The Nut Garden

לקוטים מזוהר (Gleanings of Zohar)

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A Mighty Tree: its Top Reaches the Heavens and its Branches to the End of all the Earth

6F3089A2-BEE4-4C34-A8F7-B98B1FAE972CThere is a tree in the earth and its height is great. The tree grew and became mighty, and its top reaches the heavens and its branches to the end of all the earth. Its foliage is lovely and its fruit great, and there is food for all in it. Beneath it the beasts of the field are shaded, and in its branches the birds of the heavens dwell, and all flesh is nourished from it (Daniel 4:7–9).

“I am the one who planted this tree for all the world to delight in. With it I spanned the All, calling it All, for all depends on it, all emanates from it, all need it, all gaze upon it and await it. From here souls fly forth in joy. Alone I was when I made it. When I spread out My earth, in which I planted and rooted this tree—giving them joy in one another, rejoicing along with them—who was with Me (Isaiah 44:24)? To whom could I reveal this secret of Mine?” (Bahir §22, cf. Ibn Ezra on Genesis 1:26).

“This Tree has its roots in the Lebanon, which is the Throne of Glory, blessed be He, and the Lebanon corresponds to the supernal Lebanon, and its roots are seventy-two roots” (Seder Gan Eden).

“What is [that which we recite in the Qedushah:] Holy, holy, holy, and then, YHWH of armies: the whole earth is full of His glory (Isaiah 6:3)? Holy—supernal Crown [Keter]; holy—root of the Tree [Ḥokhmah]; holyclinging, yet separate from them all [Binah or Malkhut]. YHWH of armies: the whole earth is full of His glory.

What is: ‘holy—clinging, yet separate’? A parable: A king had sons whose sons had sons. When the sons do his will, he enters their midst, making all endure, satisfying all, causing goodness to flow upon them, so that both fathers and sons are sated. When the children do not do his will, he only gives the fathers as much as they need [and no more. Cf. Bahir §113. On Binah, or Malkhut, as separate from the sefirot, see Bahir §104–§105, §124, §175. Cf. Zohar 3:288a (IZ). On the ‘world of separation,’ see Zohar 3:159b. On son clinging to father, see Zohar 2:147a]” (Bahir §128–§129).

“They asked [Rabbi Berakhiyah], ‘What is the letter צ (tsadi)?’ He said: ‘This is נ (nun) and י (yod)—צ (tsadi). Its partner [ץ (final tsadi)] is also נ (nun) and י (yod) [alluding to יִנּוֹן (yinnon), bear seed (Psalms 72:17), see Bahir §86]. As is written, צַדִּיק (Tsaddiq), the Righteous One, is a יְסוֹד עוֹלָם (yesod olam), lasting foundation (Proverbs 10:25)” (Bahir §61).

One pillar extends from earth to the firmament. Its name is צַדִּיק (Tsaddiq)Righteous One, named for the righteous. When there are righteous people in the world, the pillar is invigorated; if not, it is sapped. It upholds the entire world, as is written, The Righteous One is the יְסוֹד עוֹלָם (yesod olam), foundation of the world (Proverbs 10:25). If it weakens, the world cannot endure. So if the world contains just one righteous person, that person sustains the world [cf. BT Yoma 38b]” (Bahir §102).

What is ש (shin)? It is root of the Tree—[say, rather] ש (shin) looks like the root of a tree.

What is this Tree that you speak of? The powers of the blessed Holy One, this one on the back of that one. Just like a tree brings forth fruit through water, so the blessed Holy One increases the powers of the Tree through water. What is the water of the blessed Holy One? חָכמָה (Ḥokhmah), Wisdom. It is the נְשָׁמוֹת (neshamot), souls, of the righteous. They gush from the spring to the great channel, ascend and cleave to the Tree. Through what do they gush? Through Israel. When they are righteous and good, the Shekhinah dwells among them. Their deeds then rest in the lap of the blessed Holy One, and He makes them fruitful and multiplies them” (Bahir §118–§119).

“The blessed Holy One has a single tree containing twelve גְבוּלֵי אֲלַכְסוֹן (gevulei alakhson), diagonal borders: The northeast border, the southeast border; the upper east border, the lower east border; the southwest border, the northwest border; the upper west border, the lower west border; the upper south border, the lower south border; the upper north border, the lower north border. ‘Deepening and expanding until evermore—זְרֹעֹת עוֹלָם (zero’ot olam), arms of the world [or: arms everlasting] (Deuteronomy 33:27)’ (Sefer Yetsirah §47). Within them is the Tree. Corresponding to these diagonals are twelve officials. Within the Wheel there are twelve officials too, and in the Heart, too, there are twelve officials—reckoning thirty-six officials. Each of these has another, as is written, for he who is high has a higher one watching him (Ecclesiastes 5:7) [reckoning seventy-two]. It therefore comes out that the east has nine, the west has nine, the north has nine, and the south has nine. These are twelve, twelve, twelve, and they are the officials in the תָּלִי (Tali) in every other one.

Even though there are twelve in each of the three, they are all attached to each other. Therefore, all thirty-six powers are in the first one, which is the Tali. And if you seek them in the Wheel, you will find the very same ones. And if you seek them in the Heart, you will again find the very same ones. Each one therefore has thirty-six; All of them are no more than thirty-six צוּרוֹת (tsurot), forms, and all of them are perfected in thirty-two [forms]; thirty-two given to thirty-two, and there remained [out of thirty-six] four; and they are sixty-four forms. How do we know that thirty-two are given to thirty-two? As is written, for he who is high has a higher one watching him—thus, there are sixty-four. But eight is [yet] lacking from the seventy-two names, and this is [alluded to] in and still higher ones over them (ibid.)—these are the seven days of the week [i.e., the seven lower sefirot]. But one is lacking, and that is [alluded to] in And the gain of the land is in everything—a king, is subject to the field (ibid. 5:8) [מֶלֶךְ (melekh), a king—מַלְכוּת (malkhut), Kingdom]. What is this gain? The place from which the earth was hewn. It is a gain over what existed previously. And what is this gain? When that which people see in the world is taken from its radiance—then it is a gain” (Bahir §95).

“There are three princes: Tali, Wheel, and Heart. Each one is twelve, and the three therefore reckon thirty-six, by which the world is sustained [see BT Sanhedrin 97bSukkah 45b], as is written: The Righteous One is the foundation of the world (Proverbs 10:25)” (Bahir §101).

