The Nut Garden

לקוטים מזוהר (Gleanings of Zohar)

Tag: dog

A Prisoner cannot Free Himself from Jail

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In his day you shall give his wages (Deuteronomy 24:15).

The Faithful Shepherd opened, ‘The following decree is to give a hired worker his hire in time. This is, In his day you shall give his wages, and the sun shall not set on him (ibid.). Listen, heads of the Academy high and low: Metatron is the hire of the hired worker, a messenger from the eighteen worlds to receive the eighteen blessings of the Amidah prayer every day, three times a day. For that reason, In his day you shall give his wages—the Shaḥarit service; and the sun shall not set on himMinḥah service, for if the day is past, the offering is no longer valid. For he is poor (ibid.)—surely he is poor in exile and has nothing but what he is given in prayer [see Zohar 1:179b: ‘(Metatron) the youth who is a poor child, possessing nothing at all of his own’]. For that reason his prayer is, prayer for the lowly when יַעֲטֹף (ya’atof), he is faint (Psalms 102:1), namely the יַעֲטוֹף (ya’atof), wrap, of the tsitsit and the hand tefillin [playing on two senses of the root עטף (‘tf), which can mean both ‘to be faint’ and ‘to cover oneself, wrap,’ as in ‘wrapping oneself in a tallit’ before binding tefillin, cf. Zohar 3:113b, TZ 6, 22a–b, 11, 26b; 21, 55b].

And his heart counts on it (Deuteronomy 24:15)—the Arvit (evening) service, which [corresponds to] the parts of the sacrifice and the fatty parts that are left from the offerings of the day [since prayer replaces Temple sacrifice, see BT Berakhot 6b on Psalms 141:2. Cf. Psalms 69:31–32; Hosea 14:3]. They are like single grapes of the vineyard and the edge of your field (Leviticus 19:9) of which we learned leaving things [over for the poor] is a mitsvah and hinders [divine] punishment. For the poor [Shekhinah and Metatron] and for the sojourner you shall leave them (ibid. 10). For the middle pillar [Tif’eret], when He is outside of His place is called a sojourner. For that reason, I [Moses the Faithful Shepherd, my rung being the middle pillar], called myself a sojourner in the first exile. This is, A sojourner have I been in a foreign land (Exodus 2:22), for He [Ze’eir Anpin] lies in exile for Her sake.’

The Masters of Mishnah asked him, ‘Faithful Shepherd, but Israel performed this decree in the land of Israel? He said to them, ‘This is in order to invoke compassion on those driven away from their place. For a man outside his place is called a sojourner, and all the more so the נִשְׁמָתִין (nishmatin), souls, that go naked from that world and come into this world. Of them is said, Like a bird wandering from its nest is a man wandering from his place (Proverbs 27:8). The soul, from which the Shekhinah does not move, is a man (ibid.), of whom it says, YHWH is a man of war (Exodus 15:3); wandering from his place (Proverbs 27:8)—roaming and roving from His place, which is the World that is Coming [Binah]. And He wanders after her in this world, until the days that the soul needs to go outside her place are completed. He guards her until He returns her to her place and swears He shall not return to His place before He returns her to her own. [Therefore] whoever repents is as if he returned the blessed Holy One and His Shekhinah to His place. This is the mystery of redemption, as is said, If you would only heed His voice! (Psalms 95:7)” (Zohar 3:278a–b, Ra’aya Meheimna Ki Tetse).

If you should lend money to My people, to the pauper among you, you shall not be to him like a creditor, you shall not impose interest on him. If you should indeed take in pledge your fellow man’s cloak, before the sun comes down you shall return it to him. For it is his sole covering, it is his cloak for his skin—in what can he lie? (Exodus 22:24–26).

“Woe to the sons of man who imprison the blessed Holy One with them in exile. The Shekhinah is imprisoned with them too, as is said, ‘A prisoner cannot free himself from jail’ (BT Berakhot 5b)—release is תְּשׁוּבָה (teshuvah), Repentance [lit., returning], supernal Mother [Binah], which does depend on them. The fifty gates of freedom are with Her [cf. Leviticus 25:54], for the fifty times going out of Egypt is mentioned in the Torah [see Zohar 3:262a]. This is: and he turned כֹּה וָכֹה (koh va-khoh), this way and that way (Exodus 2:12). Through these fifty letters one unifies twice every day in the recitation of Shema which has כ״ה וכ״ה (twenty-five and twenty-five) letters. And saw that no man was about (ibid.)—to awaken Her inside of them.

She watches from the windows, it says of them: And now, I pray you, beseech אֵל (El), God, that He will be gracious to us (Malachi 1:9)—to Her. Of Her is said, אֵל (El), God, pray, heal her, pray (Numbers 12:13), and the healing is through His hands, which is the spread hand to receive the penitents. And saw that no man was about—this is: through the window she looked out, and moaned (Judges 5:28), like teru’ah [of the ram’s horn], which is moaning. As is said, Noah opened the window of the ark he had made (Genesis 8:6)—on Yom Kippur, because the ark of Noah is supernal Mother. Through Her window, the middle pillar, came the light. And Torah is light—אוֹר הַגָּנוּז (or ha-ganuz), the hidden light.

And he turned this way and that way (Exodus 2:12). 

Peeping through the crannies (Song of Songs 2:9)—the Ten Days of Repentance. And saw that no man was about (Exodus ibid.). Furthermore: Peering through the windows (Song of Songs ibid.)—the windows of the house of assembly. Father [Abba] and Son [Ze’eir Anpin] are in the house of prisoners, and every day He [Arikh Anpin] watches over them and gives them sustenance.

And he turned this way and that way—if there might be someone who stirred to return and break his prison, as is written, That You may say to the prisoners, Go forth; to them that are in darkness, Show yourselves (Isaiah 49:9). And he turned this way and that way and saw that no man was about (Exodus 2:12). We have turned everyone to his own way (Isaiah 53:6); they all look to their own way, everyone for his gain, from his own quarter (ibid. 56:11). To gain more in this world, to inherit this world, and they are not from that place of which it says, God-fearing men, truthful men, haters of bribes (Exodus 18:21). Rather, in prayer on Yom Kippur all were howling like dogs. ‘Give! Give! Money, forgiveness, atonement, life. Seal us for life!’ And these are the greedy, likened to dogs [see Isaiah 56:1; Proverbs 30:15]. They are the nations of the world, that moan for themselves, and they are not shamefaced [see BT Sotah 49b: ‘With the footsteps of Messiah braz will increase… the face of the generation is like the face of a dog]. There are none who call to Him in repentance, to return the Shekhinah to the blessed Holy One, who is far from Him, to return Her to Him. They resemble dogs, as it says, And they mingled with the nations and learned their deeds (Psalms 106:35). These are the motley throng. Every good deed they do is only to benefit themselves [cf. BT Shabbat 33b; Bava Batra 10b].

