The Nut Garden

לקוטים מזוהר (Gleanings of Zohar)

Tag: gilgul

Are Your Days Like a Mortal’s Days, Your Years Like the Years of a Man?

Remember the sabbath day to hallow it. Six days you shall work and you shall do all your tasks, but the seventh day is a sabbath to YHWH your God. You shall do no task…. For six days did YHWH make the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in it, and He rested on the seventh day. Therefore did YHWH bless the sabbath day and hallow it (Exodus 20:8–11).

In the seventh month on the first of the month you shall have a sabbath, a commemoration with horn blast, a sacred convocation…. Yet on the tenth of this seventh month is the Day of Atonement, a sacred convocation it shall be for you, and you shall afflict yourselves and bring forward a fire offering to YHWH. And no task shall you do on this very day, for it is a day of atonement to atone for you before YHWH your God…. An everlasting statute for your generations in all your dwelling places. שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן (Shabbat shabbaton), an absolute sabbath, it is for you… (Leviticus 23:24, 27–28, 31–32).

When you come into the land that I am about to give you, the land shall keep a sabbath to YHWH. Six years you shall sow your fields and six years you shall prune your vineyard and gather in its yield. And in the seventh year there shall be shabbat shabbaton, an absolute sabbath, for the land, a sabbath to YHWH…. And you shall count you seven sabbaths of years, seven years seven times, and the days of the seven sabbaths of years shall come to forty-nine years…. And you shall hallow the fiftieth year and call a release in the land to all its inhabitants. A jubilee it shall be for you, and you shall go back each man to his holding and each man to his clan, you shall go back (Leviticus 25:2–4, 8–10).

“The song that the Levites would say in the Temple on the first day: They would say, YHWH’s is the earth and its fullness, the world and the dwellers within it (Psalms 24:1). On the second they would say, Great is YHWH and highly praised in our God’s town, His holy mountain (ibid. 48:2). On the third they would say, God takes His stand in the divine assembly, in the midst of the gods He renders judgment (ibid. 82:1). On the fourth they would say, God of vengeance, O YHWH, God of vengeance, shine forth! (ibid. 94:1). On the fifth they would say, Sing gladly to God our strength, shout out to the God of Jacob (ibid. 81:2). On the sixth they would say, YHWH reigns, in triumph clothed, clothed is YHWH, [in strength He is girded. Yes, the world stands firm, not to be shaken] (ibid. 93:1). On the Sabbath they would say, A psalm, a song for Sabbath day (ibid. 92:1)—a psalm, a song for the time yet to come, for the day that is entirely שַׁבַּת מְנוּחָה לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָמִים (shabbat menuḥah le-ḥayyei ha-olamim), a cessation of tranquility for the One who lives eternities” (M Tamid 7:4; cf. BT Rosh ha-Shanah 31a).

In His hand is the breath of each living thing (Job 12:10)—He is חֵי הָעוֹלָמִים (ḥei ha-olamim), Vitality of the Worlds. And any expression of בְּרִיאָה (beri’ah), creation, is performed through Him. Of Him is said, He ceased and caught His breath (Exodus 31:17). He is the quality of the Sabbath day, of Him is said, Remember the Sabbath day to hallow it (ibid. 20:8)” (Bahir §180).

“This world is [likened] to a mustard seed in a pile. What is the reason? On account of the breath that blows upon it, by this existing. And were the breath to be held [for] a single hour—or if a [single] moment—the world אִתְחֲרֵב (itarev), would be shriveled up [cf. Bahir §5; Naḥmanides, Perush le-Sefer Yetsirah, 1:1, §1]” (Bahir §179).

“Rav Qattina said: Six thousand years is a world, and one [thousand years that are] חַרוּב (ḥaruv), desolate [lit., dried up, see e.g., Job 14:11], as is written, And YHWH alone shall be raised high on that day (Isaiah 2:11) [cf. Zohar 1:176b (SdTs) ad loc.]. Abbaye said: Two [thousand years are] desolate, as is said, He will revive us after two days, on the third day raise us up, that we may live in His presence (Hosea 6:2).

It has been taught like Rav Qattina: Just as the seventh is one מְשַׁמֶטֶת שָׁנָה (meshametet shanah), year of release, in seven years, so is a world: one thousand years out of seven shall be מְשַׁמֵּט (meshammet), fallow, as is written, And YHWH alone shall be raised high on that day, and it is further said, A psalm, a song for Sabbath day (Psalms 92:1)—the day that is entirely a cessation [of tranquility]. It is also said, For a thousand years in Your eyes are like a day gone (Psalms 90:4).

The Tanna debe Eliyyahu taught: Six thousand years is a world: two thousand תֹּהוּ (tohu), chaos; two thousand תּוֹרָה (torah), Law [and order]; two thousand years the days of Messiah…. the blessed Holy One, will renew His world only after seven thousand years” (BT Sanhedrin 97a–b).

