The Nut Garden

לקוטים מזוהר (Gleanings of Zohar)

Tag: eugenics

To Recover the Remnant of His People

malang

“The blessed Holy One scattered Israel among the peoples only so that they may accumulate converts, for it is said: And I will sow her for Me in the land and show mercy to Lo-Ruhamah, [and I will say to Lo-Ami, ‘You are My people,’ and he shall say, ‘You are my God!’] (Hosea 2:25)—surely, a man sows a se’ah in order to harvest many korin….

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The ingathering of the exiles is as important as the day when the heavens and the earth were created, for it is said, And the people of Judah and the people of Israel shall gather together and set over them רֹאשׁ אֶחָד (rosh eḥad), a single chief, and they shall go up from the lands, for great is the day of Jezreel (Hosea 2:2); and it is written, And it was evening and it was morning, יוֹם אֶחָד (yom eḥad), first day (Genesis 1:5)” (BT Pesaḥim 87b–88a, cf. Zohar 1:244a).

“‘The ten tribes will not return, as is written, And flung them into another land as on this day (Deuteronomy 29:27)—just as the day goes and does not return, so they too went and will not return: the words of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Eli’ezer said: As on this day—just as the day darkens and then becomes light again, so the Ten Tribes. Even as it went dark for them, so will it become light for them’ (M Sanhedrin 10:3).

Our Rabbis taught: The ten tribes have no portion in the World to Come, as it says, And YHWH tore them from upon their soil in wrath and in anger and in great fury [and flung them into another land as on this day] (ibid.). And YHWH tore them from upon their soil—this world; and flung them into another land—the World to Come: the words of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Shim’on son of Yehudah, of the village of Akko, said in the name of Rabbi Shim’on: If their deeds are as this day’s [i.e., if they do not repent, this day referring to the time of their being exiled], they will not return; otherwise they shall. Rabbi said: They will enter the future world, as is said, [And it shall be] on that day a great ram’s horn shall sound, [and those lost in the land of Assyria shall come, and the dispersed in the land of Egypt and bow down to YHWH on the holy mountain, in Jerusalem] (Isaiah 27:13).

Rabbah son of Son of Ḥanah said in Rabbi Yoḥanan’s name: [Here] Rabbi Akiva abandoned His חֲסִידוּת (ḥasidut), kindness, as is written, Go and call out these words to the north and say, Turn back, Rebel Israel, said YHWH, and I will not set My face against you, for I am חָסִיד (ḥasid), faithful, said YHWH. I will not bear a grudge forever (Jeremiah 3:12).

Now, to what does ‘his kindness’ refer? As has been taught: The children of the wicked of Israel, [who died] in their minority, will not enter the future world, as is written, For, look, the day is coming, burning like a kiln, when all the arrogant and all the evil doers shall be straw. And the day that is coming shall set them ablaze, said YHWH of Armies, shall not leave them root or branch (Malachi 3:19). Root—this world; branch—the World to Come: the words of Rabban Gamaliel.

Rabbi Akiva said: They will enter the World to Come, as is written, YHWH protects פְּתָאיִם (peta’im), the simple (Psalms 116:6), and in the island cities, a child is called פָּתִּיאָ (pattia); and it is said also, Cut down the tree and destroy it but leave one of its roots in the ground (Daniel 4:20). How then do I fulfill that shall not leave them root or branch? That He shall not leave them [unpunished the violation of] a single mitsvah nor the remnant of a mitsvah [i.e., even the most insignificant mitsvah]. Another interpretation: root—the נְשָׁמָה (neshamah), soul; branch—the body [but of the wicked themselves, not their children. Thus we see Rabbi Akiva, in his love for Israel, interpreting the verse as leniently as possible]. But as for young children of the wicked gentiles, all agree that they will not enter the future world. And he  derives it from [The dead shall not live, nor shall the shades rise up. Therefore have] You singled them out and destroyed them and expunged all remembrance of them (Isaiah 26:14)” (BT Sanhedrin 110b, cf. Sifra, Be-Ḥukkotai, 8:1).

And it shall happen on that day, the Master shall pull in His hand once more to take back His people’s remnant that will remain from Assyria and Egypt and from Patros and from Cush and from Elam and from Shinar and from Hamath and from coastlands. And He shall raise a banner to the nations, and gather the banished of Israel and the dispersed of Judah He shall assemble from the four corners of the earth (Isaiah 11:11–12).

And Israel saw Joseph’s sons and he said, ‘Who are these?’ (Genesis 48:8).

Rabbi Abba opened, ‘It is said: And you shall say in your heart: ‘Who gave birth for me to these, [when I was bereaved and barren, exiled and cast aside, and these, why, who has raised?] (Isaiah 49:21). What does this mean? Israel below saw that the children of Israel will come before Him, when they will come from Elam and from Shinar and from Hamath and from coastlands (ibid. 11:11), and a vast flock will be established. The Shekhinah will say, Who are these? Are there not any who are unfit, of foreign children? They will say to Him, We are all Your children, there is no foreigner among us! For they will be severed the one from the other [i.e., the motley throng will be severed from the Assembly of Israel]. And they will be circumcised together and converted. The convert then will return together with Israel and they will be as one.

It was taught: ‘[Rabbi Ḥelbo said:] Converts are as tough for Israel as a סַּפַּחַת (sapaḥat), scab’ (BT Qiddushin 70b; Yevamot 47b; Niddah 13b; Zohar 3:206b), as is written, For YHWH shall have pity on Jacob and again shall choose Israel and set them down on their land, and the sojourner shall join them וְנִסְפְּחוּ (ve-nispeḥu), and they shall cling, to the house of Jacob (Isaiah 14:1). When the children will return to their land and there will be compassion among them, then YHWH shall be one and His name one (Zechariah 14:9). Then the convert will tag along with the people of Israel like a scab on their skin.’

