30). All this depends on teshuvah.
“I am the lily ofSharon (Song of Songs 2:1)—Assembly of Israel who is called lily, planted in radiant beauty in the Garden. שָּׁרוֹן (Sharon)—for She שַׁרַה (sharah), sings, and offers praise to the supernal King. Alternatively, I am the lily of Sharon—for She desires to be saturated by the flow of the deep stream, bubbling stream of rivers, as is said: Sharon shall become a pond of water [a conflation of verses from Isaiah].
A rose ofהַעֲמַקִּים (ha-amaqqim), the valleys—abiding in עֲמִיקְתָא (amiqta), the depth, of all. A rose ofha-amaqqim, the valleys—who are those amaqqim, valleys? As is said: מִמַּעֲמַקִּים (Mi-ma’amaqqim), from the depths, I call You, YHWH (Psalms 130:1).
A lily of Sharon—from that place where the saturating flow of streams issues, never ceasing. A rose ofha-amaqqim, the valleys—a rose from that place called עֲמִיקָא (Amiqa), Depth, of All, sealed on all sides.
Come and see: At first, greenish—green like a lily with green leaves. Afterward, a red rose, colored white and red. שׁוֹשַׁנַּת (Shoshannat), A Rose—with שִׁית (shit), six, leaves. A rose—for שַׁנִיאַת (shaniyat), She varies, Her colors, וְאִשׁתֶּנִיאָת (ve-ishteni’at), and changes, from color to color.
A rose—first a lily; when She seeks to couple with the King She is called a lily. After She unites with the King, by those kisses, She is called a rose—for it is written His lips are like roses (Song of Songs 5:13).
A rose of the valleys—for She varies and changes, Her colors: sometimes for good, sometimes for evil; sometimes for Judgment, sometimes for Compassion” (Zohar 3:107a).
“Behold, Shekhinah is shut to Him during the weekdays, like a sealed rose” (Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 22a, cf. Zohar 1:75b on Ezekiel 46:1).
“Similarly with Israel. As long as they are hard-hearted, not opening with תְשׁוּבָה (teshuvah), they do not emit fragrance; and He does not deliver them from among the thorns—among other nations. When they open with teshuvah, they immediately emit fragrance, and He delivers them from among the thorns, and Assembly of Israel delights in them. As is written: Open to me, my sister, my love (Song of Songs 5:2)—for as long as the rose is closed, it has no fragrance and cannot rise from amid the thorns, but dwells among them, as has been said. And the blessed Holy One sent us to walk this path only for this: to learn these matters!
So it is with Israel. As long as they are hard-hearted and do not initiate תְשׁוּבָה (teshuvah), returning, they do not emit fragrance, and there is none to remove them from among the thorns (Song of Songs 2:2). But when they open their hearts in teshuvah they immediately emit fragrance, and He removes them from among the thorns. And Assembly of Israel [Shekhinah] benefits from them, as is written, Open to me, my sister, my beloved (Song of Songs 5:2). For as long as the rose is closed, it emits no fragrance and does not rise above the thorns but sits among them, as they have said. And the only reason the blessed Holy One sent us along this path was that we should illuminate these matters” (Zohar 3:233a).
Return to Me, and I will return to you, says YHWH of armies (Malachi 3:7).