“Rabbi Berekhiah said: It is written, And the earth was תֹהוּ (tohu), welter, and waste (Genesis 1:2). Was—what does it mean? Welter, already was” (Bahir §2).

“Rabbi Ḥanin said, ‘… The earth was (Genesis 1:2)—it already had been’” (Bereshit Rabbah 1:15).

These are the begettings of the heavens (Genesis 2:4)—Rabbi Abbahu said, ‘Wherever these are is written, it invalidates the preceding, whereas and these are adds to the preceding. Here [namely, These are the begettings of the heavens], the wording these are invalidates the preceding. What is invalidated? Welter and waste and darkness (ibid. 1:2)” (Bereshit Rabbah 12:3).

And there was evening (Genesis 1:5). Rabbi Yehudah son of Rabbi Shim’on said: It is not written let there be evening, but rather and there was evening: hence we know that an order of time existed before this. Rabbi Abbahu said: The blessed Holy One kept creating worlds and מַחְרִיבָן (maḥerivan), destroying them, until He created these [i.e., heavens and earth]. Then He declared, ‘These please Me, those do not.’ Rabbi Pinḥas said: This is Rabbi Abbahu’s reason: And God saw all that He had done, and, look, it was very good (Genesis 1:31): ‘These please Me, those do not’” (Bereshit Rabbah 3:7, cf. Rabbi Azriel of Gerona, Sha’ar ha-Shoel, 12).

“Rabbi Tanḥuma opened: Everything He has עָשָׂה (asah), done, aptly in its time (Ecclesiastes 3:11). Rabbi Tanḥuma said: The world was created in its time, and the world was not fit to be created earlier. Rabbi Abbahu said: Hence we learn that the blessed Holy One was creating worlds and destroying them, creating worlds and destroying them, until He created these [i.e., the heavens and earth], and then He said: ‘These please Me, those do not.’ Rabbi Pinḥas said: This is Rabbi Abbahu’s reason: And God saw all that He had עָשָׂה (asah), done, and, look, it was very good (Genesis 1:31): ‘These please Me, those do not’ [cf. ZḤ 21c (MhN); Zohar 1:24b–25a (TZ): ‘… it does not mean He destroyed His own makings as people might think’; 3:292b (IZ)]” (Bereshit Rabbah 9:2).

“Rabbi Ḥiyya opened, saying, ‘That which is has already been called by name, and what is to be [… already has been] (Ecclesiastes 3:15, 6:10). That which is has already [been]—corresponding to what we have learned: Before the blessed Holy One created this world, He created worlds and destroyed them, until the blessed Holy One entertained the desire to create this world, and He consulted the Torah. Then He was arrayed in His adornments and adorned with His crowns, and He created the world. All that exists in this world was already in His presence, rising before Him, arranged before Him (Zohar 3:61a–b).

“ש (Shin)—this letter was of four prongs but now she is [only of] three…. The mystery of the root of unity [is] in her… without gain, or change, as is written, I am YHWH, I have not changed (Malachi 3:6)—from [the aspect of] Atsilut, Emanation, unity remains without joining or change in essence. The power of divinity acts, and His unity in Atsilut… [imbues] the shape [of the four-pronged shin with] a power to unite. For with this power the shape is comprised in Atsilut, [the world of] unity, to unite with Torah, commandments, and statutes, [according to] the need of שְׁמִטָּה (shemittah), the sabbatical year. And her Torah’s nature [is] to unite and to mend her way, with upright commandments unique to the need of healing for souls in exile. 

And in the future [the three-pronged shin] will transform and she will be of a square shape, [according] to the need of the shemittah. She came in her splendor with her Torah and statute in the mystery of unity befitting her in Atsilut and the unique order [of] the shemittah—for she already was, but her Torah passed and [there] came the power of the shape with three prongs in her place [on Lilit as a slavegirl supplanting Shekhinah, see Zohar 1:122a–b, 131b, 190b, 204a; 2:60b–61a, 96a–b, 117b–118b (RM); 3:69a, 266a, 279b (RM); TZ, Haqdamah, 2a, all of which quote Proverbs 30:23; cf. TZ, Haqdamah 14b; Zohar 3:124b–25b (RM): ‘During the time that the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil dominates…’]. Now, [according to] the need she gives Torah and statute—according to the quality of the way [of the shemittah]. For every matter and outside power come from her side, such as, You shall make you no carved likeness and no image [of what is in the heavens above or what is on the earth below or what is in the waters beneath the earth] (Exodus 20:4)—[this] quality overcomes [idolatry with her Torah of prohibitions], for all [that] is far [from holiness is opposed] from her side…. Thus at the giving of Torah came ‘you shall do’ and ‘you shall not do’ in the 613 commandments….