Why? Come and hear: Rabbi Shim’on said it refers to the borders of the land, for every one will want to live in the land of Israel, and the inhabitants will be afraid. It is written, [Spread wide the place of your tent,] and let the curtains of your dwelling stretch out [—do not stint. Lengthen you cords and strengthen your tent pegs] (Isaiah 54:2). The curtains you once had, should be stretched and strengthened, as it were, more than those of the other peoples whom you saw strengthening them in your exile. [Indeed, a vast flock of converts] will be established” (Zohar 1:215a).

“Yehudah, an Ammonite convert, came before [the Rabbis] in the academy. He said to them: How can I enter the assembly [i.e., marry a Jewish woman]? Rabbi Yehoshu’a said to him: You are permitted to enter the assembly. Rabban Gamaliel said to him: Has it not already been said, No Ammonite nor Moabite shall come into YHWH’s assembly. [Even his tenth generation shall not come into YHWH’s assembly ever. Because they did not greet  you with bread and water on the way when you came out of Egypt, and for their hiring against you Balaam son of Beor from Aram Naharaim to curse you] (Deuteronomy 23:4–5)? Rabbi Yehoshu’a replied to him: Do Ammon and Moab still reside in their [original] place? Sennacherib king of Assyria long ago went up and בַּלבֵּל (balbel), baffled, all the nations, as it says, [For he has said: ‘Through the power of my hand I have done it, and through my wisdom, for I was discerning.] I have wiped out the borders of peoples and their riches plundered and brought down to the dust those who dwelled there (Isaiah 10:13); and whatever separates, separates from the greater part [and the assumption is that he is from the majority of nations whose members are permitted to enter the assembly, cf. BT Ketubbot 15a in the name of Rabbi Zeira]. Rabban Gamaliel said to him: But has it not been said: And afterward I will restore the fortunes of the Ammonites, said YHWH (Jeremiah 49:6) so that they have already returned? Rabbi Yehoshu’a replied: And has it not been said, And I will restore the fortunes of My people Israel, [and they shall rebuild desolate towns and dwell there and plant vineyards and drink their wine. And they shall make gardens and eat their fruit. And I will plant them on their soil, and they shall no more be uprooted from their soil that I have given them, said YHWH your God] (Amos 9:14), and they have not yet returned? Immediately they permitted him to enter the assembly” (BT Berakhot 28a).

On that day Israel shall be a third partner with Egypt and with Assyria, as a blessing in the midst of the earth. [Which YHWH of Armies conferred, saying, ‘Blessed are My people Egypt and My handiwork Assyria and Israel My estate] (Isaiah 19:24).

The seventy princes who govern the army on high are divided in their midst. One division is governed by the prince of Ishmael, called Egypt, and the other division is governed by the prince of Edom, called Assyria [cf. 2 Kings 16; Isaiah 7–9; 2 Chronicles 28]. Both divisions receive from Gevurah, at the left side of the Chariot, but as we said, Gevurah is divided in two: one aspect is harsh judgment and the other weak [cf. Zohar 2:178a, 187a]; the harsh is exceedingly hard and the weak is soft. However, one stately light expands from the way of Tif’eret engulfing these two qualities, covering and influencing them. And in the future yet to come, when these two princes behold this light, they will call it the Light of Blessing, as is written, On that day Israel shall be a third partner with Egypt and with Assyria, as a blessing in the midst of the earth. And look, truly some of the nations will be restored to the dominion of Israel” (Berit Menuḥa, Third Way: The Way of Peace, cf. Zohar 1:13a, 164a; 2:57b; 3:218a–b [RM], 227b).

And foreigners shall stand and tend your flocks and strangers be your farmers and keepers of your vineyards. As for you, YHWH’s priests you shall be called, our God’s ministrants it shall be said of you. The wealth of nations you shall enjoy and in their glory revel. Instead of the shame twice over and disgrace they shall exult in their lot. Therefore they shall possess their land twice over, everlasting joy shall be theirs (Isaiah 61:5–7, cf. MekhiltaShabbetaKi Tissa 1; BT Berakhot 35b; Zohar 1:143b).

“Rabbi Ḥiyya was traveling to visit Rabbi El’azar. He found him sitting next to Rabbi Shim’on son of Rabbi Yose, son of Lekonya, his father-in-law. As he raised his head, he saw Rabbi Ḥiyya. He said, In that day Israel will be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, a blessing on earth, whom YHWH of Hosts will bless, saying, ‘Blessed be My people Egypt, [My handiwork Assyria, and My heritage Israel] (Isaiah 19:24). How foolish are the inhabitants of the world, who do not know or consider the words of Torah!

Are then Ashur and Egypt close to the blessed Holy One? Rather, all those members of the exiles who will go up from Egypt and Ashur. But if we say that it is Egypt and Ashur [themselves] it refers to the pious among them who repent, and remain to serve Israel and King Messiah, as is written, and may all kings bow to him, and all nations serve him (Psalms 72:11), and, And kings shall be your attendants [and princesses your wet nurses. Face to the ground they shall bow to you and lick the dust of your feet. And you shall know that I am YHWH, all who hope for Me shall not be shamed] (Isaiah 49:23) [cf. BT Shevu’ot 47b: ‘In the academy of Rabbi Yishma’el it was taught: The servant of a king is like a king’]” (Zohar 2:57b).