Furthermore, they [only] ask for food, clothing, and time, which is time for coupling, as it says, he should not stint for this one her flesh, כְּסוּתָהּ (kesutah), her wardrobe, and her conjugal rights (Exodus 21:10) [cf. BT Ketubbot 48a]. There is nobody who asks for food of Torah, clothing of the Shekhinah, upper Mother [Binah], as it says, And do not forsake your mother’s teaching (Proverbs 1:8). ‘Clothing’ is the covering of tsitsit, and its cloak, and the tefillin of the hand as it says, A prayer for the lowly when he covers (Psalms 102:1). ‘And time’ is recitation of Shema in its proper time. With these three they did not act for the Shekhinah, [And if he does not do these three for her,] she shall go free without payment, with no כֶּסֶף (kesef), money (Exodus 21:11)—they have no כִּסּוּפָא (kissufa), shame, for the Shekhinah [who is like a pauper], they are brazen. Furthermore: With no כָּסֶף (kesef), money—they will not have any portion in the כִּסּוּפָא (kissufa), hidden, world that is coming [cf. Zohar 2:97a (SdM)].

Look, all this God performs twice or thrice with a man [to bring back his being from the Pit, to glow in the light of life] (Job 33:29). Because of this: for it is his sole כְסוּתֹה (khesutoh), covering (Exodus 22:26)—the first [life] cycle. It is his cloak for his skin (ibid.)—his second [life] cycle. In what can he lie? (ibid.)—his third [life] cycle. These are the three garments, the three coverings of the three colors of the eye, which are garments for the pupil of the eye which is the נְשָׁמָה (neshamah), soul” (Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 7, 22a–b).

Those Who Fear Sin are Treated like Dogs

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In the footsteps of Messiah impudence will swell; prices will surge; the vine will give its fruit but wine will be costly [or: scarce]; the kingdom will turn to sectarianism; and there will be no rebuke. The meeting place [of the Sages] will become a whorehouse; the Galilee will be destroyed; the highland will be desolate; the border people will wander from city to city and none will show them mercy; the wisdom of scribes will stink; sin‑fearing people will be detested; truth will be missing; young men will humiliate the elderly; the elderly will stand while the young sit; the son reviles the father, the daughter rises against her mother, the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law—a man’s enemies are the people of his household (Micah 7:6); The face of the generation is like the face of a dog; sons have no shame in front of their fathers; and on what can one depend? Our Father in Heaven” (M Sotah 9:15; BT Sotah 49b, cf. Plato, The Republic 562b).

Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of YHWH (Malachi 4:5).

“Elijah, rise and begin speaking with me about the decrees, since you are my help in everything. About you it was first said, Phinehas son of El’azar son of Aaron the priest (Numbers 25:11). Son of Aaron assuredly is his brother, as [At all times a companion is loving], and a brother was born for [the hour of] trouble (Proverbs 17:17).

He opened saying, It is a decree to discuss the laws of a suspected wife, as is written: Then a spirit of jealousy may come over him and he will be jealous (Numbers 5:14). Surely, a spirit of uncleanness exists on both sides, one false and one true. Therefore, in the spirit of falseness, he will be jealous about his wife, she not being defiled (ibid.), and the second: Then a spirit of jealousy may come over him… with her being defiled (ibid.).

Could there possibly be any truth in a spirit of uncleanness? It is because in a man, who stems from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, there exists the evil impulse, the serpent. When a man has a beautiful wife in all her good deeds, it is said, A virtuous woman is a crown for her husband (Proverbs 12:4). The evil impulse is jealous, as we have found it was jealous of Adam because of his wife, so it seduced her and caused her to die. Sometimes it dominates her through sins and defiles her, and she becomes a carcass.

The evil impulse on its right side, is the rank of Ishmael and is called serpent. From the left side, which is the rank of Esau, who is Samael, it is called dog. Appointed over Hell it barks הַב הַב (hav hav), as is written: The leech has two daughters, הַב הַב (hav hav), ‘give’ and ‘give’ (ibid. 30:15) [cf. BT Avodah Zarah 17a, ad loc.]. It wants to burn the soul made unclean with its fire in Hell. That is what is meant by: Then a spirit of jealousy may come over him and he will be jealous—truthfully; with her being defiled [on the dog Cerberus, see ZḤ 75b (MhN, Rut); Qeta Lo Yaru’a 83; TZ 12a; Idel, Absorbing Perfections p. 307].

And for her, it was said, should a priest’s daughter… (Leviticus 21:9)—Michael. When she degrades herself whoring, she has degraded her father, in fire shall she be burned (ibid.). There the filth is destroyed and she purifies herself of it, just as silver that purifies in fire and lead, which is the refuse, is burnt, becomes ash and is lost.

It is the same with the children of Israel. When they desecrate Torah, the blessed Holy One sends them into exile among the children of Esau and the children of Ishmael under their servitude, whose rank is of dog and serpent, and they are punished there. Through them, they become cleared and purified and refined like the refinement of silver and the trying of gold. This is what is said: And I will refine them as silver is refined, and will test them as gold is tested (Zechariah 13:9), until it will hold true of them: Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow (Isaiah 1:18).

It is written of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil: And YHWH showed him a tree, and he flung it into the water, and the water turned sweet (Exodus 15:25). Since the children of Israel were with the motley throng [or: mixed multitude], they were all of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. Therefore, it is half sweet from the right and half bitter from the left. When the motley throng caused the children of Israel to transgress, it was as if all were on the side of evil. Consequently, the waters returned to their bitter state like the tree in the water. This is what is meant by and they came to Marah, and could not drink water from Marah, for it was bitter (Exodus 15:23). The bitter tree was similar to the test of a סוֹטָה (sotah), suspected wife [cf. BT Avodah Zarah 44a]. If she indeed strayed from her husband, the waters which she was made to drink turned bitter, and because of them her belly will swell, and her thigh sag (Numbers 5:27). If she did not stray, it is written: she will be cleared, and sown with seed (ibid., 28), and give birth to a son. Here too, the waters were made sweet.

In the same manner, Israel will be tested in the final redemption. Many shall purify themselves, and make themselves white (Daniel 12:10)—those who are from the good side and who pass the test. But the wicked shall do wickedly (ibid.)—because they are from the Other Side and by them shall be fulfilled: Neither shall they enter into the Land of Israel (Ezekiel 13:9), and he kills them.

But the wise shall understand (Daniel 12:10), since they are from the aspect of בִּינָה (binah), Understanding, which is the Tree of Life. For them, it was said, they who are wise shall shine like the זֹהַר (zohar), brightness, in the firmament (ibid., 3), with your composition [Rabbi Shim’on son of Yoḥai] which is The Book of Zohar, from the light of supernal Mother, Repentance [Binah]. They do not require a test, and because the children of Israel in the future will taste from the Tree of Life, סֵפֶר הַזֹּהַר (sefer ha-zohar), The Book of Radiance, they will leave the exile with Compassion [Tif’eret]. It will hold true about them: YHWH alone did lead him, no alien god by His side (Deuteronomy 32:12).

The Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, prohibition or permission, purity or impurity, will no longer apply to the children of Israel, since our sustenance will be solely from the aspect of the Tree of Life, where there are no contradictions stemming from the Other Side [cf. Sefer ha-Temunah 3, 61b], nor any strife nor difference stemming from the unclean spirit, as is written: And also I will cause… the unclean spirit to pass out of the land (Zechariah 13:2).

Disciples of the Sages will not need to be sustained by the ignorant, just from the good side by eating of the clean, kosher and permissible. They will not need to get it from the motley throng, who eat the unclean, unfit and prohibited, and who are themselves defiled by defiling themselves with a menstruate, a slavegirl, a gentile woman, or a whore. They are the children of Lilit, who is a menstruate, a slavegirl, a gentile woman, and a whore, and they return to their roots. About them, it is written: For out of the serpent’s root shall come forth an adder (Isaiah 14:29).

During the period that the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil dominates, which pertains to the purity and impurity of worldly things, these sages are like the Sabbath which has nothing except what was prepared for it during the weekdays.

During the time that the Tree of Life dominates, the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil is subdued. Commoners will not have anything except for what disciples of the Sages hand out to them and they will become subdued like never before.

Thus, prohibition and permission, purity and impurity will not pass away from the commoners. From their aspect, there will be no apparent difference between the exile and the days of Messiah, except for the oppression of Israel by other kingdoms alone [cf. BT Berakhot 34b], because they will not taste from the Tree of Life and they will have to learn [Mishnah] about what is prohibited and permissible, what is unclean and clean. They will be shamed in front of scholars like darkness before light, since the motley throng are like beasts, who are ignorant, who are darkness and were not even called Israel, just slaves sold to Israel, as was already explained.

[Only] Israel are called human [see BT Bava Metsi’a 114b]. How do we know that they are composed of both beast and human? It is written: And you My flock, the flock of My pasture, are human (Ezekiel 34:31). And you My flock, the flock of My pasture—those who are ignorant of Torah but are good and stem from the good side. Are human—disciples of the Sages [cf. Rabbi Yehudah Ashlag, Panim Meirot u-MasbirotHaqdamah, 3: ‘Mineral, vegetable, animal, human, corresponding to the masses, the affluent, heroes, and sages.’ On Israel being composed of both beast and human, see BT Sotah 22a on Jeremiah 31:27].

It is also alluded to in, If My people would but heed Me, if Israel would go in My ways (Psalms 81:14). After mentioning My people, why say Israel? Because My people refers to commoners and Israel to scholars, disciples of the Sages. For them, it is mentioned: The sons of Israel going out with a high hand (Exodus 14:8).

As the blessed Holy One divided them at Mount Sinai, so He will differentiate them at the final redemption, because it says of Israel: And the sons of Israel went up armed from the land of Egypt (Exodus 13:18). חֲמֻשִׁים (amushim), armed—from the aspect of the Tree of Life which is חֲמִישִׁים (ḥamishim), fifty, years of Jubilee [Binah]. Of them, it says, Whosoever touches the mountain (Exodus 19:13); And the messenger of God that was going before the camp of Israel moved and went behind them (Exodus 14:19); I bore you on the wings of eagles (Exodus 19:4)—clouds of glory, and brought you to Me (ibid.). The sons of Israel going out with a high hand (Exodus 14:8)—so He will bring out disciples of the Sages with all that honor.

It is said of those who are ignorant of Torah yet are of the good side: And they stationed themselves under the mountain (Exodus 19:17)—so will they be at the final redemption, under scholars, like a servant that follows along the footsteps of his master’s horse. Just as it was called out to them under the mountain: ‘If you accept Torah, it is better, but if not, there will be your burial place’ (BT Shabbat 88a), so He will tell them at the final redemption, ‘If you will accept upon yourselves the scholars, disciples of the Sages during the redemption from the exile, like a horse rider with his servant, it is best, and if not, there in exile shall be your burial.’

The motley throng are as is written of them: And the people saw and they drew back and stood at a distance (Exodus 20:18). They will be far from the redemption and they will watch the disciples of the Sages and the holy nation in all this glory, but they will be far from them. If they wish to join with them, it is written: No hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned or be shot (Exodus 19:13). During that period, it will be fulfilled for Israel: YHWH alone did lead him, no alien god by His side (Deuteronomy 32:12). It was already explained that no new converts will be accepted during the days of Messiah [see BT Yevamot 24b]. [The steps of His faithful He watches,] and the wicked in darkness turn dumb (1 Samuel 2:9)—the motley throng. Therefore, the prophet proclaimed about them: Neither shall they enter into the land of Israel (Ezekiel 13:9).

Elijah said: Faithful Shepherd [Moses], it is time to rise up. Intone a solemn oath. For your sake, I wish to rise, since the blessed Holy One gave me permission to reveal myself to you in your prison, in your place of burial, and do you good because you are desecrated through the sins of the people, and this is the meaning of: But he was pierced for our sins (Isaiah 53:5).

The Faithful Shepherd [Moses] said to him: I intone on you solemnly the name of YHWH that you will do your utmost not to delay since I am in great distress: And he turned this way and that and saw that there was no man about (Exodus 2:12)—to help me, to take me out of this distress, from this grave, since it says about me, And he made his grave with the wicked (Isaiah 53:9). They do not recognize me but regard me as one of the evil motley throng, like a dead dog that has caused a stench among them. The wisdom of the scribes will stink among them in each and every city [see BT Sotah 49b], and in all places where Israel are scattered throughout their kingdoms. The motley throng become the shepherds of Israel, who are the flock of the blessed Holy One, as is said of them: And you My flock, the flock of My pasture, are human, [and I am your God, says YHWH God] (Ezekiel 34:31). And they have no ability to do good with the disciples of the Sages.

Courageous and sin-fearing men go about from one city to another and find no grace, and the motley throng excommunicate them from among them. In many places, they are only given a meager sum so they are unable to rise from their fall, even temporarily. All the Sages, able men and those who fear sin in distress and gloom, are treated like dogs [see BT Sotah 49b, cf. Isaiah 3:5: the child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable]. The precious sons of Zion, comparable to fine gold, how are they esteemed as earthen pitchers, the work of the hands of the potter! (Lamentations 4:2), in the streets, unable to find accommodation among them. Meanwhile the motley throng are wealthy, live in peace, in happiness, without pain, without any sorrow, robbers, bribe takers, who are the judges, the elite of their people, for the earth is filled with outrage by them (Genesis 6:13) [cf. BT Pesaḥim 50a]. About them, it is written: Her adversaries have become the chief (Lamentations 1:5). [The Faithful Shepherd, Moses, said to Elijah:] With a solemn oath on you, the second time, upon the life, and name, of YHWH of Armies, the God of Israel, who is enthroned upon the cherubs, that all these words will not fail from your mouth; with all your might, tell them before the blessed Holy One to show their distress” (Zohar 3:124b–25b, Ra’aya Meheimna Naso).