Therefore, the letter was missing at the giving of Torah and Shekhinah [was] in her place. As with the creation of the world, Ḥesed, Kindness, [was missing from] the structure [of the six lower sefirot] and Shekhinah [was] with them to complete the structure [on justice as the basis of the world, see M Avot 1:18; Avot de-Rabbi Natan B, 43; Bereshit Rabbah 14:1; Shemot Rabbah 30:13; Zohar 1:180b; 2:22b, 122a; 3:30b, 32a; Rabbi Moshe de León, Sefer ha-Rimmon, 291, 345. Cf. Psalms 89:3: The world shall be built on kindness].

Now, in the days of Noah [it was] a time of grace and light—the quality which already came. He was a righteous and blameless man in his generation [which was totally evil and whose sustained existence was only by the grace and kindness of YHWH, see Genesis 6:5–8; cf. BT Sanhedrin 108b; Zohar 1:58a, 61b–62a]. There the letter was whole, enduring in his place…. And now the shape of [shin is of] three prongs [in] the second, harsh, shemittah [cf. Sefer Yetsirah §34: ‘He made ש (shin) king over אֵשׁ (esh), fire’]. In her is the need of the shemittah to remove every carved likeness and image. And all leavened dough comes from her side [cf. JT Berakhot 4:2, 7d]. And from her we will [ultimately] come to unite, to join with commandments of unity, in His emanation, such as tefillin, tsitsit, sukkah, lulav, and the like. For they [are meant] to unite [all] supernals as one. But הָפַךְ (hafakh), He upended [the order]—this [shemittah] is not for joining, nor for unifying the singular Power, holy things [serve] the need of the profane [see BT Pesaḥim 50a; cf. Naḥmanides, Perush le-Sefer Yetsirah, 1:1, §1; Zohar 3:124b–25b (RM)]. For what is forbidden in this is permitted in that [cf. BT Niddah 61b; Midrash Tehillim 146:4]. Since from the power of the shape [of the four-pronged shin] we will understand [how] to join holies through the unity of Atsilut, and overturn forbidden [acts], such as eating of an offering…. The [three-pronged] shape of the letter [ש (shin) is] in [the shape of] a root—the [three] Patriarchs [cf. Bahir  §118]. And the Chariot [too is] in their shape, lacking the Shekhinah [Malkhut, David]. Yet, the Shekhinah is with them, [and they are] with Her as one” (Sefer ha-Temunah 3, 61b–62a, cf. Rabbi Yitsḥaq Luria, Sha‘ar Ma’amarei Rashbi 46b).

“According to the way of Kabbalah: יוֹבֵל (Yovel), jubilee—from the language [of], And by יוּבַל (yuval), a stream, it sends forth its roots, [and it shall not see when the heat wave comes, and its leaves shall be lush, and in a drought year it shall have no care and never cease from yielding fruit] (Jeremiah 17:8) [cf. Zohar 2:83a ad loc]. And it hints that all the generations יוּבְלוּ (yuvelu), will be led [back], to the First Cause, and therefore Jubilee is called דְּרוֹר (deror), Release [or: Freedom] (Leviticus 25:10), since it is Jubilee who sends forth הַדּוֹרוֹת (ha-dorot), the generations, and all those who are created [on Jubilee (Binah) and freedom, see Zohar 1:220b; 3:95b, 101a, 102b, 108a; Rabbi Moshe de León, Sefer ha-Rimmon, 167, 169]. For from there they emanate in בְּרִית עוֹלָם (berit olam), an eternal covenant, as is said, בְּרֵאשִׁית (bereshit), in the beginning, God created (Genesis 1:1) [—בְּרִית אֵשׁ (berit esh), covenant of fire; cf. Jeremiah 33:25: Were it not for My covenant day and night, I would not have established the laws of the heavens and earth]. And Her name, [תְּשׁוּבָה (teshuvah), Return, attests to] their return. And understand this, for every single one of the seven [sefirot] acts [on] seven thousand [years]. And, look, they are forty-nine—when forty-nine [shemittot, sabbatical years] are completed the world will be welter and waste (ibid., 2), and all will be restored to Jubilee, just as [all] emanates from there, understand this. And this is the language of: In this jubilee year you shall go back, each man to his holding (Leviticus 25:13). And the probing sages [i.e., philosophers], say in their language: All was from the First Cause, and all returns to the First Cause.

