“The blessed Holy One scattered Israel among the peoples only so that they may accumulate converts, for it is said: And I will sow her for Me in the land and show mercy to Lo-Ruhamah, [and I will say to Lo-Ami, ‘You are My people,’ and he shall say, ‘You are my God!’] (Hosea 2:25)—surely, a man sows a se’ah in order to harvest many korin….
Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The ingathering of the exiles is as important as the day when the heavens and the earth were created, for it is said, And the people of Judah and the people of Israel shall gather together and set over them רֹאשׁ אֶחָד (rosh eḥad), a single chief, and they shall go up from the lands, for great is the day of Jezreel (Hosea 2:2); and it is written, And it was evening and it was morning, יוֹם אֶחָד (yom eḥad), first day (Genesis 1:5)” (BT Pesaḥim 87b–88a, cf. Zohar 1:244a).
“‘The ten tribes will not return, as is written, And flung them into another land as on this day (Deuteronomy 29:27)—just as the day goes and does not return, so they too went and will not return: the words of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Eli’ezer said: As on this day—just as the day darkens and then becomes light again, so the Ten Tribes. Even as it went dark for them, so will it become light for them’ (M Sanhedrin 10:3).
Our Rabbis taught: The ten tribes have no portion in the World to Come, as it says, And YHWH tore them from upon their soil in wrath and in anger and in great fury [and flung them into another land as on this day] (ibid.). And YHWH tore them from upon their soil—this world; and flung them into another land—the World to Come: the words of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Shim’on son of Yehudah, of the village of Akko, said in the name of Rabbi Shim’on: If their deeds are as this day’s [i.e., if they do not repent, this day referring to the time of their being exiled], they will not return; otherwise they shall. Rabbi said: They will enter the future world, as is said, [And it shall be] on that day a great ram’s horn shall sound, [and those lost in the land of Assyria shall come, and the dispersed in the land of Egypt and bow down to YHWH on the holy mountain, in Jerusalem] (Isaiah 27:13).
Rabbah son of Son of Ḥanah said in Rabbi Yoḥanan’s name: [Here] Rabbi Akiva abandoned His חֲסִידוּת (ḥasidut), kindness, as is written, Go and call out these words to the north and say, Turn back, Rebel Israel, said YHWH, and I will not set My face against you, for I am חָסִיד (ḥasid), faithful, said YHWH. I will not bear a grudge forever (Jeremiah 3:12).
Now, to what does ‘his kindness’ refer? As has been taught: The children of the wicked of Israel, [who died] in their minority, will not enter the future world, as is written, For, look, the day is coming, burning like a kiln, when all the arrogant and all the evil doers shall be straw. And the day that is coming shall set them ablaze, said YHWH of Armies, shall not leave them root or branch (Malachi 3:19). Root—this world; branch—the World to Come: the words of Rabban Gamaliel.
Rabbi Akiva said: They will enter the World to Come, as is written, YHWH protects פְּתָאיִם (peta’im), the simple (Psalms 116:6), and in the island cities, a child is called פָּתִּיאָ (pattia); and it is said also, Cut down the tree and destroy it but leave one of its roots in the ground (Daniel 4:20). How then do I fulfill that shall not leave them root or branch? That He shall not leave them [unpunished the violation of] a single mitsvah nor the remnant of a mitsvah [i.e., even the most insignificant mitsvah]. Another interpretation: root—the נְשָׁמָה (neshamah), soul; branch—the body [but of the wicked themselves, not their children. Thus we see Rabbi Akiva, in his love for Israel, interpreting the verse as leniently as possible]. But as for young children of the wicked gentiles, all agree that they will not enter the future world. And he derives it from [The dead shall not live, nor shall the shades rise up. Therefore have] You singled them out and destroyed them and expunged all remembrance of them (Isaiah 26:14)” (BT Sanhedrin 110b, cf. Sifra, Be-Ḥukkotai, 8:1).