Decline of the Generations: As for Us the Opening is no Bigger than the Eye of a Fine Needle

“Moses received Torah from Sinai and handed it on to Joshua; Joshua to the elders; the elders to the prophets; and the prophets handed it on to the men of the Great Assembly. They said three things: Be careful in judgment; raise up many disciples; and make a fence for Torah” (M Avot 1:1).

“Rabbah son of Son of Ḥana said in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan, reporting Rabbi Yehudah son of Ila’i: See what a difference there is between the earlier and the later generations. The earlier generations made their Torah permanent and their ordinary work occasional, and both prospered in their hands. The later generations made their ordinary work permanent and their Torah occasional, and neither prospered in their hands” (BT Berakhot 35b, cf. Gittin 81a).

“Rabbi Zera said that Rava son of Zamina said: ‘If the early ones were like angels then we are like human beings, but if the early ones were like human beings then we are like donkeys; not like the donkey of Rabbi Ḥanina son of Dosa or the donkey of Rabbi Pinḥas son of Ya’ir but like ordinary donkeys’” (BT Shabbat 112b).

“Compared with Sarah, all other people are like a monkey to a human being, and compared with Eve Sarah was like a monkey to a human being, and compared with Adam Eve was like a monkey to a human being, and compared with the Shekhinah Adam was like a monkey to a human being. The beauty of Rabbi Kahana was a reflection of the beauty of Rabbi Abbahu; the beauty of Rabbi Abbahu was a reflection of the beauty of our father Jacob, and the beauty of Jacob was a reflection of the beauty of Adam” (BT Bava Batra 58a).

“Rabbi Yoḥanan said: ‘The heart of the earlier ones was open like the entrance to the outer hall of the Temple, while the heart of the later ones was open only like the entrance to the inner hall [which was smaller]. But as for us the opening is no bigger than the eye of a fine needle….’ Abbaye said: ‘We are like a peg in a wall with regard to Gemara.’ Rava said: ‘We are like a finger in wax with regard to common sense.’ Rabbi Ashi said: ‘We are like a finger in a pit with regard to forgetfulness’” (BT Eruvin 53a).

“Rav said: Torah is destined to be forgotten in Israel, as is said, [If you do not keep to do all the words of this teaching written in this book to fear this solemn and fearsome name, YHWH your God,] YHWH will make your plagues and the plagues of your seed הִפְלָא (hifla), astounding, [great and relentless plagues, evil and relentless illnesses] (Deuteronomy 28:59): now, I do not know what this astonishment is, but when it is said, [And the Master said, Inasmuch as this people approached with its mouth and with its lips honored Me but kept its heart far from Me, and their reverence for Me was a commandment of men learned by rote,] therefore will I continue to strike this people with הַפְלֵא וָפֶלֶא (ha-fle va-fele), wonder upon wonder, [and the wisdom of its wise men shall vanish and the discernment of its discerners disappear] (Isaiah 29:13–14), it follows that this wonder refers to Torah” (BT Shabbat 138b).

“Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The fingernail of the earlier generations is better than the belly of the later generations. Resh Laqish said to him: On the contrary, the latter generations are better, although they are oppressed by the governments, they are occupying themselves with Torah. He [Rabbi Yoḥanan] replied: The Temple will prove it for it came back to the former generations, but not to the latter ones. The question was put to Rabbi El’azar: Were the earlier generations better, or the later ones? He answered: Look upon the Temple! Some say he answered: The Temple is your witness” (BT Yoma 9b).

“Come and hear: When the First Temple was destroyed, the cities with pastureland [… for the Levites] (Numbers 35:2) were abolished, the Urim and Thummim ceased, and there was no more a king from the House of David. However, if a person should whisper to you [that, in fact, the Urim and Thummim remained, as is written with regard to the time of the Second Temple:] And the governor said to them, that they should not eat of the most holy things, till a priest could consult with Urim and with Thummim (Ezra 2:63), reply to him: like a man says to his fellow, ‘Until the dead live and the Messiah, son of David, comes!’ [i.e., the distant future].

However, Rav Naḥman son of Yitsḥaq said: Who are the former prophets? This excludes Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi who are the latter prophets. For our Rabbis have taught: When Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi died, the רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ (ruaḥ ha-qodesh), Holy Spirit, departed from Israel; nevertheless they made use of the בַּת קוֹל (bat qol), Daughter of Voice [i.e, a reverberating sound or echo, see Tosefta, Sotah 13:3; JT Sotah 9:12, 24b; BT Yoma 9b, Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah on 8:10].

On one occasion they were sitting in the upper chamber of Gurya’s house in Jericho; Daughter of Voice was granted to them from the heavens, announcing, ‘There is in your midst one man who is deserving that the Shekhinah should rest upon him, but his generation is unworthy of it.’ They all looked at Hillel the elder; and when he died, they lamented over him, ‘Alas, the devout man! Alas, the humble man! Disciple of Ezra!’ On another occasion they were sitting in an upper chamber in Yavneh; Daughter of Voice was granted to them from the heavens, announcing, ‘There is in your midst one man who is deserving that Shekhinah should alight upon him, but his generation is unworthy of it.’ They all looked at Shemu’el the Little; and when he died, they lamented over him, ‘Alas, the humble man! Alas, the devout man! Disciple of Hillel!’ At the time of his death he also said, ‘Shim’on [son of Gamaliel] and Yishma’el [son of Elisha the High Priest are destined] for the sword and their companions for death, and the rest of the people for plunder, and great distress will come upon the people.’

They also wished to lament over Rabbi Yehudah son of Bava [a victim of the Hadrianic Persecution], ‘Alas, the devout man! Alas, the humble man!’ But the hour was unstable and they could not lament publicly over those who had been murdered by the government” (BT Sotah 48b).

“Our Rabbis have taught: Hillel the Elder had eighty disciples, thirty of whom were worthy of the Shekhinah resting upon them, as [it did upon] Moses our Master, thirty of whom were worthy that the sun should stand still for them [as it did for] Joshua son of Nun [see Joshua 10:12], [and the remaining] twenty were ordinary. The greatest of them was Yonatan son of Uzziel [cf. BT Megillah 3a], the smallest of them was Yoḥanan son of Zakkai.

They said of Rabbi Yoḥanan son of Zakkai that he did not leave [unstudied] Scripture, Mishnah, Gemara, Halakhah, Aggadah, details of the Torah, details of the Scribes, inferences a minori ad majus, analogies, [the calculation of] seasons, gematriyyot, the speech of the ministering angels, the speech of spirits, and the speech of palm-trees, parables of launderers and fox fables, great matters or small matters; great matters mean the Account of the Chariot, small matters [such as halakhot that were ultimately formulated in the framework of] the disputes of Abbaye and Raba; in order to fulfil what is said, To pass substance on to my lovers, and their storehouses to fill (Proverbs 8:21). And if the smallest of them was so great, how much more so was the greatest? They said of Yonatan son of Uzziel that when he used to sit and occupy himself with the study of Torah, every bird that flew above him was burnt immediately” (BT Sukkah 28a).