“Rabbi Berakhiyah sat and expounded: What is the תָּלִי (Tali)? This is the likeness that is before the blessed Holy One, as is written, His locks are תַּלְתַּלִּים (taltallim), curled (Song of Songs 5:11) [the תָּלִי (Tali) is like a serpentine spine which twists the heavens, i.e., Draco, Axis Mundi, see Baraita de-Shemu’el, 1: ‘The elusive Serpent (Job 26:13) is the Tali’; Sefer Yetsirah §59a: ‘The Tali in the world is like a king on his throne.’ On the resemblance of the spine to a serpent, see BT Bava Qamma 16a]. What is the גַלגַל (galgal), Wheel? It is the בֶּטֶן (beten), Belly [‘Mother of the World,’ Binah, see Bahir §104. On the Wheel, see BT Shabbat 151a]. What is the לֵב (lev), Heart? Heart of the heavens (Deuteronomy 4:11). In it are the ל״ב (thirty-two) paths of Wisdom” (Bahir §106).

“Rav Raḥmai said: The righteous and devout in Israel who lift Me up over the whole world through their merits, from them the Heart is sustained, and the Heart sustains them [cf. JT Terumot 8:4, 46b]” (Bahir §97, cf. ibid., §185).

“Why is it called קָרְבָּן (qorban), sacrifice? Because it מְקָרֵב (meqarev), draws near, the holy powers, as is written, וְקָרַב (ve-qarav), and join, them one to another, into one Tree; and they shall become one in your hand (Ezekiel 37:17)” (Bahir §109).

“These are the explicit, precious, and magnificent names [cf. BT Qiddushin 72b]. There are twelve names, one for each of the twelve tribes of Israel:

אהצי ציהרון אברוחיהרון ושבוב נומקרון [ושבוב נומקגון] דמורטרון צפצפשיתרון יהודמירון וחייהרון ברקיהאון ערשיה [עדרשיה] גאון כסאיה מנגמהון הוהו יה היו יהוי אה אהוה דמהדירון [cf. Rabbi Moshe Cordovero, Pardes Rimonim, 21:9].

All of them are encompassed by the Heart of the heavens, and are divided into four names, male and female, overseen by Tali, Wheel, and Heart—they are מַבּוּעֵי דְּחָכְמְתָא (mabbu’ei de-ḥakhmeta), the wellsprings of Wisdom” (Bahir §112).

 

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ספר יצירה (Sefer Yetsirah) The Book of Formation (MS K)

et-si-nous-parlions-de-la-typographie-hebraique
[§1] By means of thirty-two wondrous paths of wisdom
Yah YHWH of armies, God of Israel, the Living God, Almighty, high and exalted, dwelling for ever, and Holy is His Name (Isaiah 57:15), carved out. He created His world with three סֶפָרִים (sefarim), ciphers: בְסֵפֶר וּסְפָר וְסִיפּוּר (ve-sefer u-sefar we-sippur), book, census, and recounting [MS Z].

[§2] The ten סְפִירוֹת בְּלִימָה (sefiroth belimah), numerals of nothingness, are the basis and the twenty-two letters are the foundation: three mothers, seven doubles, and twelve simple [letters].

[§3] The ten sefiroth belimah are the basis—like the number of the ten fingers, five opposite five and the covenant of the singular One is exactly in the middle in the covenant of the tongue and the circumcision of the flesh.

[§4] The ten sefiroth belimah are the basis—ten and not nine, ten and not eleven. Understand with wisdom, and be wise with understanding. Test them and investigate them, and get the thing clearly worked out and restore the Creator to His place.

[§5] The ten sefiroth belimah are the basis: restrain your mouth from speaking, restrain your heart from thinking. And if your heart races return to the place, thus it is written: running and returning (Ezekiel 1:14). And concerning this the Covenant was made.

[§6] The ten sefiroth belimah are the basis. Their end is embedded in their beginning like a flame bound to a burning coal. For the Lord is singular, and He has none second to Him; and before one, what can you count?

[§7] The ten sefiroth belimah are the basis; their measure is ten yet they have no limit: depth of beginning and depth of end, depth of good and depth of evil, depth of above and depth of below, depth of east and depth of west, depth of north and depth of south. And the singular Lord, a trustworthy divine king, rules over them all from His holy abode to eternities of eternity.

[§8] The ten sefiroth belimah are the basis. Their appearance is like the sight of lightning, and their end?—they have no limit. And His word is in them as though running and returning (Ezekiel 1:14), and they pursue His command like the storm wind, and before His throne they bow down.

[§9] The twenty-two letters are the foundation: three mothers, seven doubles, and twelve simple [letters].

[§10] Ten sefiroth, that is to say: One—רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים חַיִּים (rhuaḥ Elohim ḥayyim), Breath of the Living God. Twice blessed is the name of the חֵי הַעוֹלָמִים (ḥei ha-olamim), Vitality of the Worlds. Voice, and breath, and word—this is רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ (rhuaḥ ha-qodesh), the Holy Spirit.

[§12] Two—air from Breath: He carved and hewed in it the twenty-two basic letters—three mothers, and seven doubles, and twelve simple [letters]. And the Breath is one of them.

[§13] Three—water from air: He carved and hewed in it תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ (thohu wa-vohu), welter and waste (Genesis 1:1), רֶפֶשׁ וָטִיט (rhefesh wa-tit), mud and mire (Isaiah 57:20). He carved them like a sort of garden-bed. He erected them like a sort of wall, and he wove them like a sort of roof [or: ceiling].

[§14] Four—fire from water: He carved them and hewed in it the Throne of Glory, and the ofanim and the serafim, and the holy living beings, and the ministering angels. And from the three of them He founded His abode, as is said: He makes His messengers the winds, His ministers, glowing fire (Psalms 104:4).

[§15] Five—He sealed above. He chose three simple letters and embedded them in His great Name. And He sealed with them the six borders [of the world], and He turned upwards and scaled it. Seven—He sealed the east, and He turned downwards [in front] and sealed it. Eight—He sealed the west, and He turned behind and sealed it. Nine—He sealed the south, and He turned to His right and sealed it. Ten—He sealed the north, and He turned to His left and sealed it.

[§16] These ten sefiroth belimah are the basis: the Breath of the Living God; and air, water, fire; above, below, east, west, north and south.

[§17a] The twenty-two letters: they are hewn out in the air, carved out by voice, embedded in the mouth in five positions: אחה״ע בומ״ף גיכ״ק דטלנ״ת זסשר״ץ (alef ḥeth he ‘ayin, beth waw mem peh, gimel yod khaf qof, daleth teth lamed nun taw, zayin samekh shin resh tsadhi) [קְדוּשָׁה (qedhushah), Holiness].

[§18] The twenty-two letters are their foundation. It is embedded on a wheel with 231 gates. The wheel rotates backwards and forwards. And this is the sign: if for good, above—עֹנֶג (‘oneg), delight; if for evil, below—נֶגַע (nega’), affliction.