Now, if you understand the secret of הַשְּׁמִטָּה וְהַיּוֹבֵל (ha-shemittah ve-ha-yovel), the sabbatical year and the jubilee, you will not disregard that which was mentioned of the shemittahyour field… your vineyard… your harvest… your untrimmed vine (ibid., 3–5)—in the second person. For after the shemittah has passed Scripture called שַׁבַּת מְנוּחָה לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָמִים (shabbat menuḥah le-ḥayyei ha-olamim), a cessation of tranquility for the One who lives eternities [or: … for the Vitality of the Worlds; cf. M Tamid 7:4], [and these] will be yours as before. Now, look at the emphasis of the verse, A psalm, a song for Sabbath day (Psalms 92:1), hinting to what will be after the sabbath, as is said, The righteous man springs up like the palm tree (ibid., 13). And it is written, May the righteous man flourish in his days—and abundant peace till the moon is no more (ibid. 72:7), also hinting at: and they were completed (Genesis 2:1), after which is said, and God blessed the seventh day (ibid., 3) in order to make it known what will be after the seventh day, sealed with the word לַעֲשׂוֹת (la-asot), to do (ibid.), as if to say: acts [still left] to do [after the shemittah] and to call the generations from the beginning. And because of this it says of the mitsvah of shemittahyour field… your vineyard… your harvest… your untrimmed vine—[it says] your, while it did not say so of the jubilee, but rather, its aftergrowths… its untrimmed vines (Leviticus 25:11), accordingly, its and not yours.

And I already mentioned this in order [of the Torah portions] at Mishpatim. And from this is said, [In the jubilee year the field shall revert…to Him who has the holding of the land (ibid. 27:24)—it does not say, [to him whoinherits the land [cf. Exodus 23:30; Naḥmanides, Perush le-Sefer Yetsirah, 1:1, §1 ad loc.]. For the notion of inheritance is that which a man inherits in due time, yet it says, the holding, which is language mainly instructive of first owners, as is written, [If you see the oppression of the poor and the perversion of justice and right in the province, be not amazed at the matter,for he who is high has a higher one watching him, and still higher ones over them (Ecclesiastes 5:7). Now this is clarified” (Rabbenu Baḥya ben Asher on Leviticus 25:10).

“Look, there are sages from those who do the work of holiness who arose to these matters [concerning the world to come, the revival of the dead, and the final judgment]. And they taught that all this will be in the sixth millennium. And they teach those matters of which they said: ‘Six thousand years is a world, and one [thousand years it] is destroyed’ (BT Rosh ha-Shannah 31a; Sanhedrin 97a). And the seventh is for שְׁמִטָּה (shemittah), a remission, to YHWH (Deuteronomy 15:2). And the entire world [will keep] a sabbath to YHWH (Leviticus 25:2). And there are those who think that in [Rav Qattina] saying, ‘and one [thousand years it] is destroyed’ is that the world is [actually] destroyed and no man, nay human, [survives] in the world other than He, may He be blessed, as they said, And YHWH alone shall be raised high on that day (Isaiah 2:11). Know that this matter is a great theft to the discerning! The prophets did not prophesy [of this], but only until the days of Messiah and from there on there was no prophet who prophesied anything at all concerning the ‘day’ which is shemittah [see BT Sanhedrin 99a on Isaiah 64:3 in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan; Berakhot 34b; cf. Robert Alter, A Note on Wisdom Literature]. As they said, And it shall be a single day—it shall be known to YHWH—neither day nor night (Zechariah ibid.)—the seventh thousandth [year] which is a ‘day’ of sabbath to YHWH. And of this is said neither day nor night. In all the Workings of Creation it is said: And it was evening and it was morning (Genesis 1:5–31) [but] on the sabbath neither evening nor morning was spoken of, and of this was said, And it shall be a single day—it shall be known to YHWH—that day which has neither day nor night

Now, the mystery of Secrets of Wisdom forces [us to] reveal a little of those hidden matters: Since Her rung [is called] Sabbath She will gather the souls of delight in the [seventh] millennium [cf. Zohar 2:10a]. For in the sixth millennium all the souls in the body will be depleted, and the seventh day this rung shall rule and be raised to gather souls [of delight] which She did not gather in the time of exile. For from the efflux which was in Her before the time of exile She provides [during] the day for Her children that are in the time of exile. She does not gather efflux and does not unite above, since already, ‘The blessed Holy One has sworn that He will not enter heavenly Jerusalem until He enters earthly Jerusalem’ (Zohar 3:15b) [see BT Ta’anit 5a (in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan), and Rashi, ad loc., s.v. lo avo and Yerushalayim; Tanḥuma, Pequdei 1; Midrash Tehillim 122:4; Zohar 1:1b, 231a; 2:224b; 3:68b, 147b–148a, 262b. Cf. Targum Yonatan, Psalms 122:3]. As they say: the Holy One is in your midst, but I will not come into the town (Hosea 11:9).