“Rav Papa said to Abbaye: How is it that for the former generations miracles were performed and for us miracles are not performed? It cannot be because of their [superiority in] study, because in the years of Rav Yehudah the whole of their studies was confined to נְזִיקִין (neziqin), Damages, and we study all six orders [of the Mishnah]… and yet when Rav Yehudah took off one shoe, rain used to come, whereas we torment ourselves and cry loudly, and no notice is taken of us! He replied: The former generations used to be ready to sacrifice their lives for the sanctity of the Name; we do not sacrifice our lives for the sanctity of the Name” (BT Berakhot 20a).

In the footsteps of Messiah impudence will swell; prices will surge; the vine will give its fruit but wine will be costly [or: scarce]; the kingdom will turn to sectarianism; and there will be no rebuke. The meeting place [of the Sages] will become a whorehouse; the Galilee will be destroyed; the highland will be desolate; the border people will wander from city to city and none will show them mercy; the wisdom of scribes will stink; sin‑fearing people will be detested; truth will be missing; young men will humiliate the elderly; the elderly will stand while the young sit; the son reviles the father, the daughter rises against her mother, the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law—a man’s enemies are the people of his household (Micah 7:6); The face of the generation is like the face of a dog; sons have no shame in front of their fathers; and on what can one depend? Our Father in Heaven”(M Sotah 9:15; BT Sotah 49b, cf. Plato, The Republic 562b).

“But verging on the days of the Messiah, even children of the world are destined to find hidden treasures of wisdom, thereby discovering calculations of the end. At that time it will be revealed to all, as is written: For then (Zephaniah 3:9). What does then mean? When Assembly of Israel rises from the dust, raised by the blessed Holy One. Then I will transform the language of the peoples into a purer one, so they may all call upon the name of YHWH and serve Him shoulder to shoulder (ibid.)” (Zohar 1:118a).

“Rabbi Simon said in the name of Rabbi Yehoshu’a son of Levi: מנצפ״ך (MNTsPK)—צוֹפִים (tsofim), Watchers [i.e., the visionary prophets], uttered them [i.e., the open form of the letters], Halakhah from Sinai [see BT Shabbat 104a]. Rabbi Yirmeyah said in the name of Rabbi Ḥiyya son of Abba: They are what the Watchers instituted [hence the mnemonic מנצפ״ך rather than כמנפ״ץ following the order of the Hebrew alphabet].

It once happened on a stormy day that the Sages did not attend the House of Assembly. Some children were there and they said, ‘Come and let us make a House of Assembly! What is the reason it is written מֵ״ם מֵ״ם נוּ״ן נוּ״ן צָדִּ״י צָדִּ״י פֵּ״א פֵּ״א כָּ״ף כָּ״ף [i.e., why do these letters have two forms]? These [teach that Torah was transmitted] from מַאֲמָר לְמַאֲמָר (ma’amar le-ma’amar), from utterance to utterance, נֶאֱמָן לְנֶאֱמָן (ne’eman le-ne’eman), from steadfast to steadfast, צַדִּיק לְצַדִּיק (tsaddiq le-tsaddiq), from righteous to righteous, פֶּה לְפֶה (peh le-feh), from mouth to mouth, and כַּף לְכָף (kaf le-khaf), from palm to palm…’” (Bereshit Rabbah 1:11).

The words of the wise are כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת (ka-darvonot), like goads (Ecclesiastes 12:11). Rabbi Berekiah the Kohen said: כְּכַדּוּר שֶׁל בָּנוֹת (ke-khadur shel banot), like a girls’ ball. As with a child’s סְפַיְרָה (sefairah), ball, which they pickup and throw about, this way and that, so too the words of the wise” (Bemidbar Rabbah 14:4, cf. Tanḥuma, Beha’alotḥa 15).

The words of the wise are כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת (ka-darvonot), like goads (Ecclesiastes 12:11)—כְּכַדּוּר שֶׁל בָּנוֹת (ke-khadur shel banot), like a girls’ ball. What is a ball turned from hand to hand which has never fallen to the ground? [Tradition,] thus: Not a single word has fallen of all the good words that YHWH your God has spoken (Joshua 23:14).

What is a ball tossed by hands which has never fallen to the ground? [קַבָּלָה (Qabbalah), tradition,] thus: ‘Moses קִבֵּל (qibbel), received, Torah from Sinai and handed it on to Joshua; Joshua to the elders; the elders to the prophets, and the prophets handed it on to the men of the Great Assembly’ (M Avot 1:1)” (Qohelet Rabbah on 12:11, cf. Tanḥuma, Beha’alotḥa 15).

“Every man must conduct himself to employ this Name [i.e., this book] with fear of sin and humility. Love is first, desirable actions second, and fear is third [cf. M Sotah 9:15; BT Avodah Zarah 20b; Zohar 3:145a; Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 5b]. And happy is the man whose Creator has granted the understanding and knowledge to fathom the mystery of this great Name which all the Sages, men of God who have illuminated our Torah, have employed and handed one to the other in great secrecy and with perfect intention, mouth to mouth (Numbers 12:8) [cf. BT Ḥagigah 13a; Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed 1:71].

These are the names of the heads of the generations who employed this Name—see the greatness of these men and how they acted with the necessary honor in these matters: The first to employ it was Adam [cf. Pirqe de-Rabbi Eli’ezer 8Zohar 1:52a; 2:55a], who employed it many days to know wisdom and understanding. He handed it on to Seth and Seth composed many books of unfathomable wisdom and arranged all the orders of the מֶרְכָּבָה (merkavah), Chariot, by the discernment of this Name. Seth handed it on to Enosh who went astray and misled the sons of his generation and so the generation of the Flood started to stray from the way and to spread whoring [cf. TanḥumaBereshit, 12:3; Job 21:14]. With great lust they gazed at the הַרַּכֶּבֶת הַכֹּחוֹת (ha-rakevet ha-koḥot), ladder of forces [of cause and effect], saying, ‘As it is fitting for these to הַרְכִּיב (harkiv), mount, each other, so will we do.’

And Enosh handed it on to Arpachshad [cf. Jubilees 9:4] who became very wise in it and Arpachshad handed it on to Methuselah [cf. Yalqut ShimoniBereshit, 5:42], but Enoch the father of Methuselah, did not favor it because he feared he might seize it and incur guilt. Methuselah handed it on to Lamech and Lamech handed it on to Noah.

Noah handed it on to his son Shem and Shem established his academy and dispersed the wisdom to enlighten many to return faithfully to the Good and he reigned over all the princes of the earth and all princes of the peoples served at his table [on Shem as the youngest, yet, wisest of Noah’s sons, see BT Sanhedrin 69b. On Shem’s academy, see BT Makkot 23b; Avodah Zarah 36b; Bereshit Rabbah 63:7, 67:8].