[§19] Twenty-two letters: He carved them out, He hewed them, He weighed them, He exchanged them, He combined them and formed with them the נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh), life-breath, of all creation and the נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh), Soul, of all that would be formed [cf. M Sanhedrin 4:5]. How did He weigh and exchange them? א (Alef) with them all, and all of them with א (alef); ב (beth) with them all, and all of them with ב (beth). And they all rotate in turn. The result is that [they go out] by 231 [gates]; the result is that all creation and all speech go out by one name.

[§20] He formed מַמָשׁ (mamash), something, from תֹּהוּ (tohu), nothing, and He made them its existence, and He hewed out great columns from אֲוִיר (awir), air, that cannot be grasped [cf. Bereshit Rabbah 1:5]. This is the sign:

[§21 (Cordovero)] אל בת גש דר הק וצ זפ חע טס ינ כמ אב גת דש הר וק זצ חפ טע יס כנ למ אג דת הש ור זק חצ טפ יע כס לנ במ אד בג הת וש זר חק טצ יפ כע לס מנ אה בד ות זש חר טק יצ כפ לע מס גנ או בה גד זת חש טר יק כצ לפ מע נס אז בו גה חת טש יר כק לצ מפ נע דס אח בז גו דה טת יש כר לק מצ נפ סע אט בח גז דו ית כש לר מק נצ ספ הע אי בט גח דז הו כת לש מר נק סצ עפ אכ בי גט דח הז לת מש נר סק עצ ופ אל בכ גי דט הח וז מת נש סר עק פצ אמ בל גכ די הט וח נת סש ער פק זצ אנ במ גל דכ הי וט זח סת עש פר צק אס בנ גמ דל הכ וי זט עת פש צר חק אע בס גנ דמ הל וכ זי חט פת צש קר אפ בע גס דנ המ ול זכ חי צת קש טר אצ בפ גע דס הנ ומ זל חכ טי קת רש אק בצ גפ דע הס ונ זמ חל טכ רת יש אר בק גצ דפ הע וס זנ חמ טל יכ שת אש בר גק דצ הפ וע זס חנ טמ יל כת את בש גר דק הצ ופ זע חס טנ ימ כל

[§22] He looks and exchanges; He makes all creation and all speech one name. And a sign for the matter: twenty-two objects and one body.

[§23] Three mothers: א מ ש (alef, mem, shin). Their basis is the scale of acquittal and the scale of guilt, and the tongue of law holds the balance between them.

[§24] Three mothers: א מ ש (alef, mem, shin)—a great mystery, hidden and ineffable, and sealed with six seals. And from it goes out fire, and water and air, and it is divided into male and female.

[§25] Three—fire, water and air; fire above, water below, and air is between them. And this is a sign for the matter that fire evaporates water.

[§26] Three mothers: א מ ש (alef, mem, shin). מ (Mem) lifts up, and ש (shin) hisses, and א (alef) is the balancing item.

[§27] Three mothers: א מ ש (alef, mem, shin). And from them were born three fathers from whom everything was created.

[§28] Three mothers: א מ ש (alef, mem, shin)—in the world: air, and water and fire. Heavens were created first from fire, and earth was created from water, and light [air] was created from the רוּחַ (rhuaḥ), breath, holding the balance between them.

[§29] Three mothers א מ ש (alef, mem, shin)—in the year: fire, and water and air. Heat was created from fire, and cold was created from water, and humidity from air holding the balance between them.

[§30] Three mothers א מ ש (alef, mem, shin)—in a נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh), person. The head was created from fire, the belly from water, and the chest from air holding the balance between them.

[§31] Three mothers א מ ש (alef, mem, shin). He carved them, hewed them, combined them and formed with them the three mother [letters] in the world, and the three mother [letters] in the year, and the three mother [letters] in a person—male and female.

[§32] He made א (alef) rule over רוּחַ (rhuaḥ), breath, and bound to it a crown, and combined them with each other, and sealed with them אֲוִיר (awir), atmosphere, in the world, humidity in the year, and the chest in a person—male with א מ ש (alef, mem, shin) and female with ש מ א (shin, memalef).

[§33] He made מ (mem) rule over מַיִם (mayim), water, and bound to it a crown, and sealed with it earth in the world, cold in the year, and the fruit of the belly in a person; male with מ ש א (mem, shinalef), and female with מ א ש (memalef, shin).

[§34] He made ש (shin) rule over אֵשׁ (esh), fire, and bound to it a crown, and combined them with each other, and sealed with it heavens in the world, heat in the year, and the head in a person, male with ש מ א (shin, memalef), and female with ש א מ (shinalef, mem).

[§35] How did he combine them? אמש אשם מאש משא שמא שאם (Alef mem shin, alef shin mem, mem alef shin, mem shin alef, shin mem alef, shin alef mem)—heavens, fire; air, breath; earth, water. Man’s head is fire, his belly water, his heart breath [or: air].

[§36] Three mothers: א מ ש (alef, mem, shin). There was formed with א (alef): breath, air, humidity, chest, law, and tongue. There was formed with מ (mem): earth, cold, belly, and the scale of acquittal. There was formed with ש (shin): heavens, heat, head, and the scale of guilt. This is א מ ש (alef, mem, shin). The end.

[§37] Seven doubles: בג״ד כפר״ת (beth, gimel, daleth, kaf, peh, resh, taw). They are pronounced with the tongue in two different positions. Their basis is life and peace, wisdom, wealth, prosperity, beauty and mastery. They are pronounced with the tongue in two different positions: ב (beth, veth), ג (gimel, ghimel), ד (daleth, dhaleth), כ (kaf, khaf), פ (peh, feh), ר (resh, rhesh), ת (taw, thaw)—דָּגֵּשׁ (dagesh), and רָפֵה (rhafeh), soft and hard, a paradigm of strong and weak. They are doubles because they are opposites. The opposite of life is death; the opposite of peace is war [lit., evil]; the opposite of wisdom is folly; the opposite of wealth is poverty; the opposite of prosperity is desolation; the opposite of beauty is ugliness; and the opposite of mastery is slavery.

[§38] Seven doubles: בג״ד כפר״ת (beth, gimel, daleth, kaf, peh, resh, taw), corresponding to seven קָצֶווֹת (qatse’ot), borders [or: edges]: a place of borders and a holy place; one—a place set within a place; two—the upper border, three—the lower border, four—the eastern border, five—the western border, six—the northern border, seven, the eternal border, and the holy Temple set in the middle and it supports them all.

[§39] Seven doubles: בג״ד כפר״ת (beth, gimel, daleth, kaf, peh, resh, taw). He carved and hewed them, He combined them, and formed with them the planets in the world, the days in the year, and the gates in a person by sevens.

[§40] How did he combine them? Two stones build two houses; three build six; four build twenty-four; five build one hundred and twenty; six build seven hundred and twenty; seven build five thousand and forty [i.e., factorials]. From here on go out and ponder what the mouth cannot speak, and what the ear cannot hear.