When all the souls are depleted Son of David comes and then there will be the days of Messiah. They, of blessed memory said, in Pereq Ḥeleq, ‘Son of David will not come until all souls in the body have been depleted. [As is said, For the spirit (of Son of David) will be faint before Me (until) I have made (all) souls (Isaiah 57:16)]’ (BTAvodah Zarah 5a; Yevamot 62a)—at the revival of the dead You return to embrace each one but the rung will remain without souls to give to those born. And the hint to this rung in what they, of blessed memory, said, ‘and one [thousand years it] is destroyed’ is that She remains barren without souls since this rung of the seventh millennium is called And six shafts going out from its sides (Exodus 25:32)—mystery of [six] thousand years [see Rashi on Numbers 8:2; Zohar 2:14b (MhN). Cf. BT Menaḥot 98b]. And the seventh is a sabbath to YHWH, to gather the souls of delight to give to His people Israel, corresponding to [six] thousand years below, ‘and one is destroyed [or: desolate, barren]’ is the seventh millennium, that the world will remain without begetting until that rung desires uniting above. And She gathers souls to give and then there will be a new world [on the Sabbath’s ‘נְשָׁמָה יְתֵירָה (neshamah yeteirah), additional soul,’ see BT Beitsah 16a; Zohar 1:48a, 81b (ST); 2:88b, 98a, 135b, 136b, 204a–205b, 207a–b, 208b–209a, 256a (Heikh); 3:35b, 79b, 95a, 173a, 288b (IZ); ZḤ 17a (MhN)]. 

[As] to [there] being begetting in the world without the lure of the evil impulse, if you say before this one will do begetting in the world it would be impossible because of two things. First: Since the evil impulse will be nullified at the revival of the dead, as is said, He shall swallow up death forever (Isaiah 25:8). And it says, And I will take away the heart of stone from your body [and give you a heart of flesh] (Ezekiel 36:26). Second: That there are no souls in the body which [has] already [been] depleted before the messiah comes. Therefore, there is no begetting in the world over which the seventh millennium comes to gather spirits and souls.

And let not your heart [be drawn to] other words of mere breath, with other opinions to say that the world will [actually] be destroyed and they will die in the seventh millennium, And the land is laid waste, a desolation (Isaiah 6:11). And after the seventh millennium the blessed Holy One will be as from the beginning, until sons of man are called [upon], according to their opinion, [at] the final revival of the dead. Far be this opinion from the enlightened who know favor. Even if [it were] according to their words, all the good to come designated for Israel in the sixth millennium [with] the coming of messiah [it would be just] before the destruction of the seventh [millennium]—will he [then] build the Temple and the dead live [again]? If so, according to them the gladness shall be a very short while and the tranquility a [mere] moment, whereas they are to die immediately [afterwards]. And what use is there in our bearing the evil and tragedies in this exile, and how many persecutions and how much terrible suffering, from this to that [cf. BT Sanhedrin 96b: ‘Many troubles and harsh decrees will be renewed, before the first recedes the second comes in haste’], over the promise of the days of Messiah and all those prophecies that the prophets prophesied? Meanwhile they will be destroyed and die immediately, and the good will not be found but rather a [mere] moment of good will be given back to you? Do not [let this be] your opinion on the matter of exile.

In all seventy years that Israel were exiled from their land to Babylon [see Jeremiah 29:10]… when they went up, those attributed ‘the heads of a holy people’ did not go up from there, except for a very few and all the rest poor people (2 Kings 24:14)…. They said, ‘Since the Temple will be destroyed as in the beginning and will not exist, it is better for us to remain here’ [cf. Exodus 14:12: it is better for us to serve Egypt than for us to die in the wilderness]. What [did they] expound? I have put off my gown, how can I don it? I have bathed my feet, [how can I besmirch them?] (Song of Songs 5:3). And all the more so this long exile when our eyes see Israel bears so many tragedies and suffering.

Evil and terrible hardship [are seemingly given primacy] over those promises known and expected for us, whereas the good shall be a [mere] moment. [They would say:] Is it not good to remain in exile? Only far be [the matter] from that opinion, [but rather] that this is the great promise well known in all the Torah and in all the world: To be the gladness of the blessed Holy One with His children, as is written, May YHWH rejoice in His works (Psalms 104:31)—a great long joy and all those promises which we were promised in His Torah, then they will be forever. And as long as the exile is lengthened so will the rejoicing and goodness be lengthened—thousands upon thousands its myriads! However, at the present time [5050/1290 C.E.] the souls are not yet depleted in the body. Concerning the cause of the evil impulse: From the day that the decree My breath shall not abide in the human [forever…] (Genesis 6:3) was decreed the intention is that they be depleted before the messiah comes—souls return to their place for the revival of the dead [which] will be an existence for them, as we said. And from here on his body is a vessel of souls from Him. From where will spirits come to do begetting for this world, since, look, there is no human there, for he is already destroyed? [Well,] then the desire will arise to gather new spirits of existence to exist in the body, to descend from there and onward to this world. And of this is written, And a new spirit will I put within you, [and I will take away the heart of stone from your body and give you a heart of flesh] (Ezekiel 36:26). And then the spirit of the prophecy of the prophet will be fulfilled, of which he said, A lad he shall die at a hundred, and who misses a hundred shall be thought accursed (Isaiah 65:20); Again shall old men and old women sit in the squares of Jerusalem, [each with his staff in hand because of their many years] (Zechariah 8:4).