Shem handed it on to his son Eber and Eber handed it on to Abraham and Eber handed it on to Isaac and Eber handed it on to Jacob [each generation receiving from the source]. And Abraham added wisdom and knowledge to it and handed it on to his son Isaac in exacting detail [cf. MS Vatican 299; Bahir §192]. And Jacob handed it on to his sons, but to Levi he gave the main part [see Rabbi Yosef Gikatilla, Sha’arei Tsedeq, 2b, on Deuteronomy 33:8]. And Levi handed it on to Amram and Amram handed it on to Moses and Moses attained an exceedingly lofty and wondrous wisdom with it  [cf. BT Yevamot 49b: ‘All the prophets gazed through a dim glass, whereas Moses our Rabbi gazed through a clear glass’; BT Rosh ha-Shanah 21b; Nedarim 38a: ‘Fifty gates of Binah were created in the world, and all were given to Moses save one, as it says, And You made him little less than אֱלֹהִים (Elohim) (Psalms 8:6)].

Moses handed it on to Aaron and Aaron to his sons Nadab and Abihu who delved deeply to know the matter but were punished as the Torah informs us [see Leviticus 10:1–2; cf. Pesiqta de-Rav Kahana 26:9; Zohar 2:126a]. However, the קַבָּלָה (qabbalah), tradition, remained with Phinehas. And he delved to know more than all who preceded him and Phinehas handed it on to Joshua, although Joshua learned this teaching—this profound secret—from Moses [cf. Ba’al ha-Turim on Numbers 27:20: ‘And YHWH said to Moses, ‘Take you Joshua son of Nun, a man who has spirit within him, and lay your hand upon him… and you shall set something of you grandeur upon him in order that all the Israelite community will heed’ (Numbers 27:18–20)—מֵהוֹדְךָ (me-hodekha), something of your grandeur, is numerically equivalent to הַסוֹד (ha-sod), the secret’].

Joshua handed it on to Caleb and Caleb handed it on to his brother’s son Othniel who became very strong, as is written, [And Caleb said, ‘Whoever strikes Kiriath-Sepher (Scribe Townand takes it, to him I shall give Achsah my daughter as wife.’And Othniel son of Kenaz, Caleb’s younger brother, took it (Joshua 15:16–17; Judges 1:12–13).

Othniel handed it on to Ehud and Ehud to his sons but all of them were punished, however, he handed it on to Machir son of Jair and Machir handed it on to Eli and Eli to Samuel and Samuel delved to know like Moses, quality by quality [see BT Berakhot 31a on Psalms 99:6], and he arranged several wards and handed it on to Saul but he did not know how to wield it and was punished. Saul handed it on to David and David to his son Chileab and Chileab to his brother Solomon and in it Solomon became wise, more than all who preceded him, as is written, And he was wiser than all men [… and his fame was in all the nations round about] (1 Kings 5:11). Solomon handed it on to Benaiah and Benaiah hid it in the Temple archives. Then came the wise kings of Judah and took it out from there [see 2 Chronicles 17:3–9].

There are those who say that Solomon handed it on to Amos, and Amos to Isaiah and Isaiah to Zephaniah and Zephaniah to Jeremiah and Jeremiah to Baruch and Baruch to Ezra and Ezra and his court were wise and discerning [cf. BT Megillah 15a: ‘Rabbi Yehoshu’a son of Korḥa said: Malachi is the same as Ezra, and the Sages say that Malachi was his proper name…’]. Their number was as the number of the one hundred-twenty righteous, chieftains of the Israelites who stood in the breach [see Ezra 10:14; cf. Psalms 106:23]. And Ezra and his court handed it on to Shemaiah and Avtalion, sons of Sennacherib king of Assyria who came to shelter under His wings [i.e., to convert, see BT Gittin 57b]. When the Sages saw that they were deserving of this name they handed it on to them and Shemaiah and Avtalion handed it on to Hillel and Shammai. [Hillel] was a descendent of the royal house of David as is found in Chronicles [see 1 Chronicles 3; BT Ketubbot 62b: ‘Rabbi (Yehudah ha-Nasi) descended from (Hillel, who, in turn, descended from David’s son) Shephatiah the son of Avital’].

Hillel and Shammai handed it on to Yonatan son of Uzziel and to Rabbi Yoḥanan son of Zakkai [see BT Sukkah 28a], and they plumbed its depths according to their reach [but not like Rabbi Neḥunia son of ha-Qannah, see Heikhalot Rabbati §203], and they handed it on to Rabbi Eli’ezer the Great. Rabbi Eli’ezer the Great handed it on to Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Akiva to Yehudah ha-Nasi, until Rabbi Shim’on [son of Yoḥai] came, but from the days of Rabbi Shim’on it remained hidden and closed [cf. Zohar 1:224b–225a; 3:58a: ‘Come and see: Among generations to come, Torah is destined to be forgotten, and the wise-hearted will gather in the Holy Chamber, yet there will be no one who can close and open (i.e., to declare forbidden, or pure, and permitted, or pure). Woe to that generation! From here on, there will be no generation like this one until King Messiah arrives’], except for a few later sages who grasped and understood it according to [mere] intellect such as the Geonim who delved to know the mysteries of the blessed Holy One according to the wisdom of the time and according to the [limited] wisdom of the generation.

When it arose in thought before the Creator to create this world with this Name, to extend a cord (Isaiah 44:13), and stand Mount Moriah by His qualities—the mountain God desired for His dwelling (Psalms 68:17)—He stood the table at the north with all sorts of food, created orbs to praise His Name, and servants performing His pleasure (ibid. 103:21). And with this Name, hung the world over its position. He built the Temple such that through windows this very light, without end and without limit, might dwell and illuminate. From this Name pillars of understanding were rooted, walls of wisdom, and windows of light. With this Name the Temple was filled with illustrious זוֹהַר (zohar), radiance [see BT Menaḥot 86b; Tanḥuma (Buber), Beha’alotkha 2:1; Vayiqra Rabbah 31:7].

He is our God and we are His servants but there are none who may approach Him proudly to see His beauty, except three. Their sign is, שְּׁמִי לְעֹלָם (shemi le-olam), My name forever [and thus am I invoked in all ages] (Exodus 3:17) [cf. BT Sanhedrin 38b on Exodus 23:21], and they are: שְׁמוּעִיאֵל (Shemui’el), מְטַטְרוֹן (Metatron), and יָהוֹאֵל (Yaho’el) [cf. Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 55, 89a]. [Since the gates of light have been closed from the time of Rabbi Shim’on son of Yoḥai] these three angels reveal secrets of the Name to created beings in order to make known His splendor and the triumph of His strength. It is the root of our Torah and the essence of our faith, the place of Rest. The first to make known the singularity of the Creator and His covenant with Israel. To make known His dominion with them and His partnership with them [see Zohar 1:5a]. It is named in memory of the mystery of His wisdom: סֵפֶר בְּרִית הַמְנוּחָה (sefer berit ha-menuḥa), The Book of the Covenant of Rest.

Happy the man whose strength is in You (Psalms 84:6)—to know His highways, His conduct; My God’s processions, my King in holiness (ibid. 68:25)—His wondrousness. And thus I have recounted the names of the Sages who have employed it [i.e., the secret of the great Name]….