[§42] And with them were carved out seven firmaments, seven earths, seven hours and seven times. Therefore He loved the seventh under the heavens.

[§43a] These are the seven planets in the world: חַמָה (ḥamah), Sun, נוֹגַה (noghah), Venus, כּוֹכָב (kokhav), Mercury, לְבָנָה (levanah), Moon, שַׁבְּתַאִי (shabbethai), Saturn, צֶדֶק (tsedheq), Jupiter, מַאְדִים (ma’adhim), Mars. And the days in the year: the seven days of creation. And the seven gates in a person: two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, and the mouth.

[§45] Twelve simple letters: הוזחט״י לנסעצ״ק (he waw zayin ḥeth teth yod, lamed nun samekh ’ayin tsadhi qof). Their basis is seeing, hearing, smelling, conversing, tasting, mating, doing, walking, raging, laughing, contemplating, sleeping.

[§47] Their measure is twelve גְבוּלֵי אֲלַכְסוֹן (gevulei alakhson), diagonal borders [or: edges, lines]: the north-eastern border, the south-eastern border, the upper eastern border, the lower eastern border, the lower northern border, the north-western border, the upper northern border, the lower western border, the south-western border, the upper western border, the lower southern border, the upper southern border. Deepening and expanding until evermore—זְרֹעֹת עוֹלָם (zero’oth olam), arms everlasting [or: arms of the world] (Deuteronomy 33:27) [cf. BT Ḥagigah 12b ad loc.].

[§48a] He made them a sort of lawsuit, He arranged them in battle array, One opposite the other God made them (Ecclesiastes 7:14).

[§48b] Three—each one stands by itself; seven are at loggerheads—three against three, and one is the law which holds the balance between them. Twelve stand in battle array: three love but three hate; three give life but three kill. And the divine, trustworthy King rules over them all—one on top of three, and three on top of seven, and seven on top of twelve. And they all cling to each other.

[§49a] Twelve simple letters: הוזחט״י לנסעצ״ק (he waw zayin ḥeth teth yod, lamed nun samekh ’ayin tsadhi qof). He carved them and hewed them out, He weighed them and exchanged them, and formed with them the twelve constellations in the world, twelve months in the year, and the twelve principal organs in a person.

These [§49b] are the twelve constellations in the world: טָלֶה (taleh), Aries, שׁוֹר (shor), Taurus, תְּאוֹמִים (te’omim), Gemini, סַרְטָן (sartan), Cancer, אַרְיֵה (arhyeh), Leo, בְּתוּלָה (bethulah), Virgo, מֹאזְנַיִם (moznayim), Libra, עַקְרָב (‘aqrhav), Scorpio, קַשָּׁת (qashath), Sagittarius, גְּדִי (gedhi), Capricorn, דְּלִי (deli), Aquarius, דָּגִים (daghim), Pisces. And these are the twelve months: נִיסָּן (Nissan), אִייָר (Iyyar), סִיוָן (Siwan), תַמוּז (Thammuz), אָב (Av), אֱלוּל (Elul), תִּשְׁרֵי (Tishrhei), מַרְחֶשְׁוָן (Marḥeshwan), כִּסְלֵו (Kislew), טֵבֵת (Teveth), שֵׁבֶט (Shevet), אֲדָר (Adhar). And these are the twelve principal organs in a person: the right hand, the left hand, the right foot, the left foot, two kidneys, the liver, the gall, the spleen, the gullet, the stomach, and the intestines. 

[§50] Three mothers, and seven doubles, and twelve simple [letters].

[§56] These are the twenty-two letters [on which] Yah YHWH of Armies, God of Israel, the Living God, Almighty, high and exalted, dwelling for ever, and Holy is His Name [founded the world] (Isaiah 57:15).

[§58] Three fathers and their generations, and seven dominant ones and their hosts, and the twelve diagonal borders [or: edges]. And a proof for the matter—trustworthy witnesses: the world, the year and a person.

[§59a] There is a law of ten, three, seven and twelve. They are officials over the תָּלִי (Tali) [alt., תְלִי (Theli)], the Wheel, and the Heart.

[§59b] The Tali in the world is like a king on his throne; the Wheel in the year is like a king in a province; the Heart in a person is like a king at war.

[§60b] One opposite the other God made them (Ecclesiastes 7:14): good opposite evil—good from good and evil from evil. Good brings evil to light and evil brings good to light. Good is stored up for the good and evil is kept for the evil.

[§61] When Abraham our father, peace unto him, gazed, looked, saw, probed, understood, engraved, carved, permuted, formed, and succeeded, then the Lord of All, blessed be He, manifested to him, made him sit in his lap, kissed him upon the head, and called him My lover (Isaiah 41:8), and named him His son, and made a covenant with him and his seed for ever. And he trusted in YHWH, and He reckoned it to his merit (Genesis 15:6). [And He invoked upon him the glory of YHWH, as is written, Before I formed you in the womb I knew you (Jeremiah 1:5) (MS A)]. He made with him a covenant between the ten toes of his feet—it is the covenant of circumcision. He made with him a covenant between the ten fingers of his hands—it is the covenant of the tongue. He bound twenty [-two] letters into his tongue, and the Omnipresent revealed to him His secret. He drew them out in water, he burned them with fire, he shook them in the air, he branded them into the seven, he led them into the twelve constellations.

[§62] (1) Air and temperate state and chest; earth, cold and the belly; heavens and heat and the head. This is א מ ש (alef, mem, shin).

(2) Saturn, Sabbath and the mouth; Jupiter, the first day of the week and the right eye; Mars, the second day of the week and the left eye; the Sun, the third day of the week and the right nostril; Venus, the fourth day of the week and the left nostril; Mercury, the fifth day of the week and the right ear; the Moon, the sixth day of the week and the left ear. This is בג״ד כפר״ת (beth, gimel, daleth, kaf, peh, resh, taw).

(3) Aries, Nissan, the liver; Taurus, Iyyar, the gall; Gemini, Siwan, the spleen; Cancer, Thammuz, the gullet; Leo, Av, the right kidney; Virgo, Elul, the left kidney; Libra, Tishrhei, the intestines; Scorpio, Marḥeshwan, the stomach; Sagittarius, Kislew, the right hand; Capricorn, Teveth, the left hand; Aquarius, Shevet, the right foot; Pisces, Adhar, the left foot. This is הוזחט״י לנסעצ״ק (hewawzayin, ḥeth, teth, yod, lamed, nun, samekh, ‘ayin, tsadhi, qof).