All these promises and much more will be fulfilled and this is the truth without hesitation or doubt. Now, in what I have hinted for you understand the whole matter, it is not as those who devise their opinions until they say whatever springs to their minds [out of thin] air” (Rabbi Moshe de LeónSefer ha-Mishqal, 92–95 [Weinhoven]; Nefesh ha-Ḥokhmah [Basle, 1608], Sod Teḥiyyat ha-Metim, 6a–b; cf. Rabbi Menaḥem Recanati, Perush al ha-TorahBehar).

“Said the small Yitsḥaq of Akko [circa 5065/1305 C.E.]: I saw [the need] to write a great secret which is fitting to conceal very well: Know that a day of the blessed Holy One is one thousand years of ours, as is said, For a thousand years in Your eyes are like a day (Psalms 90:4) [Are Your days like a mortal’s days, Your years like the years of a man? (Job 10:5)]. Now, our year is 365 and a quarter days. If so, a year above is 365,250 years of ours. And two years above are 730,500 years of ours. From now on go out and double, and [then] go out and double [again], until 49,000 years [after which time comes the Great Jubilee]—that each day of the 365,250 above is a thousand years of ours, as is written, [The eyes of human haughtiness are brought down, and men’s righteousness is bowed low,] and YHWH alone shall be raised high on that day (Isaiah 2:11); Who can utter YHWH’s mighty acts, [can make heard all His praise?] (Psalms 106:2). Blessed be the name of the glory of His kingdom, forever and ever. And all of this is as Scripture said. Surely, its figure—[be it] twice as much, thousands upon thousands of thousands—is not in His eyes reckoned [as even] a moment.

Now, יֹצְרוֹ (yotsro), [the world’s] Fashioner, is צ״ע—צַדִּיק עֶלְיוֹן (tsaddiq elyon), the supernal Righteous One [cf. Proverbs 10:25: The Righteous One is the foundation of the world; JT Berakhot 1:5, 10b. Alt., Now, צִיּוּרוֹ (tsiyyuro), its figure (i.e., the duration of the world) צ״ע—צָרִיךְ עִיּוּן (tsarikh iyyun), requires reflection]. Surely, with אֵין סוֹף (ein sof), Infinity, it is enough for you to say ein sof, without end [and nothing more], if your wish [is] that your soul endure in her palace [i.e., her body]…. Glimpse at Him and you will be like Son of Azzai [who glimpsed and died]: Precious in the eyes of YHWH is the death of His faithful ones (Psalms 116:15) [see BT Ḥagigah 14b ad loc.; cf. Rabbi Yitsḥaq of Akko, Otsar Ḥayyim 161b]—the blessed Holy One has no desire that you kill [yourself] inasmuch as you were not permitted: You have no business with hidden and wondrous matters [see BT Ḥagigah 13a]. Do not inquire [of Ein Sof, Infinity, but rather] eat and you will be revived [cf. Rabbi Avraham Abulafia, Ḥayyei ha-Olam ha-Ba]. That you should know Him and serve Him, You shall be wholehearted with YHWH your God (Deuteronomy 18:13)—knowledge with intention [to serve Him]. Surely, the thought of your mind will be with Him, clinging perpetually, without imaginary fashionings [that are] not whole, [nor] complete [cf. Bahir §47 on Deuteronomy 4:15]. For according to your watching over Him, so will be His watching over you [cf. Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed, 3:16–21]…. 

And clear proof concerning the duration of [this] world a great many years, for which the heart will be made weary tallying it, is from what Isaiah the prophet said, peace be upon him, [There shall not be there a tender babe or elder who will not live out his days. For like] a lad he shall die at a hundred, [and who misses a hundred shall be thought accursed] (Isaiah 65:20). Just as we say now of a child aged three or younger who dies, so will be said in the time yet to come of a man who has lived [only] a hundred years and died, ‘a baby has died.’ For so great will be the human lifespan. And if one of little faith comes to deny this strange notion say to him that it already has been: Methuselah lived thirty [-one] shy of a thousand years [see Genesis 5:27]. For certainly the man who lived a hundred years and died in the days of Methuselah, of him Methuselah [must have] said, ‘A little baby has died.’

And now I will say a thing which requires reflection, and that is that one hundred years of the blessed Holy One are thirty-six times 150,000 years of ours. And since we said that a year above is 365,250 years… go out and tally to one hundred years and to a thousand years and a man need not speculate further. Behold, our eyes see that the duration of the world is very long, to remove from the hearts of those who say its duration is only 49,000 years [of ours], which are seven שְׁמִטּוֹת (shemittot)” (Rabbi Yitsḥaq of Akko, Otsar Ḥayyim 86b–87b).