And now you will be able to grasp and understand the strength of your God, the essence of His vast wonders, more than the ancients in their great wisdom. For the truth is that the first generations are very wise, the middle generations not so [wise], and the last generations are wiser than the first, for this accords with the nature and יְצִירַת הָעוֹלָם (yetsirat ha-olam), formation of the world. As with the rotation of the wheel [of a watermill, i.e., the vicissitudes of fortune], the first ones which ascend are full, the middle ones pour, and the last ones draw and ascend in order to pour as well [cf. Zohar 1:243b; Pesiqta de-Rav Kahana 5:12; Shemot Rabbah 15:26: ‘When Solomon appeared, the disk of the moon became full’; Rabbi Yeshayahu ben Mall di Trani, She’elot u-Teshuvot Rid, № 62]….

Daughters of Jerusalem, swear to me by the gazelles, by the deer in the field, that you will never awaken love until it is ripe (Song of Songs 2:7; 3:5). For although King Solomon in his great wisdom understood how to vocalize יהוה (YHWH) he swore in the name of all the holy nation not to ponder it until the day the blessed Holy One bestows compassion on His people and their Land, and open before them the gates of light. And now as I said, the gates of wisdom have begun to open, and therefore, one may study and gain great wisdom” (Berit MenuḥaIntroduction; The Second Way: The Way of Love, Eighth Vowel, Ninth Vowel).

“Rabbi Shim’on replied… ‘We have revealed what was not revealed to the ancient ones!’” (Zohar 3:287a).

Recount to the last generation (Psalms 48:14).

Six Hundred Sixty and Six

Hoard_of_ancient_gold_coins“[The Egyptian sorcerers’] wisdom was great, and they observed the hour and examined the rungs and saw that in all aspects, בְּשֵׁשׁ מֹשֶׁה (be-shesh Moshe), Moses was in six: in the first six hours of the day, over which they had no power; in six supernal rungs, linked with him. In all aspects he was in six, and in the crowns of the six he was destined to descend from the mountain, as is written: that Moses, בֹשֵׁשׁ (vo-shesh), lagged—[read instead:] was בְּשֵׁשׁ (be-shesh), in sixin coming down from the mountain (Exodus 32:1)” (Zohar 2:191b).

“When sixty years have passed over the threshold of the sixth millenium, the God of Heaven will begin attending the daughter of Jacob. From then, six more years, totaling seventy-three. In sixty-six, King Messiah will appear in the land of Galilee. One star in the East will swallow seven stars in the North, and a flame of black fire will dangle in the sky for sixty days. Wars will be instigated in the North, in which two kings will fall. All nations will join in battle against the daughter of Jacob, to drive her from the world. Of that time it is written: It is a time of distress for Jacob, but he will be delivered from it (Jeremiah 30:7). Then souls will be depleted from the body and will need to be renewed [cf. BT Yevamot 62a: ‘The son of David will not come until all the souls in the body have been depleted, for it is said: For the spirit enwraps itself before Me and the souls that I have made (Isaiah. 57:16)’]. Your mnemonic: All the souls of the house of Jacob who came to Egypt numbered sixty-six (Genesis 46:26–27)” (Zohar 1:116a–18b).

And the Holy Lamp [Rabbi Shim’on son of Yoḥai] said: All the souls of the house of Jacob… numbered sixty-six (Genesis 46:26–27). Sixty—for the awakening of the first Messiah [Son of Joseph]. Six—for the awakening of the second Messiah [Son of David], and this leaves six years until seventy-two. To establish therein the verse: six years you shall sow your field, and six years you shall prune your vineyard, and gather in its fruit (Leviticus 25:3) [alluding to the ingathering of the exiles]. As is said: Israel is holy to YHWH, the first fruits of his increase (Jeremiah 2:3). 

If it is so what is: רָנּוּ (rannu), sing with gladness, for Jacob (Jeremiah 31:6) [רָנּוּ (rannu) being numerically equivalent to 256]? There are to be four redemptions [cf. Exodus 6:6–7: I will take you out… I will rescue you… I will redeem you… I will take you to Me] corresponding to the four cups of wine at Passover since Israel are scattered into four directions of the world, and those who are among the nations that are far away, will be early, in רנ״ו (two hundred and fifty-six). The next group in sixty; the third in sixty-six; and the fourth in seventy-two.

And these redemptions will be with the four living beings [of the Chariot] in the name of יהוה (YHWH), who rides on them, as is written: that You did ride upon Your horses and Your chariots of rescue (Habakkuk 3:8). Opposite them will awaken below four standards and twelve tribes [cf. Numbers 2:2; Bamidbar Rabbah 2:7], in the mystery of: ‘יְהוָה מֶלֶךְ יְהוָה מָלָךְ יְהוָה יִמְלוֹךְ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד (Adonai melekh, Adonai malakh, Adonai yimlokh le-olam va-ed), YHWH reigns, YHWH reigned, YHWH will reign for ever and ever’ (Musaf) [cf. Psalms 96:10, 93:1; Exodus 15:18]. There are twelve letters here [i.e., three iterations of יהוה (YHWH)], corresponding to the twelve tribes, and the twelve faces of the three patriarchs about whom it has been said: The patriarchs are the Chariot. And these ten tribes—one thousand years. The other two tribes—two hundred years, and from the twelve letters are suspended the seventy-two names. And these seventy-two are the years after one thousand and two hundred years [the Zohar implies that these were auspicious times for Israel to repent, and that their redemption was dependent on their repentance (Sullam), cf. BT Sanhedrin 98a] (Zohar 3:252a, Ra’aya Meheimna Pineḥas).

Bribing the Other Side: Save from the Sword My Soul, from the Cur’s Power My Person

hyena

“Come and see: Had [Job] given a portion to all, the Accuser could not have prevailed against him later. Now, you might ask, ‘Why did the blessed Holy One harm him?’ Well, because he caused the light to be covered and concealed, and did not bring another offering, sustaining others—only an ascent offering, rising above. Therefore it is written: This Job did continually (Job 1:5). For if the Other Side had been nourished with a portion, he would have been removed from the Temple and withdrawn, and the side of Holiness would have ascended higher and higher. But he did not want another to be nourished by his offering, so he removed himself from him. How do we know? As is written: and shunning evil (Job 1:1). Therefore he always brought an ascent offering, from which the Other Side never derives pleasure; so everything that he later took was his to take. Thus Job caused foreskin to cover the sealed covenant, from which it did not depart; and consequently the blessed Holy One aroused that Accuser, as is written: Have you noticed My servant Job? (Job 1:8).