1 Three are hostile and these are they: the tongue, the liver and the gal.

2 Three love: the heart, the ears and the eyes.

3 Three give life: the two nostrils and the liver of the left side.

4 Three kill: the two lower orifices and the mouth.

5 There are three which are in man’s control: the feet, the hands and the mouth.

6 There are three which are not in man’s control: his two eyes, his ears and his nostrils.

7 Three evil things are heard by the ear: cursing, blasphemy and an evil report.

8 Three good things are heard by the ear: blessing, a good report and praise.

9 Three sights are bad for the eye: adultery, an evil eye and a deceptive look.

10 Three sights are good for the eye: modesty, a good eye, and a trustworthy look.

11 Three things are bad for the tongue: He who speaks in the presence of the slanderer, he who speaks one thing with the mouth but another with the heart, and he who speaks too much.

12 Three things are good for the tongue: silence, reticence, and speaking the truth.

Whoever understands this book and keeps it has the assurance that he is a son of the World that is Coming. This is the book of Abraham our father, peace be upon him, which is called The Book of Formation.

There is no limit to the wisdom of everyone who looks into it. And the mysteries of the upper and lower world will be revealed to everyone who occupies himself with it and studies it and knows its mysteries, and he has the assurance that he is a son of the World that is Coming. This book, which is called The Secret of Intercalation on which the whole world depends, should not be handed over to anyone except he who turns away from evil and fears God and waits and hopes for his Creator, as it is said, steadfast love surrounds him who trusts in YHWH (Psalms 32:10), and it says, Israel is rescued by YHWH with an everlasting rescue, you will not be put to shame or confounded to all eternity (Isaiah 45:17).

This Doe has a Narrow Womb

ImageDo you observe the calving of does? (Job 39:1). This doe has a narrow womb. When she crouches to give birth, I prepare a serpent which bites the genitalia and she is loosened of her offspring. If it comes one second too soon or one second too late, she immediately dies” (BT Bava Batra 16b, cf. Zohar 2:111b; Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 43a).

At the tent flap sin crouches (Genesis 4:7). The serpent which bites the genitalia is the secret of ‘קַבֵּל רִנַּת עַמְּךָ שַׂגְּבֵנוּ טַהֲרֵנוּ נוֹרָא (Qabel rinnat Amekha saggvenu taharenu nora), accept Your people’s prayer. Strengthen us, purify us, You who are revered’ (Anna be-Khoaḥ)—קֶרַע שָׂטָן (qera satan), tear [of the] adversary” (Rabbi Ḥayyim Vital, Sefer ha-Liqqutim).

“נָחָשׁ (Naḥash), serpent, [שָׂטָן (satan), adversary,] and מָשִׁיחַ (Mashiaḥ), Messiah, are numerically equivalent” (Rabbi Yitsḥaq ben Ya’aqov ha-Kohen, Madda’ei ha-Yahadut, 2 [1927] 273, cf. Psalms 140:4: כְּמוֹ נָחָשׁ [kemo naḥash], like a serpent, and מָשִׁיחַ בֵּן דָּוִד [Mashiaḥ ben David], Messiah son of David, are numerically equivalent).

“Rabbi Shim’on said, ‘There is one אַיֶּלֶת (ayyelet), doe, on earth, and the blessed Holy One does so much for her. When she cries out, the blessed Holy One hearkens to her anguish. And when the world is in need of mercy, for water, she cries aloud and the blessed Holy One listens and then feels compassion for the world, as is written As a hind longs for streams of water (Psalms 42:2). When she needs to give birth, she is totally constricted; then she puts her head between her knees, crying out and screaming, and the blessed Holy One feels compassion for her and provides her with a serpent who bites her genitalia, opening and tearing that place, and immediately she gives birth.’ Rabbi Shim’on said, ‘Concerning this matter, do not ask and do not test את יהוה (et YHWH)—so it is precisely!’” (Zohar 2:52b)

Like a woman with child, that draws near the time of her delivery, is in pain, and cries out in her pangs (Isaiah 26:17).

“In the first month (Numbers 28:16). Rabbi Abba opened, ‘As a hart craves for streams of water, so my soul craves for You, O God (Psalms 42:2). This verse has been established. But it is written אַיָּל (ayyal), hart, and it is written אַיֶּלֶת (ayyelet), hind (Psalms 22:1); and all is one, for there is male and female. Even though there is male and female, this אַיָּל (ayyal), hart, is called ‘male’ and is called ‘female,’ as is written: כְּאַיָּל תַּעֲרֹג (ke-ayyal ta’arog), as a hart craves, and it is not written יַעֲרוֹג (ya’arog), [he] craves.

And it is written אַיֶּלֶת (ayyelet), the hind of, dawn (Psalms 22:1). What is the hind of dawn? Well, this is a certain compassionate animal, more compassionate than any in the world—for when She needs food, She goes afar on a distant journey and brings back food, and does not want to eat until She returns to her place. Why? So that the other animals may gather by Her and She can share that food with them. When She comes, all the other animals gather by Her, and She stands in the middle, distributing to each one [and the sign is in: She gets up while it is still night and provides nourishment for her house and a portion for her young women (Proverbs 31:15) (Sullam)]. By when She distributes, She is satisfied, as if She had eaten more than all [cf. BT Pesaḥim 112a, in the name of Rabbi Akiva: ‘More than the calf wants to suck, the cow wants to suckle’].

When does She distribute to them? When morning is about to come—while it is still night, and darkness lifts, lightening [as is written: She gets up while it is still night and provides nourishment for her house (Proverbs 31:15)]. Once morning shines, they are all sated with Her food.

Then a voice is aroused in the middle of the sky, proclaiming aloud: ‘You who are near, enter your places; you who are far, depart! Let each one be gathered to his appropriate place.’

As soon as the sun shines, each one is gathered to his place, as is written: When the sun rises, they gather [and in their dens they crouch] (Psalms 104:22). She goes in the day, is revealed at night, and distributes in the morning; so She is called אַיֶּלֶת (ayyelet), the hind of, dawn. Afterward, She is invigorated like a warrior and goes—and is called אַיָּל (ayyal), a hart.

Where does She go? She goes sixty phrasings from the place that She left, and enters the Mountains of Darkness, where She catches the scent of food. She proceeds into that Mountain of Darkness, and a certain tortuous serpent catches the scent of Her foot and follows Her; and She climbs from there toward the Mountain of Light. Once She arrives there, the blessed Holy One summons for Her another serpent, who emerges and attacks the other one, and She is saved. From there She takes food, and returns to Her place at midnight, She begins to distribute until the darkness of morning lifts. Once the day dawns, She goes and is no longer seen, as has been said.

When the world needs rain, all the other animals gather toward Her, and She ascends to the top of a high mountain, and, wrapping Her head between Her knees, She lets out one low after another. And the blessed Holy One hears Her voice, and is filled with mercy, and takes pity on the world. She descends from the top of the mountain, and runs and hides Herself, and all the other animals run after Her, but do not find Her—as is written: As a hart craves for streams of water. What is meant by for streams of water? For those that have dried up, and the world is thirsting for water; so she craves.