“All things will be fittingly restored, and the impure aspect will be eliminated from the world. This has been affirmed, as is written: I will eliminate the spirit of impurity from earth (Isaiah 25:8). The blessed Holy One will then remain alone, as is written: Idols will utterly vanish (ibid. 2:18), and similarly: YHWH alone will be exalted on that day (ibid., 17)—He alone, as is written: No alien god with Him (Deuteronomy 32:12), for it will be eradicated from the world. Nothing will remain above or below except the blessed Holy One alone and Israel serving Him, a holy people—called ‘holy,’ as is written: Whoever is left in Zion, who remains in Jerusalem, will be called holy (Isaiah 4:3). Then there will be a single world above and below—a single above; a single world below, a single people serving Him, as is written: Who is like Your people Israel, a single nation on earth? (1 Chronicles 17:21) [Rabbi Moshe Cordovero maintains that other nations will be purified and integrated into Israel, see Or Yaqar]” (Zohar 1:164a).

You Created My Innermost Parts

timeline_computers_1986.ibmpcrt.jpg

From behind and in front You shaped me, and You set your palm upon me… For You created my innermost parts…. My frame was not hidden from You… גָּלְמִי (galmi), My unformed shape, Your eyes did see, and in Your book all was written down…. As for me, how weighty are Your thoughts, O God, how numerous their sum. Should I count them, they would be more than the sand. I awake, and am still with You (Psalms 139:5; 13–18).

“Rabbi Yoḥanan son of Ḥanina said: The day consisted of twelve hours. In the first hour, his dust was gathered; in the second, it was made into גּוֹלֶם (golem), a lifeless clump. In the third, his limbs were extended; in the fourth, a נְשָׁמָה (neshamah), soul, was cast into him; in the fifth, he rose and stood on his feet; in the sixth, he gave [the animals] their names; in the seventh, Eve became his mate; in the eighth, they ascended to bed as two and descended as four [i.e., Cain and his twin sister were born]; in the ninth, he was commanded not to eat of the tree, in the tenth, he transgressed; in the eleventh, he was tried, and in the twelfth he was expelled and departed, as is written, Man will not rest in splendor (Psalms 49:13)” (BT Sanhedrin 38b).

“Rabbi El’azar said in the name of Rabbi Yose son of Zimra, ‘If all the nations assembled to create a single mosquito, they could not cast a soul into it!” (Bereshit Rabbah 39:14).

“Rava said: If the righteous desired it, they could create a world, as is written, But your crimes have separated [between you and your God, and your sins have hid His face from you, that He will not hear] (Isaiah 59:2). Rava created a man and sent him to Rav Zera [cf. Zohar 1:7b; 2:179b]. He spoke to him, but he would not answer. He said to him: ‘You of the חַבְרַיָּא (ḥavrayya), Companions [or: magicians], return to your dust!’

Rav Ḥanina and Rav Oshaya would sit every Sabbath eve and engage in the סֵפֶר יְצִירָה (sefer yetsirah), Book of Formation, and make for themselves a third-grown calf and eat it [i.e., a calf that has reached one third of its full growth; or: in its third year; third born, fat]” (BT Sanhedrin 65b).

“What [magic] is entirely permitted? Like Rav Ḥanina and Rav Oshaya, who would sit every Sabbath eve and engage in the הֲלָכוֹת יְצִירָה (halakhot yetsirah), laws of formation, and make for themselves a third-grown calf and eat it” (BT Sanhedrin 67b, cf. Rabbi Avraham Abulafia, Ner Elohim, 10, 172b).

“’Rava said: If the righteous desired it, they could create a world, as is written, But your crimes have separated (Isaiah 59:2)’ (BT Sanhedrin 65b). If not for your crimes, there would not be any separation between you and Him. We thus see that Rava created a גֶּבֶר (gever), man, and sent it to Rav Zera. He spoke to him but he did not answer. But if not for his crimes, he would have answered. And from what would he have answered? His soul. But does a human being have a soul to place in him? Yes, as is written, [YHWH Elohim fashioned the human, humus from the soil,] and He blew into his nostrils the נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים (nishmat ḥayyim), breath of life (Genesis 2:7)—thus a human being has the נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים (nishmat ḥayyim)soul of life [with which he might confer language], were it not for crimes, through which the soul ceases to be pure. This is the difference between you and Him, as is written, And You made him little less than Elohim (Psalms 8:6). Why a little less? Since he offends, while the blessed Holy One does not. Blessed be He and blessed be His Name forever and ever; He has no crimes” (Bahir §196).

And You made him little less than Elohim (Psalms 8:6)—this is Jacob, as is said, [And Jacob took himself moist rods of poplar and almond and plane-tree, and peeled white strips in them, laying bare the white on the rods. And he stood the rods he had peeled in the troughs, in the water channels from which the flocks came to drink—opposite the flocks… when they came to drink.] And the flocks went into heat at the rods (Genesis 30:39). Rabbi Hoshaya: He would carve a form, and just as he carved, the water became seed within them and thus they gave birth. This teaches that he lacked only [the power] to give them נֶפֶשׁוֹת (nefeshot), life-breath” (Bereshit Rabbati, Va-Yetse 129, cf. BT Avodah Zarah 24a; Zohar 1:161a–b).