Come and see: When the blessed Holy One wished to unite with Israel, the time was not ripe because foreskin covered the light—until that Accuser took what was his from Job. Therefore the blessed Holy One commanded that it be eaten in haste, for that Other Side was engaged with Job, and He commanded them to remove foreskin. Then the blessed Holy One united with Israel, and that Other Side separated from holiness, engaging with Job and taking what was his. Then, It is a passover offering to YHWH (Exodus 12:11). For until now, it was not a passover offering to YHWH. Happy are they who unify their Lord fittingly!…

Come and see: The goat that Israel sends to the dessert is in order to give a portion to that Other Side, with which to be occupied. Now, you might say, ‘Why two goats here—one for YHWH and one for that Other Side? Granted, that goat of the Other Side, but why for YHWH? ‘Well, this may be compared to a king who sat in judgement over his son. He summoned the bailiff, who regularly administers punishment, so that he would prepare to punish his son. That bailiff was glad, and entered the king’s palace to eat there. When his son saw, he said to himself, ‘Surely, this bailiff has come into my father’s palace only because the king is angry with me.’ What did he do? He went and reconciled with him. Once he had done so, the king ordered that the bailiff should not know of it. Afterward, the bailiff entered. The king said to himself, ‘Now if this one knows about the meal that I have prepared for myself and my son, the table will be disrupted.

What did he do? He summoned the butler and told him, ‘Prepare something and place it in front of me and in front of that bailiff, so that he thinks he is dining from my food in my presence, and he won’t know about that precious joyous feast for me and my son; he will take that portion and leave, and withdraw from the joy of our feast.’ If the king had not done so, that bailiff would not have departed from the king’s palace. Therefore the blessed Holy One said, ‘Prepare two goats, one for Me and one for that Denouncer, so that he will think that he is eating from My meal and be unaware of our other joyous feast, and he will take that portion and go on his way and depart from My house” (Zohar 2:181b–185a).

“There is a saying: ‘To the contemptible one in the royal palace—give him a little wine and he will praise you before the king. Otherwise, he will speak evil; and sometimes superiors of the palace convey those words, on account of which the king imposes punishment.’

Rabbi Yitsḥaq said, ‘This may be compared to a fool who stands before the king. Give him some wine and then tell him and show him all those deviancies you have committed and all those bad deeds, and he will come and praise you, saying that there is no one in the world like you.

Here, too, the Denouncer is standing constantly before the King. The people of Israel present him this gift, in which is a list of all the bad deeds, all the deviancies, and all the sins that they have committed; and he comes and praises Israel and becomes their Defender. And the blessed Holy One transfers everything onto the head of his people, since it is written For you are heaping live coals on his head, and YHWH will reward you (Proverbs 25:22)” (Zohar 3:101b–102a).

“Rabbi Shemu’el son of Naḥmani in the name of Rabbi Yonatan said: Every mitsvah that one performs in this world precedes him and walks in front of him in the world to come, as is said: And your righteousness shall go before you; the glory of YHWH shall be your rear guard (Isaiah 58:8). Likewise, every transgression that one commits מְלֻפַּפְתּוֹ (melupafto), clasps round him, and leads him on the day of judgment, as is said, יִלָּפְתוּ (Yillaftu), they clasp round him, the path of their way (Job 6:18). Rabbi El’azar said: It is attached to him like a dog, as is said, And he would not listen to her, to lie by her, to be with her (Genesis 39:10). To lie by her—in this world; to be with her—in the world to come” (BT Avodah Zarah 5a).

“As the saying goes, ‘Throw a dog a bone and he’ll lick the dust off your feet.’ Son of Zoma was asked, ‘Is it permitted to castrate a dog?’ [see BT Ḥagigah 14b, cf. M Avot 4:1; Zohar 2:89a]? He replied, ‘[And anything with crushed or smashed or torn-off or cut-off testes you shall not bring forward to YHWH, and] in your land you shall not do it (Leviticus 22:24)—to all that is in your land you shall not do it.’ Just as the world needs this, the world needs that! Concerning this is said: and behold, it was very good (Genesis 1:31)—the Angel of Death. It must not be eliminated from the world [see BT Sanhedrin 64a]; the world needs it! Even though it is written concerning them: The dogs are fiercely ravenous, [they never know satiety] (Isaiah 56:11), they should not be abolished from the world. All is required—good and bad! Accordingly, on this day we must throw the dog a bone [cf. Pirqei de-Rabbi Eli’ezer 46: ‘They gave him a bribe on Yom Kippur so that he would not nullify Israel’s sacrifice’]. While he is dragging it, the one who enters the hall of the King enters, with no one to hinder him. Afterward, he wags his tail!” (Zohar 3:63b, Piqqudin).

My God, my God, why have You forsaken me? Far from my rescue are the words that I roar. My God, I call out by day and You do not answer, by night—no stillness for me…. For the curs came all around me, a pack of the evil encircled me, like a lion at my hands and my feet (Psalms 22:2–3, 17).

I considered till morning, that, as a lion, so will He break all my bones: from day even to night will You make an end of me (Isaiah 38:13).

“There is there [in the afterlife] a certain path, and in that path a certain attribute like a dog. When the soul enters any one of those pathways, the dog sees her and immediately he barks. When the demons and angels of destruction hear his voice, they know that a soul is there. Immediately they come and seize the soul and sling her, as is written, The נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh), soul, of your enemies He will sling from the hollow of a sling (1 Samuel 25:29), until they cast her into Hell. King David, peace upon him, pleaded before the blessed Holy One to save him from that dog, as is said: Save נַפְשִׁי (nafshi), my soul, from the sword, my only one from the clutches of a dog (Psalms 22:21). Now, was David, king of Israel, afraid of a single dog?! Rather, of that attribute called ‘dog.’

They said further: The souls of Israel do not enter that place of those pathways, and that dog does them no harm, as is said: But against any of the Children of Israel, no dog will snarl (Exodus 11:7)” (Midrash ha-Ne’lamAddendum 2 [Qeta Lo Yadu’a 82–83]).

“Likewise, when a man dies, if he has been meritorious, the image of a lion descends to welcome his נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh), soul, but if he has not, an image of a dog descends, of which David said: Save from the sword my soul, from the cur’s hand my person (Psalms 22:21). And since the blessed Holy One desired to save the bodies of Israel from them, and their soul too, He commanded that sacrifices be offered of beasts and bodies in their stead. This is according to: If your enemy is hungry, give him bread to eat; and if he is thirsty, give him water to drink. [For you shall heap coals of fire upon his head, and YHWH shall reward you] (Proverbs 25:21–22). But the blessed Holy One takes nothing except the desire of the heart and remorse of the heart, as is written: Elohim’s sacrifices—a broken רוּחַ (ruaḥ)spirit. A broken, crushed heart Elohim spurns not (Psalms 51:19). They are like earthenware vessels, about which it is said: ‘After they are broken, they become pure’ (BT Shabbat 16a)….

A hungry dog: whoever does not want to be bitten by it gives it meat or bread to eat and water to drink. And the secret of the matter is: If your enemy is hungry, give him bread to eat; and if he is thirsty, give him water to drink (Proverbs 25:21–22). He thereby becomes friendly towards the person, and not only does he not bite him, with a number of troubles, but he becomes an advocate for him and loves him” (Zohar 3:247b, Ra’aya Meheimna Pineḥas).