When She is pregnant, She is stopped up. When the time comes for Her to give birth, She lows and cries out, cry after cry—up to seventy cries, equaling the number of words in May YHWH answer you on the day of distress (Psalms 20:2), which is the song for a pregnant woman. The blessed Holy One hears Her and is ready for Her: He brings forth a great serpent from the Mountains of Darkness, and it comes through the mountains, its mouth licking the dust. It reaches this hart and comes and bites Her twice in that place [cf. BT Gittin 69b].

The first time, blood comes out, and it licks it up. The second time, water comes out, and all those animals of the mountains drink, and She is opened and gives birth. Your mnemonic is: He struck the rock with his staff twice: and it is written and the community, with its beasts, drank (Numbers 20:11) [cf. Shemot Rabbah 3:13].

At the moment when the blessed Holy One takes pity on Her—through the act of this serpent—what is written? The voice of YHWH brings on the birth pangs of hinds… (Psalms 29:9). The voice of YHWH brings on the birth pangs of hinds—those pangs and pains, arousing those seventy cries. Immediately, and strips the forests bare (ibid.)—to remove that serpent, exposing it among them to go away” (Zohar 3:249a–b, cf. ibid. 2:219b–220a; 3:68b [RM]).

“One might suggest that after seventy [years] She will feel [birth-pangs], and in two years She will give birth one thousand and two hundred years after [the destruction of the Second Temple, that is to say, after the end of the Fifth Millennium, which is all destruction, and a further two hundred years into the Sixth Millennium, and seventy years for the birth-pangs, and two years for the birth itself] coming to the year 272 [of the Sixth Millennium]. But it is written: Before she travailed, she brought forth; [before her pain came, she was delivered of a man child] (Isaiah 66:7). And the secret of the matter is contained in the verse: And it shall come to pass, that before they call, I will answer; and while they are yet speaking, I will hear (Isaiah 65:24). And what is the meaning of before? Before the completion of the seventy years and the two years following the passing of one thousand and two hundred years, the birth-pangs, two Messiahs will be revealed to the world. And at that time: And in His palace all says glory (Psalms 29:9). And it has already been taught: The wise inherit כָּבוֹד (kavod)glory (Proverbs 3:35).

And at that time, those Torah sages will be respected, those who suffered pangs and travails as a woman in labor, and who were despised by the ignorant; they will be honored. And immediately: YHWH was enthroned at the flood (Psalms 29:10) on account of the wicked. Flood—judgments of the flood, when All the wellsprings of the great deep burst [and the casements of the heavens were opened] (Genesis 7:11), at the time of the flood. So, too, judgments will rise over them above and below, with no end. And every contempt and disgrace shown by the idolatrous nations of the world towards YHWH and His people and the many insults that Israel suffered from them for the sake of YHWH’s Name—for all of them the blessed Holy One will exact vengeance, and therefore, as far as they are concerned, [God is jealous, and YHWH avenges;YHWH avenges, and is furious; [YHWH will take vengeance on His adversaries, and He reserves wrath for His enemies] (Nahum 1:2).

In the first month (Numbers 28:16). What is the first month? It is Nisan, which is when that animal gave birth, in accord with the teaching of the Masters of Mishnah: ‘In the month of Nisan they were redeemed, and in the month of Nisan they will be redeemed'[נִיסָן (Nisan) is the month of נִסִים (nisim), miracles] (BT Rosh ha-Shanah 11a). And this is with His יָד (yad), hand [which is numerically equivalent to fourteen, according to the secret of the verse:] And he said, ‘For יָד (yad), hand, upon Yah’s throne: [War for YHWH against Amalek from all time] (Exodus 17:16), when He swore to remove the seed of Esau, Amalek, from the world. At that time: Draw out and take yourselves sheep according to your clans and slaughter the Passover offering (Exodus 12:21), [where the meaning of] מִשְׁכוּ (mishkhu)draw out, is as in the verse: מָשַׁךְ יָדוֹ (mashak yado)he stretched out his hand, with scoffers (Hosea 7:5).

At that time, thus said YHWH: ‘To the rulers who transgressed against Me: neither shall they enter into the land of Israel (Ezekiel 13:9)—the shepherds of the flock, the supporters of the generation. Wherefore it is said about them: Therefore, behold, I will allure her, and bring her into the wilderness, and speak comfortably to her (Hosea 2:16). And I will bring you into the wilderness of the people, and there will I enter into judgment with you face to face. Like I entered into judgment with your fathers in the wilderness of the land of Egypt, so will I enter into judgment with you, says YHWH God (Ezekiel 20:35–36), [namely] whom He killed in the plague of darkness” (Zohar 3:249a–b, Ra’aya Meheimna Pineas).

“A voice issued… O low, sleeping ones, closed-eyed, awake! Who among you turns darkness into light, bitter into sweet before arriving here? Who among you awaits each day the light that shines when the King visits the doe and is glorified…? Whoever does not await this each day… has no portion here” (Zohar 1:4a).

“Rabbi [Yehudah ha-Nasi] says: The rising column of the moon is different from that of the sun. The light column of the moon rises straight like a stick, the light column of the sun [the dawn] irradiates in all directions… Just as the antlers of the doe branch off this way and that way, so the light of the dawn is scattered in all directions—Rabbi Zera said: Why was Esther compared to a אַיֶּלֶת (ayyelet), doe [BT Megillah 15b]? To tell you that just as a doe has a narrow womb and is desirable to her mate at all times as at the first time, so was Esther precious to King Ahasuerus at all times as at the first time. Rabbi Assi said: Why was Esther compared to the dawn [see BT Eruvin 54b]? To tell you that just as the dawn is the end of the whole night, so is the story of Esther the end of all the miracles. But there is Ḥanukkah?—we refer to those included in Scripture” (BT Yoma 28b–29b).

Ten Utterances: Five within Five

Add. 27006And what is the reason for [Aaron the High Priest] raising [his] hands and blessing [the people] with a blessing? This is because there are ten fingers on the hands, alluding to the ten sefirot by which the heavens and earth were sealed. And those ten correspond to the Ten Utterances, and with these ten all 613 mitsvot are included: If you count the letters in the Ten Utterances, you will find that there are 613 letters. They contain all twenty-two letters except ט (tet), which is missing in them. What is the reason? To teach you that ט (tet) is the בֶּטֶן (beten), belly [Binah], and it is not [reckoned among] the [seven lower] sefirot” (Bahir §124).