Who can utter YHWH’s mighty acts, can make heard all His praise? (Psalms 106:2)—none can utter His mighty acts or make heard all His praise. Even the ministering angels cannot recount מִקְצָת (miqtsat), some of [or: the best of], His mighty acts or expound on what צִפָּה (tsipah), He envisioned, created and actualized. For at the beginning when the blessed Holy One created the world, He was alone [cf. Bereshit Rabbah 1:4 on Isaiah 44:24]. It arose in thought to create the world and He traced its foundations on the earth [cf. Isaiah 44:13; Proverbs 8:27], but they did not endure until He created with Torah Sefer Yetsirah—He gazed into it and understood in wisdom. Thus He fashioned the world: His eyes gazing into Sefer Yetsirah, and His hands roaming and building the world [cf. 2 Chronicles 16:9].

To divide [between the holy and the profane]: Like a man who builds buildings and possesses a book and he looks upon it, thus the blessed Holy One did. As soon as He fashioned His world and finished it, He placed it in Torah—treasured away at the start of the first things [of the earth] (Proverbs 8:23)—974 generations before the creation of the world [cf. BT Ḥagigah 13b]. Now, when Abraham our father was born the ministering angels said before the blessed Holy One: Master of the World: There is a friend to You in this world yet from him something is hidden? Immediately the blessed Holy One said: I hid [something] from Abraham! נִמְלַךְ בַּתּוֹרָה (Nimlak ba-torah), He sought the permission of Torah, and said: Come וּנַשִּׂיאךְ (u-nassik), and we shall marry you off, to Abraham My friend (Isaiah 41:8). She said before Him: Not until a humble man [Moses] will come and יִשָּׂא (yissa), lift up, [this] humble one. Immediately the blessed Holy One sought the permission of Sefer Yetsirah, and she said: Yes. He handed her on to Abraham.

Now, he sat alone and studied Sefer Yetsirah but he was unable to understand a thing until a heavenly echo issued saying to him: You seek to make yourself equal to Me? I am the One and I created Sefer Yetsirah. I delved into it and I performed all that is written in it and you will not be able to understand a single [thing]. Draw a companion near to yourself and you will look upon it and understand [cf. Ḥagigah 2:1]. Immediately Abraham went to Shem, his master, and sat with him three years and they looked upon it and they knew how to fashion the world. And to this day, there is none who can understand it alone—only two sages [can], even they will not understand it in less than three years. Yet when they [do] understand it, they are able to perform any wish of their hearts. And when Abraham understood it, he added more wisdom to it and learned the entire Torah.

Rava, too, wanted to understand it alone. Rabbi Zera said: But it is written: A sword against הַבַּדִּים (ha-baddim), the soothsayers, exposed as fools (Jeremiah 50:36)—a sword against Israel’s enemies who sit בַּד בְּבַד (bad be-vad), apart, occupied with Torah [see BT Berakhot 63b ad loc.: ‘The Torah is only acquired in company’; cf. Ta’anit 7a; Makkot 10a]. If so, let us go and occupy ourselves with Sefer Yetsirah. And so they sat together and occupied themselves with it for three years and understood it. Once a calf was created for them and they slaughtered it and enjoyed it for the completion of the book [see BT Sanhedrin 65b]. But when they slaughtered it, they forgot it. They sat another three years and produced it again.

Son of Sira, too, wanted to understand it alone. A heavenly echo issued saying: Two are better than one, [for they get good reward for their toil] (Ecclesiastes 4:9). He went [and sat] next to Jeremiah and they occupied themselves with it for three years and understood it and an individual was created before them [בֶּן סִירַא (Ben Sira), Son of Sira, is numerically equivalent to יִרְמְיָהוּ (Yirmeyahu), Jeremiah, and אַבּוּ אַהֲרוֹן (Abu Aharon), i.e., Aharon ben Shemu’el ha-Nasi]. Written on his forehead was: יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֱמֵת (Adonai Elohim Emet), YHWH Elohim [is] Truth. Now, in his hand was a knife and he was erasing א (alef) from אֱמֵת (emet), Truth [leaving, מֵת (met), “dead”]. [Jeremiah rent his clothes (JTS MS 1887, fol. 129b)] he said: Why are you doing that? For it can’t possibly be true! He said to them: I will fashion a parable for you: What is this like? A man who is a builder and a sage. And when the sons of man saw him they made him rule over them. Days later, others came and they learned the craft. They abandoned the first [ruler] and followed the others. Likewise, the blessed Holy One, exulted is His name, was gazing into Sefer Yetsirah and fashioned the world and ruled over all His creations. And when you have come and done like Him, what will be the end of the matter? All will leave Him and follow you. What will become of Him who fashioned you? They said to Him: If so what shall be done? He said to them: Turn him back. And that man returned to dust and ashes” (MS Vatican 299).

“[Son of Zoma said:] What labors the first man had to carry out before he obtained bread to eat! He ploughed, he sowed, he reaped, he bound [the sheaves], he threshed and winnowed and selected the ears, he ground [them], and sifted [the flour], he kneaded and baked, and then at last he ate; whereas I get up, and find all these things done for me. And how many labors the first man had to carry out before he obtained a garment to wear! He had to shear, wash [the wool], comb it, spin it and weave it, and then at last he obtained a garment to wear; whereas I get up and find all these things done for me. All kinds of people come early to the door of my house, and I rise in the morning and find all these before me” (BT Berakhot 58a).

Sometimes in those Empty Ones You May Discover Bells of Gold!

vishniac-beggarsA teaching did Moses charge us, a heritage for Jacob’s assembly! (Deuteronomy 33:4).