God will Pervert Justice?

“Rabbi Yudai was in the presence of of Rabbi Azariah son of Simlai. He asked him, ‘Righteous ones who stumble upon a sin from the Torah that invokes excision, ponder repentance, and die—does their death atone for them?’ He replied, ‘Yes, and sometimes they are punished in this world, procuring atonement.’ He saw Rabbi Yudai’s face turn sallow. He said to him, ‘Say what you would say! The Torah does not receive impurity, as is written: Is not My word like fire, says YHWH? (Jeremiah 23:29) [cf. BT Berakhot 22b]. Thoughts in your heart?’

The secret of YHWH is for those who revere Him, [and to them He reveals His covenant(Psalms 25:14). Ten elders martyred by the empire on account of the sale of Joseph! 

He said to him, ‘Phinehas is Elijah’ [cf. BT Bava Batra 109b; Sotah 43a: ‘(Phinehas was a descendant) of Joseph who mastered his passion.’ On Phinehas as identified with Elijah, see Targum Yerushalmi, Exodus 6:18; Numbers 25:12; BT Metsi’a 114b, and Rashi, ad loc.; Tanḥuma, Pinḥas 1; Pirqe de-Rabbi Eli’ezer 47; Zohar 1:209b; 2:190a; 3:214a, 215a, 282a (both RM)].

He replied, ‘But Rabbi Akiva did not have ancestral merit!’ [see JT Berakhot 4, 7d; BT Berakhot 27b]. He said, ‘Of the descendants of Issachar, men who knew how to interpret the signs of the times (1 Chronicles 12:33) [cf. BT Yoma 26a in the name of Rava: ‘You will not find any rabbinical scholar offering rulings unless he is a descendant from the tribe of Levi or Issachar… ‘Issachar,’ as is written: Of the descendants of Issachar, men who knew how to interpret the signs of the times, to know what Israel ought to do (1 Chronicles 12:33)’].’

He opened, saying, ‘When Jacob came in from the field in the evening, Leah went out to meet him and said, ‘You are to come to me, for שָׂכֹר שְׂכַרְתִּיךָ (sakhor sekhartikha), I have surely hired you (Genesis 30:16). שָׂכֹר (S’khar), Reward—afterward. יֵשׁ שְׂכַ (Yesh s’khar), There is reward. Yesh, There is now; afterward, lambs for the kingdom in heaven. Their bodies will remain in their places in this world, everything ultimately restored to primal form. It is written: Each according to his blessing, he blessed them (Genesis 49:28).’

Rabbi Yudai fell prostrate, and slept. In his dream, they showed him Do not let your mouth incriminate your flesh (Ecclesiastes 5:5). ‘You have entered—seal it.’ From that day on, he did not mention it. He said, ‘How precious is your love, O God, and the children of humankind shelter in the shadow of Your wings (Psalms 36:8), and their children should not speak of them—kindness of God in everything.’

Rabbi Azariah said, ‘This is certainly so, as is written: Do not touch my anointed ones (1 Chronicles 16:22); and it is written: In whose hand is the soul of every living thing and the spirit of all human flesh (Job 12:10). Concerning His concealed, hidden matters one may not speak at all, for of One who has the spirits and souls of the righteous in His hands—of hidden matters He has fashioned—one should not encroach [cf. Zohar 2:95a, 100b (both SdM)]” (Zohar Ḥadash 89c–d).

“Rabbi Yudai opened, ‘On the day שֶׁיָּזֻעוּ שֹׁמְרֵי הַבַּיִת (she-yazu’u shomerei ha-bayit), that the keepers of the house will quake (Ecclesiastes 12:3)—these are the tanna’im and amora’im who used to protect the world while in the land of Israel, וְאִזְדַּעְזְעוּן (ve-izdaze’un), now convulsed, from their posts.

‘וְהִתְעַוְּתוּ אַנְשֵׁי הֶחָיִל (Ve-hit’avvetu anshei he-ḥayil), And the men of caliber are bent (ibid.), as is said: If you know there are men of caliber among them (Genesis 46:7). [This refers to] the sin of the sons of Jacob—men of caliber—who suffered a perversion of judgment, as is said: הַאֵל יְעַוֵּת (ha-el ye’avvet), God will pervert justice (Job 8:3). They received a perversion of judgment, these men of caliber. For this is the way of the serpent—after slaying a person, it returns and bites him again, mercilessly. This is perversion of judgment!’ [cf. Midrash Mishlei 1:13: ‘still that sin lingers’; Midrash Tehillim 9:13; Elleh Ezkerah (Beit ha-Midrash, 2:64–72); ‘Ma’aseh Asarah Harugei Malkhut’ (Beit ha-Midrash, 6:19–35); Seder Eliyyahu Rabbah 28; Zohar 1:106a, 202a; 2:33a. 254b (Heikh); ZḤ 46a, 76d, 89c (last two MhN, Rut); Rabbenu Baḥya ben Asher on Genesis 38:1, 44:17; Yom Kippur Musaf liturgy].