“There are 620 letters in the Ten Utterances, corresponding to the 613 commandments given to Israel and seven commandments given to the sons of Noah [i.e., humanity]. And their mnemonic is כֶּתֶּר תּוֹרָה (keter torah), Crown of Torah [since כֶּתֶּר (keter), crown, is numerically equivalent to 620]. This teaches that if a person learns Torah for her own sake, she becomes a crown upon his head. However, if he learns Torah not for her own sake, then he will be כָּרֵת (karet), cut off [see Genesis 17:14; BT Berakhot 17a; Yoma 72b; Ta’anit 7a].

Ten Utterances—there are עֵקֶ״ב (eqev), in consequence [one hundred and seventy-two], words, hinted at by Eliezer [who took a gold nose ring for Rebekah,] a בֶּקַע (beqa) its weight (Genesis 24:22); and two bracelets (ibid.)—two Tablets; ten gold shekels (ibid.)—Ten Utterances. This is: עֵקֶ״ב (eqev), because, Abraham has listened to My voice (Genesis 26:5); by keeping them—great reward עֵקֶ״ב (eqev), in the end (Psalms 19:12); that I may keep עֵקֶ״ב (eqev), without fail (ibid. 119:33); ‘Make your Torah study קֶבַ״ע (qeva), fixed [i.e., a habit]’ (M Avot 1:15).

A heritage for the assembly of יַעֲקֹב (ya’aqov), Jacob (Deuteronomy 33:4)—י״ (Ten) Utterances in which there are עק״ב (one hundred and seventy-two) words” (Ba’al ha-Turim on Exodus 20:14).

“Rabbi Ami son of Abba also said: Abraham was three years old when he recognized his Creator, as is written, עֵקֶ״ב (eqev), because, Abraham has listened to My voice (Genesis 26:5), the sum of עֵקֶ״ב (eqev), because, is one hundred seventy-two” (BT Nedarim 32a).

“Rabbi Yitsḥaq said… the days of his life spanned one hundred and seventy-five. Hence: עק״ב (one hundred and seventy-two), Abraham has listened to My voice, while for three he did not listen to Him….

Come and see: When Abraham—first holy lamp of the world—longed to ascend to his rung, he was unable to until he rose to three supernal rungs above his position. Once he recognized the blessed Holy One through those three—Ancient One, Father, and Mother—from whom a light streams below, then he united with his portion, first light called First Day. All cleave to their rungs from the midst of that speculum that presides above [alt., at night], of which no human being is aware—truly! Of this we learned: ‘Abraham recognized his Creator at the age of three years’—three years, precisely!

Come and see regarding those three years: Since Shekhinah is called Bathsheba, he was unable to cleave to Her until he rose to know Her, to be illuminated, and to shine upon all thit is below—with those three supernal rungs and the other seven. Seven and three: these are the ten celestial rungs—mystery of Mother of the blessed Holy One [Binah and Tif’eret]…” (Zohar Ḥadash 26b–27a).

“In these five all is included. In these five utterances are engraved five others—surely, five within five. How so?

I am YHWH your God (Exodus 20:2), corresponding to You shall not murder (ibid., 13), for we have learned: Rabbi Yitsḥaq said in the name of Rabbi Yehudah, ‘These two comprise a single principle, since one who kills diminishes the likeness and image of his Lord, as is written: For in the image of God He made the human (Genesis 9:6), and similarly: upon the image of a throne, an image like the appearance of a human (Ezekiel 1:26).

Rabbi Ḥiyya said, ‘It is written: He who sheds the blood of a human, by a human his blood shall be shed… (Genesis 9:6). He who sheds the blood of a human—whoever sheds blood is considered as if he diminishes the likeness and image above. Namely, he has not diminished this likeness, but rather another likeness, as implied by what is written: He who sheds blood of a human, בַּאָדָם (ba-adam), in the human—this defect from the blood that he shed reaches the human. Why? For in the image of God He made the human. Therefore, one depends on the other.’

You shall have no [other gods beside Me] (Exodus 20:3), corresponding to You shall not commit adultery (ibid., 13), for he betrays the name of the blessed Holy One, engraved in a person. Many, many sins, decrees, and punishments depend on this. Whoever betrays this betrays the King, as is written: They betrayed YHWH because they bore alien children (Hosea 5:7), and similarly: You shall not bow down to them and you shall not worship them (Exodus 20:5). One depends on the other.

You shall not take [the name of YHWH your God in vain] (ibid., 7), corresponding to You shall not steal (ibid., 13), and it is written: A thief’s accomplice hates himself; he hears the adjuration and does not testify (Proverbs 29:24). Surely, one depends on the other, for the thief is destined to swear falsely; whoever does this, does that.

Remember the Sabbath day (Exodus 20:8), corresponding to You shall not bear false witness against your fellow (ibid., 13), for Rabbi Yose said, ‘Sabbath is called testimony, and one must testify, as is written: For six days YHWH made [heaven and earth… and He rested on the seventh day] (ibid., 11), and Sabbath is totality of all.’ And Rabbi Yose said, ‘What is the meaning of the verse You will give truth to Jacob (Micah 7:20)? As is said: The children of Israel shall keep the Sabbath (Exodus 31:16). Whoever bears false witness is false to the Sabbath, which is testimony to the truth; and whoever betrays the Sabbath betrays the whole Torah.’ Consequently, one depends on the other.

Honor your father (Exodus 20:12), corresponding to You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife (ibid., 14). Rabbi Yitsḥaq said, ‘Honor your father—your father, precisely, for look, one who covets a woman and engenders a child, that child will honor another who is not his father!’

It is written: Honor your father… (Exodus 20:12); you shall not covet your neighbor’s house or field (ibid., 14). And here is written on the land that YHWH your God is giving you (ibid., 12)—what He is giving you will be yours, and you shall not covet something else. Surely, one depends on the other.

These first five include the five others. Consequently, From His right hand, a fiery law for them (Deuteronomy 33:2), for all became right. Therefore, Torah was transmitted in five voices….

Rabbi El’azar taught, ‘In these ten utterances were engraved all the commandments of Torah, decrees and punishments, pure and impure, branches and roots, trees and plants, heaven and earth, ocean and depths. For Torah is the name of the blessed Holy One’” (Zohar 2:90a–b).

 

 

The Ship Threatened to Break Up

Image“Jonah, descending into the ship, is the human soul descending into this world to enter a human body. Why is she called יוֹנָה (Yonah), Jonah? Because as soon as she joins the body, she is יֹנַה (yonah), cheated, in this world, as is said: וְלֹא תוֹנוּ (Ve-lo tonu), You shall not cheat, one another (Leviticus 25:17). Then a person moves through this world like a ship in the great ocean about to break up, as is said: The ship threatened to break up (Jonah 1:4).

When a person is in this world he sins, and thinks that he can flee from the presence of the Lord, who pays no attention to this world [cf. Zohar 3:136b (IR): ‘Scrutinizing providence, not revealed except when the wicked must be called to account and their deeds examined’]. Then the blessed Holy One casts a mighty windstorm—the Decree of Judgment, which stands constantly before the blessed Holy One, demanding a person’s punishment. This is what torments the ship, calling attention to the person’s sins, to seize him.