“Rabbi Parnak said in Rabbi Yoḥanan’s name: He who is himself a scholar, and his son is a scholar, and his son’s son too, Torah will nevermore cease from his seed, as is written, As for me, this is My covenant with them, says YHWH; My spirit that is upon you, and My words which I have put in your mouth, shall not depart out of your mouth, nor out of the mouth of your descendants, nor out of the mouth of your descendant’s descendants, says YHWH, from this time forth and forever (Isaiah 59:21). What is meant by says YHWH?—the blessed Holy One, said, ‘I am surety for you in this matter.’ What is the meaning of from this time forth and forever?—Rabbi Yirmeyahu said: ‘From now on Torah seeks its home [i.e., it becomes hereditary in that family]” (BT Bava Metsi’a 85a).

“Rabbi Yose said: Let the property of your fellow be as precious to you as your own. Prepare yourself to study Torah, for it does not come to you as an inheritance. And let all your deeds be for the sake of Heaven” (M Avot 2:17).

“If one wants to become a priest or a Levite he cannot because his father was not a priest or a Levite. However, if one wants to become righteous even if he is a gentile he can do so because it is not a family trait, as it says: bless YHWH, those who fear YHWH, bless YHWH (Psalms 135:20)—it does not say the house of those who fear YHWH but those who fear YHWH. It is not a family trait, rather, on their own they chose to fear and love the blessed Holy One. Therefore, the blessed Holy One loves them” (Bemidbar Rabbah 8:2).

“Be heedful of the children of the poor, for from them Torah goes forth, as is written, Water drips מִדָּלְיָו (midalyav), from his branch, [and his root in abundant waters] (Numbers 24:7)—[מִדַּלִּים (mi-dallim), from the poor,] goes forth Torah [likened to water]. And why is it not usual for scholars to give birth to sons who are scholars? Rabbi Yosef said, ‘That they not say, The Torah is their legacy’ [i.e., others should not complain that it is useless for them to study, or that they themselves should not think study unnecessary]. Rav Sheshet, the son of Rav Idi, said: ‘That they should not be arrogant towards the public.’ Mar Zutra said: ‘Because they act high-handedly against the public.’ Rav Ashi said: ‘Because they call people donkeys.’ Ravina said: Because they do not first utter a blessing over the Torah [as required]. For Rav Yehudah said in Rav’s name: ‘What is meant by, Who is the wise man, that may understand this? [… for why is the land perished and is burned up like a wilderness, that none passes through?] (Jeremiah 9:11). Now, this question was put to the sages and prophets but they could not answer it until the blessed Holy One Himself did so, as is written, And YHWH says, Because they have forsaken My law which I set before them, and have not obeyed My voice, neither walked in it (ibid., 12): but is not have not obeyed My voice identical with, neither walked in it? Rav Yehudah said in Rav’s name: ‘[It means] that they did not first recite a blessing over Torah’” (BT Nedarim 81a).

Like a slice of pomegranate רַקָּתֵךְ (raqatekh), your forehead (Song of Songs 4:3)…. Even רֵיקַנִין (reiqanin), the empty ones, among you are as full of mitsvot as a pomegranate [is full of seeds]” (BT Berakhot 57a).

“That donkey-driver, is he here? For sometimes in those empty ones, you may discover bells of gold! [In rabbinic literature the bell appears as a symbol of revelation and inspiration, see BT Sotah 9b, in the name of Rabbi Neḥemiah: ‘Shekhinah was ringing before him like a bell’]” (Zohar 2:95a).

“Sometimes in a poor man’s undergarment you’ll find a pearl” (Zohar 3:157b, cf. M Avot 4:1).

“Rabbi Yose son of Yehudah of Bavli village said: When you learn from the young, what is it like? Like eating unripe grapes or drinking wine straight from the vat. When you learn from the old, what is it like? Like eating ripe grapes and drinking old wine.

Rabbi Me’ir said: Do not look at the flask but at what it contains, for a new flask may contain old wine, and an old flask may not contain anything, even new wine” (M Avot 5:26–27).

Through these Three Adam Attained a Change of Name, a Change of Place, and a Change of Deed

“Rabbi Yitsḥaq said, ‘Four things tear up a person’s verdict: charity, crying out, a change of name, and change of deeds. צְדָקָה (Tsedaqah), charity, as is written, But צְדָקָה (tsedaqah), righteousness, saves from death (Proverbs 10:2). Crying out, as is written, And they cry to YHWH from their straits from their distress He brings them out. [He turns the storm into silence, and its waves are stilled, and they rejoice that these have grown quiet, and He leads them to the realm of their desire] (Psalms 107:28). Change of name, as is written, Sarai your wife shall no longer call her name Sarai, for Sarah is her name (Genesis 17:15); and it continues, And I will bless her and I will also give you from her a son (ibid., 16). Change of deeds, as is written, And God saw their acts, that they had turned back from their evil way, and God relented from the evil that He said to do to them, and he did not do it (Jonah 3:10). And some say a change of place, as is written, And YHWH said to Abram, ‘Go forth from your land [and your birthplace and your father’s house to the land I will show you] (Genesis 12:1), and afterwards, And I will make you a great nation [and I will bless you and make your name great, and you shall be a blessing] (ibid., 2). And the other [namely, Rabbi Yitsḥaq, why does he not include this]?—in that case it was the merit of the Land of Israel which helped him” (BT Rosh ha-Shanah 16b).