And it shall happen on that day, the Master shall pull in His hand once more to take back His people’s remnant that will remain from Assyria and Egypt and from Patros and from Cush and from Elam and from Shinar and from Hamath and from coastlands. And He shall raise a banner to the nations, and gather the banished of Israel and the dispersed of Judah He shall assemble from the four corners of the earth (Isaiah 11:11–12).
“And Israel saw Joseph’s sons and he said, ‘Who are these?’ (Genesis 48:8).
Rabbi Abba opened, ‘It is said: And you shall say in your heart: ‘Who gave birth for me to these, [when I was bereaved and barren, exiled and cast aside, and these, why, who has raised?] (Isaiah 49:21). What does this mean? Israel below saw that the children of Israel will come before Him, when they will come from Elam and from Shinar and from Hamath and from coastlands (ibid. 11:11), and a vast flock will be established. The Shekhinah will say, Who are these? Are there not any who are unfit, of foreign children? They will say to Him, We are all Your children, there is no foreigner among us! For they will be severed the one from the other [i.e., the motley throng will be severed from the Assembly of Israel]. And they will be circumcised together and converted. The convert then will return together with Israel and they will be as one.
It was taught: ‘[Rabbi Ḥelbo said:] Converts are as tough for Israel as a סַּפַּחַת (sapaḥat), scab’ (BT Qiddushin 70b; Yevamot 47b; Niddah 13b; Zohar 3:206b), as is written, For YHWH shall have pity on Jacob and again shall choose Israel and set them down on their land, and the sojourner shall join them וְנִסְפְּחוּ (ve-nispeḥu), and they shall cling, to the house of Jacob (Isaiah 14:1). When the children will return to their land and there will be compassion among them, then YHWH shall be one and His name one (Zechariah 14:9). Then the convert will tag along with the people of Israel like a scab on their skin.’
Why? Come and hear: Rabbi Shim’on said it refers to the borders of the land, for every one will want to live in the land of Israel, and the inhabitants will be afraid. It is written, [Spread wide the place of your tent,] and let the curtains of your dwelling stretch out [—do not stint. Lengthen you cords and strengthen your tent pegs] (Isaiah 54:2). The curtains you once had, should be stretched and strengthened, as it were, more than those of the other peoples whom you saw strengthening them in your exile. [Indeed, a vast flock of converts] will be established” (Zohar 1:215a).
“Yehudah, an Ammonite convert, came before [the Rabbis] in the academy. He said to them: How can I enter the assembly [i.e., marry a Jewish woman]? Rabbi Yehoshu’a said to him: You are permitted to enter the assembly. Rabban Gamaliel said to him: Has it not already been said, No Ammonite nor Moabite shall come into YHWH’s assembly. [Even his tenth generation shall not come into YHWH’s assembly ever. Because they did not greet you with bread and water on the way when you came out of Egypt, and for their hiring against you Balaam son of Beor from Aram Naharaim to curse you] (Deuteronomy 23:4–5)? Rabbi Yehoshu’a replied to him: Do Ammon and Moab still reside in their [original] place? Sennacherib king of Assyria long ago went up and בַּלבֵּל (balbel), baffled, all the nations, as it says, [For he has said: ‘Through the power of my hand I have done it, and through my wisdom, for I was discerning.] I have wiped out the borders of peoples and their riches plundered and brought down to the dust those who dwelled there (Isaiah 10:13); and whatever separates, separates from the greater part [and the assumption is that he is from the majority of nations whose members are permitted to enter the assembly, cf. BT Ketubbot 15a in the name of Rabbi Zeira]. Rabban Gamaliel said to him: But has it not been said: And afterward I will restore the fortunes of the Ammonites, said YHWH (Jeremiah 49:6) so that they have already returned? Rabbi Yehoshu’a replied: And has it not been said, And I will restore the fortunes of My people Israel, [and they shall rebuild desolate towns and dwell there and plant vineyards and drink their wine. And they shall make gardens and eat their fruit. And I will plant them on their soil, and they shall no more be uprooted from their soil that I have given them, said YHWH your God] (Amos 9:14), and they have not yet returned? Immediately they permitted him to enter the assembly” (BT Berakhot 28a).