Once the person is seized by that tempest, in his sick bed, what is written? Jonah went down into the hold of the ship, and he lay down and fell asleep (Jonah 1:5). Even though a person is lying in his sickbed, the soul is not aroused to return to his Lord to redeem his sins.

What is written? The captain approached him (Jonah 1:6). Who is the captain? The good impulse, who guides all. And said to him, ‘What are you doing sound asleep?…’ (ibid.)—this is no time to sleep, for you are being brought to judgment for all that you have done in this world. Repent of your sins!

Reflect on these things and return to your Lord. What is your work (Jonah 1:8), in which you engaged in this world? Confess it before your Lord. Where do you come from? (ibid.)—reflect on where you come from: from a putrid drop, and you will not be arrogant before Him. What is your country (ibid.)—reflect that from earth you were created and to earth you will return. And of what people are you? (ibid.)—reflect whether you have ancestral merit to protect you [cf. M Avot 3:1].

Once he is brought to heavenly judgement, that tempest—which is the Decree of Judgement raging against a person—demands from the King to punish those royal prisoners, and they all come before Him one by one. At that moment, the members of the court approach. Some pleas in his defense, others against him, and the Decree of Judgement demands punishment.

If that person is not found innocent, what is written? The men rowed hard to regain the shore, but they could not (Jonah 1:13)—those who pleaded for his innocence strive to restore him in this world, but they could not. Why? For the sea was growing stormier (ibid.)—the Decree of Judgement grows stormier from the person’s sins and overwhelms them.

Then three appointed messengers descend upon him: one who inscribes all the good deeds and misdeeds that the person performed in this world; one who produces a reckoning of his days; and one who was with him in his mother’s womb, as we have established and the Decree of Judgement does not subside until the time that is described: They picked Jonah up (Jonah 1:15). They picked up—when they carry him from his house to the cemetery… If he is wicked, the proclamation is: ‘Woe to so-and-so! Better for him if he had never been created!’

Then what is written? They threw him into the sea, and the sea ceased its raging (Jonah 1:15)—when they place him in his grave, the place of judgment, then the Decree of Judgement, that was storming, subsides from its raging. And the fish that swallowed him is the grave.

What is written? Jonah was in the מְעֵי (m’ei), bowels, of the fish (Jonah 2:1). The bowels of the fish is the belly of Sheol. How do we know? As is written: מִבֶּטֶן (mi-beten), from the belly, of Sheol I cried out (ibid., 3)—he was in the bowels of the fish and called it the belly of Sheol.

Three days and three nights (Jonah 2:1)—the three days that a person lies in the grave, when his belly bursts… Afterward, the soul ascends, while the body decomposes in the dust, until the time when the blessed Holy One arouses the dead… Of then, it is written: YHWH spoke to the fish, and it vomited Jonah onto dry land (Jonah 2:11).

After that voice is aroused among the graves, every single grave will spew out the corpse it contains, as is written: The earth will cast forth spirits of the dead (Isaiah 26:19)” (Zohar 2:199a).

Rolling Souls

image“It was taught, Rabbi El’azar ha-Qappar said: Let one always pray to be spared this fate [of poverty], for if he does not descend his son will, and if not his son, his grandson, for it is said, בִּגְלַל (bigelal), because for this thing (Deuteronomy 15:10). The Academy of Rabbi Yishma’el taught: It is a גַלגַל (galgal), wheel, that revolves in the world” (BT Shabbat 151b).

“Seeing a גוּלגוֹלֶת (gulgolet), skull, floating on the water, [Hillel] said: ‘Because you drowned others, they drowned you, and those who drowned you will themselves eventually be drowned'” (M Avot 2:7).

“Rabbi Yirmeyah son of Abba said in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan, ‘Whoever walks four cubits in the land of Israel is assured to be a son of the world to come.’ Now… aren’t the righteous outside the Land going to be revived?—Rabbi Il’a said, ‘By גִּלְגּוּל (gilgul), rolling.’ Rabbi Abba Sala the Great objected, ‘Rolling will be painful to the righteous!'” (BT Ketubbot 111a, cf. Zohar 1:113b–114b [MhN], 131a).

“And this is the mystery of גִּלְגּוּל (gilgul), rolling: The גַלגַל (galgal), wheel, does not move without the flow of water through the conduit. Likewise, the conduit is the mystery of the letter ו (vav), by which the wheel is turned. And the secret of the matter is that just as the wheel will have no motion without the aqueduct, so too the wheel which is the letter י (yod) will have no rolling, without the aqueduct which is the letter ו (vav)… י (yod) is the point. ו (Vav) is [the conduit] of the wheel. And there is no movement in the wheel at the six spokes [the numerical value of ו (vav)], but only at the point” (Zohar 3:214b, Ra’aya Meheimna Pineḥas).

One does not Know the Taste of Sweet until He Tastes Bitter

?????????????????“It is written of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil: And YHWH showed him a tree, and he flung it into the water, and the water turned sweet (Exodus 15:25). Since the children of Israel were with the mixed multitude, they were of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. Therefore, it is half sweet from the right and half bitter from the left. When the mixed multitude caused the children of Israel to sin, it was as if all were on the Other Side. Consequently, the waters returned to their bitter state like the tree in the water. This is what is meant by and they came to Marah, and could not drink water from Marah, for it was bitter (ibid., 23). The bitter tree was similar to the test of a סוֹטָה (sotah), suspected wife. If she indeed strayed from her husband, the waters which she was made to drink turned bitter, and because of them her belly will swell, and her thigh sag (Numbers 5:27). If she did not stray, it is written she will be cleared, and sown with seed (ibid., 28), and give birth to a son. Here too, the waters were made sweet….

The Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, forbidden and permitted, pure and impure, will no longer apply to the children of Israel, since our sustenance will be solely from the side of the Tree of Life, where there are no contradictions stemming from the Other Side, nor any strife nor difference stemming from the unclean spirit, as is written And also I will cause… the unclean spirit to pass out of the land (Zechariah 13:2)” (Zohar 3:125a, Ra’aya Meheimna Naso).

“It has been taught: It is incumbent upon a person who studies wisdom to study some foolishness and now it, because thereby wisdom derives benefit—just as light derives some benefit from darkness, for were it not for darkness, light would not be recognized and the world would gain no benefit from it… This may be compared to sweet with bitter, for a person does not know the taste of sweet until he tastes bitter. What makes this sweet? You must admit, bitter. This corresponds to what is written: One against the other God has set (Ecclesiastes 7:14)” (Zohar 3:47b, cf. Ecclesiastes 2:13).