And you shall hold them in estate for your children after you to inherit a holding forever (Leviticus 25:46). It is a command to have a Canaanite slave as a servant, as is written: A holding forever. They come from the side of Ham, who uncovered nakedness [of Noah], of whom it says, Cursed be Canaan, the lowliest slave shall he be to his brothers (Genesis 9:25). Why the lowliest slave? Because he is a slave to a slave עוֹלָם (olam), forever, which is the olam, world, of Jubilee [even at the Jubilee he will not be set free like other slaves (Sullam)]. It may be said that as he is a brother to Shem and Japheth, why should he not be like them? Also, seeing Eliezer, Abraham’s servant, was the descendant of Ham, why was he not like him but instead righteous? [Because] the blessed Holy One approved of the blessing Laban gave him [see Genesis 24:31].

Surely this pertains to the mystery גִלְגּוּלָא (gilggula), rolling: ‘Who גּוֹלֵל (golel), rolls away, light from before darkness’ (Evening Service)—Abraham’s servant who came out of darkness, the issue of Ham. It suffices for the servant to be like his master, Abraham, who came from Terah the idol worshiper! ‘And darkness from before the light’ (ibid.)—Ishmael who came out from Abraham, and Esau from Isaac.

The mystery is that this is caused by the mixture of drops in a place it does not belong. This is he who mingles his drop with a maid, Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael or a daughter of a strange god who are evil and darkness, while his drop is goodness and light: And God saw the light, that it was good (Genesis 1:4). He who mingles good with evil transgresses the words of his Master, who said, but from the tree of knowledge, good and evil, you shall not eat (Genesis 2:17).

The blessed Holy One rolls that which the man mingled together with him so as to receive punishment. If he repents, learns Torah and separates good from evil, forbidden from permitted, impure from pure, unfit from fit, that evil is separated from good, it says of him ‘A creation for good and a creation for evil’ [cf. BT Berakhot 61a: ‘וַיִּיצֶר (va-yetser), and formed (Genesis 2:7)—spelled with two letters י (yod) to show that God created two impulses, one good and the other evil’]. And through Torah he separates them, and the blessed Holy One bequeaths him a נִשְׁמְתָא (nishmata), soul, from Him, so he will rule them both, the one which is light, the World that is Coming, and the other, which is darkness, this world. Hence, it is written: And blew into his nostrils the נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים (ayyim nishmat), breath of life (Genesis 2:7).

According to his merits and liabilities. As we have explained, ‘He who does one mitsvah is treated well. He who is average, is a person whose merits and liabilities are balanced, the half of merits is below and the half of liabilities below’ [see BT Qiddushin 40b; Sotah 3b]. This is the secret of What is your petition? and it shall be granted you, and what is your request? Up to half the kingdom, and it will be done! (Esther 5:6). In the case of a completely righteous man, all his merits are above and his liabilities below. For a completely evil man, his liabilities are above and his merits are down below.

The man who sins in public is of two grades. If he does penance in public [then he is seated] among the righteous [of that world], who are familiar with the laws of the blessed Holy One and refrain from sinning; [if] secretly [then] among the wicked men [who envy him his repentance] so that the eyes of the wicked will pine (Job 11:20) is fulfilled.

Adam’s sin was therefore against, And YHWH God commanded (Genesis 2:16)—we explained commanded referrers to idolatry since he sinned in idolatry. He formed him in תֶרַח (Teraḥ), Terah’s, drop of semen, in which he [the soul of Adam] רָתַח (rataḥ), enraged, the blessed Holy One by transgressing in idolatry. He did penance and smashed the images of idols and all the victuals. He mended the sins and smashed the sin and the evil structure he built. And he made the blessed Holy One and His Shekhinah rule over the whole world.

By sanctifying His Name in public, and by going into the fire to be burned, so that the words would be fulfilled the images of their gods you shall burn in fire (Deuteronomy 7:25). Furthermore, he caused his father, Terah, to repent and brought him, his mother, and all the rulers of that age to the Garden of Eden [cf. Zohar 1:77b]. He was thus purified as silver by fire [cf. Bereshit Rabbah 38:13: ‘When Abraham descended into the fiery furnace (of Nimrod he) was saved’], like the king’s coin forged with a mixture of lead. He was therefore put in fire, and the lead came out, which is Ishmael. Ishmael therefore was mocking and worshipped idols, while Adam remained purified by fire. This is the change of name. For when Adam was rolled he had to undergo a change of name, change of place, and change of deed.

Then came Isaac, and he became stronger through him, the second transgression of which it says, the human (Genesis 2:16), which refers to bloodshed. This brought the trial of Isaac by the cleaver [see Genesis 22:10]. He was cleansed by him, as food is picked from refuse. And the dross came out, which is Esau who sheds blood.

Then came Jacob who formed it to Laban and became his servant. Hence it says, I will serve seven years for Rachel your younger daughter (Genesis 29:18). Since he exchanged her with her sister, he served an additional seven years, in order to remove the two drops Adam spilt in a foreign place [cf. Bereshit Rabbah 20:11: ‘Throughout the entire one hundred and thirty years during which Adam held aloof from Eve the male demons were made ardent by her and she bore, while the female demons (Lilit and Naamah) were inflamed by Adam and they bore, as is written, so should he do wrong, I will chastise him with the rod men use and with the afflictions of humankind (2 Samuel 7:14)—Adam, which means, the children of the first man’]. This is incest, alluded to by saying, [‘From every fruit of the garden you may surely eat. But from the tree of knowledge, good and evil, you shall not eat, for on the day you eat from it, you are doomed to die’] (Genesis 2:16). He took them out of Laban the Aramean, the serpent.

