Israel said before the blessed Holy One: ‘Master of the Universe! Teach me the path of life [חַיִּים (ḥayyim), life, is numerically equivalent to לוּלָב (lulav), palm branch]!’ He said to them, ‘Here are the Ten Days of Repentance between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur: שֹׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת (sova’a semaḥot), joys overflow, in Your presence—read not thus, but rather: שֶׁבַע שְׂמָחוֹת (sheva semaḥot), these are the seven, mitsvot of the festival, and what are they? The four species, plus סֻכָּה (sukkah), hut, the Ḥagigah (festal) offering, and rejoicing. What is delights in Your right hand נֶצַח (netsaḥ), forever? Rabbi Abin said, ‘This is the palm branch, like one who is מְנַצֵחַ (menatseaḥ), victorious, holds a wand. What is this like? Two who entered before the judge, but we do not know who won, unless we see one of them holding a wand in his hand and then we know that he won. Similarly, Israel and the nations of the world go in and contend with the blessed Holy One on Rosh Hashanah, and we do not know who won, but when Israel depart from His presence with their לֻלַּבּין (lulabin), palm branches, and אֶתְרוֹגִין (etrogin), citrons, in their hands, we know that Israel came out victorious [cf. BT Sukkah 55b]” (Vayiqrah Rabbah 30:2).
“And all the holy forms oversee all the nations. But Israel is holy [of Holies], taking the body of the אִילָן (illan), tree, and its heart. The heart is the stately fruit of the body. Similarly, Israel takes fruit of a stately tree (Leviticus 23:40). The date palm is surrounded by its branches all around it and has its sprout in the middle. Similarly, Israel takes the body of this tree, which is its heart. And paralleling the body is the spinal cord, which is the main part of the body. What is the לוּלָב (lulav), palm branch? לוֹ לֵב (Lo lev), heart to it. The heart is also given over to it. And what is this לֵב (lev), heart? It is the ל״ב (thirty-two) hidden paths of Wisdom that are hidden in it. In each of their paths there is also a form watching over it. Therefore it is written, To guard the way to the tree of life (Genesis 3:24)” (Bahir §98, cf. Zohar 3:104a).
“Rabbi Beraḥiah sat and expounded: What is the לוּלָב (lulav), palm branch, that we discussed? It is the ל״ו (thirty-six), given over to ל״ב (thirty-two). And how? He replied: There are three princes, the תָּלִי (Tali) [alt., תְלִי (Theli)], the Wheel, and the Heart. Each one is twelve, and the three therefore constitute a sum of thirty-six, through which the world is sustained [see BT Sanhedrin 97b; Sukkah 45b]. Therefore it is written: The Righteous One is foundation of the world (Proverbs 10:25)” (Bahir §101).
“A king had an idea to plant ten male trees in a garden. All of them were date palms. He said, ‘Since they are all the same kind, it is impossible for them to endure.’ What did he do? He planted a אֶתְרוֹג (etrog), citron, among them. This was one of those which he had intended to be male. And why is the citron, female? Because it is written, The fruit of a stately tree, fronds of palm trees, [and a branch of a leafy tree and willows of the brook, and you shall rejoice before YHWH your god seven days] (Leviticus 23:40). What is the פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר (pri ets hadar), fruit of a stately tree? The Targum renders this, פֵּרֵי אִילָנָא אֶתְרוֹגִין וְלֻלַּבּין וַהֲדַסִּין וְעַרְבִין (pri illana etrogin ve-lulabin va-hadassin ve-arvin), Fruit of the citron tree, palm branches, [myrtles and willows]” (Bahir §172).
“What is this that is holy? It is the אֶתְרוֹג (etrog), citron, which is the stateliness of them all. Why is it called stately? Do not read הָדָר (hadar), stately, but הַדַר (ha-dar), the guest [from the root לָדוּר (la-dur), to dwell, sojourn]. This refers to the אֶתְרוֹג (etrog), citron, which is not bound together with the לוּלָב (lulav), palm branch. [Yet] without it the mitsvah of לוּלָב (lulav), palm branch, cannot be fulfilled. It is also bound with them all. It is with each one of them, and is unified with them all.
What does the לוּלָב (lulav), palm branch, parallel? It is the spine. Therefore it is written, [Fronds of palm trees,] and a branch of a leafy tree and willows of the brook (Leviticus 23:40). The branches must cover the majority [of the bunch]. If its branches do not cover its majority, it is invalid. Why? What is this like? A man has arms, and with them he protects his head. He has two arms, and his head makes three: a branch of a leafy tree. A branch is to the left, and the leaves are to the right. It then comes out that the tree is in the centre. And why is it called a tree? Because it is the root of the Tree.
What are willows of the brook (Leviticus 23:40)? There are two [willow branches in the לוּלָב (lulav), palm branch], and these parallel the two legs in man. Why are they called עַרְבֵי-נָחַל (arvei naḥal), willows of the brook? Because the greater of the two is inclined toward the מַעֲרֵב (ma’arev), west, and draws its power from there. The one to the north is smaller than it by a journey of five hundred years. It is on the northwest side, through which it functions. It is named after it, since they are both עֲרָבִים (aravim), mixed” (Bahir §175-77).
“Why was she called תָמָר (Tamar), Date Palm, and not any other name? Because she was female. Can we then say that she was female [i.e., was this something extraordinary]? But it is because she included both male and female. For every date palm includes both male and female. How is this? The לוּלָב (lulav), palm branch, is male. The fruit is male on the outside and female on the inside. And how so? The pit of a date is cracked like a woman. Parallel to it is the power of the moon above” (Bahir §198).
“A אַמָּה (ammah), cubit [lit., arm], is the measure of the body in four directions and up and down, making six cubits. And each arm has three joints, making eighteen joints in the six cubits, being the secret of the eighteen wavings with the lulav in six directions, three in each direction. Of them it is said: קוֹמָתֵךְ (Qomatekh), Your stature, is like a palm tree (Song of Songs 7:8). And this is the שִׁיעוּר קוֹמָה (shi’ur qomah), measure of the stature, the מִקְוֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל (Miqveh Yisra’el), Gathering of Israel (Jeremiah 14:8) in Shekhinah” (Zohar 3:228a, Ra’aya Meheimna Pineḥas).
“She [Malkhut] is raised with the four species up to Thought [Ḥokhmah], as is written: I thought: אֶעֱלֶה (e’eleh), I will climb, the palm, [I will grasp its stalks] (Song of Songs 7:9). אֶעֱלֶה (E’eleh), I will climb, is a sign: אֶתְרוֹג (etrog), citron, עֲרָבָה (arabah), willow, לוּלָב (lulav), palm branch, and הֲדָס (hadas), myrtle” (Zohar 3:283b, Ra’aya Meheimna Ki Tetse, cf. Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 29b).