“On that day Israel shall be a third partner with Egypt and with Assyria, as a blessing in the midst of the earth. [Which YHWH of Armies conferred, saying, ‘Blessed are My people Egypt and My handiwork Assyria and Israel My estate] (Isaiah 19:24).
The seventy princes who govern the army on high are divided in their midst. One division is governed by the prince of Ishmael, called Egypt, and the other division is governed by the prince of Edom, called Assyria [cf. 2 Kings 16; Isaiah 7–9; 2 Chronicles 28]. Both divisions receive from Gevurah, at the left side of the Chariot, but as we said, Gevurah is divided in two: one aspect is harsh judgment and the other weak [cf. Zohar 2:178a, 187a]; the harsh is exceedingly hard and the weak is soft. However, one stately light expands from the way of Tif’eret engulfing these two qualities, covering and influencing them. And in the future yet to come, when these two princes behold this light, they will call it the Light of Blessing, as is written, On that day Israel shall be a third partner with Egypt and with Assyria, as a blessing in the midst of the earth. And look, truly some of the nations will be restored to the dominion of Israel” (Berit Menuḥa, Third Way: The Way of Peace, cf. Zohar 1:13a, 164a; 2:57b; 3:218a–b [RM], 227b).
And foreigners shall stand and tend your flocks and strangers be your farmers and keepers of your vineyards. As for you, YHWH’s priests you shall be called, our God’s ministrants it shall be said of you. The wealth of nations you shall enjoy and in their glory revel. Instead of the shame twice over and disgrace they shall exult in their lot. Therefore they shall possess their land twice over, everlasting joy shall be theirs (Isaiah 61:5–7, cf. Mekhilta, Shabbeta, Ki Tissa 1; BT Berakhot 35b; Zohar 1:143b).
“Rabbi Ḥiyya was traveling to visit Rabbi El’azar. He found him sitting next to Rabbi Shim’on son of Rabbi Yose, son of Lekonya, his father-in-law. As he raised his head, he saw Rabbi Ḥiyya. He said, In that day Israel will be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, a blessing on earth, whom YHWH of Hosts will bless, saying, ‘Blessed be My people Egypt, [My handiwork Assyria, and My heritage Israel] (Isaiah 19:24). How foolish are the inhabitants of the world, who do not know or consider the words of Torah!
Are then Ashur and Egypt close to the blessed Holy One? Rather, all those members of the exiles who will go up from Egypt and Ashur. But if we say that it is Egypt and Ashur [themselves] it refers to the pious among them who repent, and remain to serve Israel and King Messiah, as is written, and may all kings bow to him, and all nations serve him (Psalms 72:11), and, And kings shall be your attendants [and princesses your wet nurses. Face to the ground they shall bow to you and lick the dust of your feet. And you shall know that I am YHWH, all who hope for Me shall not be shamed] (Isaiah 49:23) [cf. BT Shevu’ot 47b: ‘In the academy of Rabbi Yishma’el it was taught: The servant of a king is like a king’]” (Zohar 2:57b).
“All things will be fittingly restored, and the impure aspect will be eliminated from the world. This has been affirmed, as is written: I will eliminate the spirit of impurity from earth (Isaiah 25:8). The blessed Holy One will then remain alone, as is written: Idols will utterly vanish (ibid. 2:18), and similarly: YHWH alone will be exalted on that day (ibid., 17)—He alone, as is written: No alien god with Him (Deuteronomy 32:12), for it will be eradicated from the world. Nothing will remain above or below except the blessed Holy One alone and Israel serving Him, a holy people—called ‘holy,’ as is written: Whoever is left in Zion, who remains in Jerusalem, will be called holy (Isaiah 4:3). Then there will be a single world above and below—a single above; a single world below, a single people serving Him, as is written: Who is like Your people Israel, a single nation on earth? (1 Chronicles 17:21) [Rabbi Moshe Cordovero maintains that other nations will be purified and integrated into Israel, see Or Yaqar]” (Zohar 1:164a).