Through these three Adam attained a change of name, a change of place, and a change of deed [the Patriarchs repaired the three cardinal sins: idolatry, murder, and sexual immorality]. He obtained a change of name through Abraham, a change of place through Isaac, and a change of deed through Jacob. And if it was said of him: Then He saw and recounted it [set it firm and probed it, too…] (Job 28:27–8), that if He accepted his repentance, all the more so that of others [who are not as great].

Therefore, for a good servant, the place brings it about, and for an evil servant, also, but as for other servants, a holding forever (Leviticus 25:46). The heads of the academy rose and said Happy the people who has it thus (Psalms 144:15). שֶׁכָּכָה (Shekakhah), has it thus, is [numerically equivalent] as that of מֹשֶׁה (Moshe), Moses. The Faithful Shepherd rose and said, ‘Happy the people whose God is YHWH’ (ibid.)” (Zohar 3:97a–111a, Ra’aya Meheimna Behar, cf. ibid. 3:217b).

I have rolled away from you the shame of Egypt (Joshua 5:9).

His Sister in Law Shall Slip His Sandal from His Foot and Spit in His Face

urlShould brothers dwell together and one of them die and have no son…her brother-in-law shall come to bed with her and take her to him as wife (Deuteronomy 25:5). This decree is to marry one’s brother’s widow, since a brother’s widow is the ד (dalet) in אֶחָד (eḥad), one, and together with אָח (aḥ), brother, of [the word] אֶחָד (eḥad) it is one. And if, perish the thought, he does not with a [whole] heart wish to bring his אָח (aḥ), brother, to ד (dalet), being the wife and mate of his [deceased] brother [but focuses on his own pleasure] he creates a separation and brings Samael, another god, in between. It says of him, he would waste his seed on the ground (Genesis 38:9). [Consequently] the tip vanishes from the letter ד (dalet), of אֶחָד (eḥad) [becoming] ר (resh); [thus] אֶחָד (eḥad), one, [becomes] אַחֵר (aḥer), other [cf. BT Sotah 20a]. This is why when he would come to bed with his brother’s wife he would waste his seed on the ground so to give no seed to his brother (ibid.). Spilling seed in vain withholds many blessings from one, and [causes] separation. This is why, Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil in the eyes of YHWH, and YHWH put him to death (ibid., 7).

Uniting the אָח (aḥ), brother, with ד (dalet) is done by means of the righteous, like בֹּעַז (Boaz), Boaz, who over came his impulse—בּוֹ עוֹז (bo oz), strength in him, namely, he has a strong impulse…. And thus it was in former times in Israel concerning redemption and concerning exchange to fulfill every condition: a man would remove his sandal and give it to his fellow man (Ruth 4:7).

This alludes to changing the Name, which here is מצפץ (MTsPTs) [a permutation of the Name יהוה (YHWH) according to the method of atbash]. אֶהְיֶה (Eheyeh), I-Will-Be [Who-I-Will-Be] (Exodus 3:14)—’אַיֵּה (Ayyeh), where, is the place of His glory to adore Him?’ (Keter Yitenu Lekha) [a piyut (liturgical hymn) used for Qedushah le-Musaf on Sabbaths and Festivals according to Sephardic custom. Cf. Rabbi Leone Modena, MS A 36a, 21–22]. יהו (YHW) is אֶהְיֶה (eheyeh), I will be—a change of place. אֲדֹנָי (Adonai) is א (alef), and אֶהְיֶה (eheyeh)—a change in deed; י (yod) is יֱהֹוִה (YHWH), and both change with אֲדֹנָי (Adonai) [on a change of name etc., see BT Rosh ha-Shanah 16b: ‘Rabbi Yitsḥaq said, ‘Four things tear up a person’s verdict: charity, crying out, a change of name, and change of deeds… and some say a change of place’].

וְזֹאת (Ve-zot), And this, was הַתְּעוּדָה (ha-te’udah), the practice, in Israel (Ruth 4:7) [one of the many appellations of Shekhinah is זֶה (zeh), ‘this’ (feminine pronoun), or זֹאת (zot), ‘this’ (masculine pronoun), perhaps because as the Divine Presence She is constantly right here, see Zohar 1:49b; 2:11b–12a; 3:8b]. הַתְּעוּדָה (Ha-te’udah), the testimony, is supernal Mother: Bind up the תְּעוּדָה (te’udah), testimony, seal Torah among My disciples (Isaiah 8:16) [צוֹר (Tsor), bind, is Binah, and since it is written bind up the testimony we derive from this that תְּעוּדָה (te’udah), testimony, is Binah (Sullam), cf. Zohar 1:4b; 3:35a], which is the חוֹתָם (ḥotam), seal, of the world, namely the seal of the Heavens and Earth [Ze’eir Anpin and Malkhut]. תְּמוּרָה (Temurah), exchanging [alluding to letter permutation]—lower Shekhinah [associated with speech and language, since שְׁכִינָה (Shekhinah) and שָׂפָה (safah), language (lit., lip), are numerically equivalent. Cf. Zohar 1:36b, 74b, 246a; 3:221a, 228a (both RM)]. Where did She hide? In her עוּלֵימָא (uleima), lad, Metatron, and יִשְׁנֶה (yishnah), he changed Her [cf. Zohar 3:277b (RM): ‘The נַעַר (na’ar), lad, youth, is called נַעֲרָה (na’arah), young woman’; Zohar 1:232a: ‘This angel is sometimes male and sometimes female. When providing blessings, it is male and called Male—like a male providing blessings for a female, so He provides blessings for the world. And when it stands in judgment over the world, it is called Female—like a female who is pregnant, so She is filled with judgment and is then called Female… all one mystery…. Correspondingly, it is written: flame of the whirling sword (Genesis 3:24)’]. There She is מְשַׁנָּה (mishnah), Mishnah. And of man, of whom it says, According to the תִפְאֶרֶת אָדָם (tif’eret adam), beauty of a man; that he may remain in the house (Isaiah 44:13)—You change his face and send him away (Job 14:20).

This is why the Masters of Mishnah have explained that ‘The way I am spelled is not the way I am pronounced in this world’; spelled יֱהֹוִה (YHWH), but pronounced אֲדֹנָי (Adonai) [see BT Qiddushin 71a: ‘Rabbi Avina raised a contradiction: It is written: That is My name; but it is also written: and thus am I invoked?—the blessed Holy One said: I am not called as I am written: I am written with יוֹד הֵא (yod, he), but I am read, אָלְף דָּלֶת (alef, dalet)’]. Yet it is written, I am YHWH, I do not change (Malachi 3:6)! He is not changed in spelling but is changed in pronunciation since writing [indicates] He does not change in His place, but in reading [which is the rung of Malkhut, called דִבּוּר (dibbur), Speech (Sullam)], when He is outside His place, He does change. Watch yourself with him and heed his voice, do not defy him… for My name is within him (Exodus 23:21)—since the female slave’s name is Adonai, her name is like the name מַטְרוֹנִיתָא (Matronita) [i.e., מְטַטְרוֹן (Metatron)]. And the blessed Holy One is changed in him, because he is a youth. In him is the mystery of, he’d return to the days of his youth (Job 33:25).

But the Shekhinah, when with the blessed Holy One does not change, nor does the blessed Holy One change when with Her. This is the meaning of, I am YHWH, I do not change. IShekhinah; יהוה (YHWH)—the middle pillar; [And thus it was in former times in Israel concerning redemption and concerning exchange to fulfill every condition:] a man would remove נַעֲלוֹ (na’alo), his shoe [and give it to his fellow man. And this was the practice in Israel. And the redeemer said, ‘You—acquire it,’ and he removed his shoe] (Ruth 4:7)—סַנְדַּלְפוֹן (Sandalfon), who is a סַנְדָּל (sandal), sandal, for the blessed Holy One and a נַעַל (na’al), shoe, for the Shekhinah [on performing ḥalitsah with a shoe or sandal, see BT Yevamot 102a]. But Tif’eret, who includes six sefirot, is a body for the Name יְהֹוָה (YHWH), and Malkhut is a body for the Shekhinah that is אֲדֹנָי (Adonai).

[And the elders of his town shall call to and speak to him, and if he stands and says, ‘I do not want to wed her,’] his sister in law shall approach before the eyes of the elders and slip his sandal from his foot and spit in his face and speak out and say, So shall be done to the man who will not build his brothers house (Deuteronomy 25:89). It is a decree to perform חֲלִיצָה (ḥalitsah), Loosening, of the spirit from that body to which [the dead man’s soul] must join as a brother; he releases him from the brother’s bond [and the widow requires him no longer].

That spirit goes away and wanders until it is redeemed. This is what is meant by: Or his uncle or his cousin may redeem him or any of his own close kin from his clan may redeem him (Leviticus 25:49). However, if his hand [does not] attain the means [to be] redeemed (ibid.), he is like a guest going from place to place or like a slave walking with a chain around his neck until he achieves redemption from his Master from his iniquities. Woe to him who did not leave a son who will redeem him.

Elijah and heads of the Academy: It is indicated here that a prisoner cannot release himself from prison. For He  is tied by the knot of the hand tefillin and bound by the head tefillin, when He has no son who will redeem him, from the aspect of בֶּן יָהּ (ben Yah), Son of God. With that knot the blessed Holy One, is a tied and bound אָח (aḥ), brother, who has no permission to redeem himself, he is ד (dalet), which is עַצְמוֹ (atsmo), itself, the אָח (aḥ), brother, called עֶצֶם מֵעֲצָמַי (etsem me-atsamai), bone of my bones (Genesis 2:23), in the skull where the head tefillin is put, and called it flesh of my flesh (ibid.), from the side of the heart” (Zohar 3:281a, Ra’aya Meheimna Ki Tetse, cf. ZḤ 38d).

“And there is a further secret, he will later come back in a גִלְגּוּלָא, (gilggula), [life] cycle, and be renewed as formerly, as is written: [And should a priest’s daughter] become a widow or divorced (Leviticus 22:13), as [his soul] being driven out of the Garden of Eden. Hence she is called גְרוּשָׁה (gerushah), divorcee, as in: וַיְגָרֶשׁ (va-yegaresh), and he drove out, the human (Genesis 3:24). And what is the reason for this? It is because she [the soul] having no seed [has] come back to her father’s house as in her youth (ibid.), that is, returns to this world, to the son of the Levirate Marriage…. And after she has been privileged to have offspring, of her father’s bread she may eat, but no outsider shall eat of it (ibid.). [This is what is written:] the wife of the dead man shall not become wife outside to a stranger (Deuteronomy 25:5)” (Zohar 3:244b, Ra’aya Meheimna Pineḥas).

“Rabbi Shesheth stated in the name of Rabbi El’azar who stated it in the name of Rabbi El’azar son of Azariyah: From where is it proved that a sister-in-law, who falls to the lot of one afflicted with boils, is not muzzled? You shall not muzzle an ox when it threshes (Deuteronomy 25:4)” (BT Yevamot 4a).