The residents of the land of Israel sent [the exiles in Babylon] a missive: ‘It befits you to weep, like one who weeps from afar. But mourning and sobbing, and eulogizing with wailing and bitterness—that does not suit you. For you bathed your feet and did not want them sullied as before. This is as is written: I have bathed my feet, shall I sully them? (Song of Songs 5:3) [cf. Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah ad loc.: ‘I have bathed my feet—from the filth of idolatry’].

‘But we who dwell amid the serpent’s decrees—his lying ambush for us, slaying and biting daily—we see with our own eyes the perversion of judgment at work in our midst. Of those men of caliber—in their days he was silent, not pressing for judgment, for he was terrified of them and could not prevail over them. But once they passed on to that world in repentance, he arose before the blessed Holy One, clamoring for justice.

‘He scrutinized the verse One who kidnaps a man and sells him and he is found in his hands, will surely be put to death (Exodus 21:16) [see Heikhalot Rabbati (in Battei Midrashot 1:74): ‘The Quality of Judgment stood before the blessed Holy One and said, ‘Master of the World! You wrote in Your Torah: One who steals a man and sells him… (will surely be put to death) (Exodus 21:16). Now, the sons of Israel who stole their brother Joseph and sold him—what has happened to them?’ Immediately permission was granted to Samael to annihilate ten heroes in their place’].

The blessed Holy One responded to the serpent, ‘But Joseph was not a man [see Genesis 37:2].’ And he is found in his hands’ [the serpent raises another claim]. ‘Look, he was not found in their hands!’ [the blessed Holy One replies that the brothers no longer had Joseph in their control]. ‘The serpent replied, ‘Should a person be found stealing a living person of his brothers, of Israel, and garner profit from him and sell him, that thief shall die [and you shall root out the evil from your midst] (Deuteronomy 24:7).’

‘For eight hundred years he stood there, demanding judgment. And we have learned that one who is convicted on two counts is sentenced to the more severe penalty. Woe to one who receives punishment for his sins, for death atones for sins! And [woe to one who] returns to receive another punishment! Woe for the perversion of the men of caliber, while Samael and the serpent were steadfast!’ [cf. Pirqei de-Rabbi Eli’ezer 38 in the name of Rabbi Yannai: ‘The tribes did not receive atonement for the sale of Joseph until they died, as is said: Then YHWH Tseva’ot revealed Himself to my ears: This iniquity shall not be purged from you until you die [‘a second death’ (Targum Yonatan)] (Isaiah 22:14)].

‘Consequently, for us it is fitting to weep and wail, for the holy city remains bereft of all its previous bounty. At that moment, Samael alighted and confounded the world. He infused this spirit into the innards of that wicked one, the Roman emperor, and called for retribution against the valiant ones of the world. Woe unto that generation! Woe unto the world! Such a miscarriage of justice has not occurred since the day the world was created.

‘Alas! Your sons—pillars of the world [cf. Proverbs 10:25; BT Yoma 38b], enduring columns upon which the world stands; You were their crown every day. How they were abused in the hands of the serpent! How were holy spirits corrupted to don foreign, alien garments to be ripped apart in abject humiliation! Woe for this event! Woe for this depravity!

‘Who was watching in the Garden of Eden when judgment was rendered above? When ten resplendent jewels, light of the entire garden, in the midst of all the trees, discarded their garments and departed! All the trees of the garden screamed, saying, ‘Woe, men of caliber have been abused!’ and the sentries at the gates of Eden trembled. Those cherubim ascended and descended, blocking any passage through which those lights might leave when they shed the luminosity of their garments. Celestial beings and lower angels screamed before them; guardians of the walls above quaked among all the legions of the heavens, weeping and wailing.

‘Who beheld Mother screeching and ululating? She descended to the cherubim, guardians of the garden’s gates, and they trembled. Mother flew off, accompanied by one cherub. ‘Then Flame of the Whirling Sword—razor sharp—pierced through the gates, and the ten luminaries fled. Celestial beings and terrestrial beings screamed, ‘Woe unto the world! Woe unto the generation!’

‘It befits us to lament, like jackals! When Mother descended and did not find them in the garden, and all the other luminaries and lamps were screaming and wailing, She began to weep and ululate. If those cherubim, guardians of the gates were weeping and wailing, breaking out in lament, is it not all the more fitting for us to weep over all this—and for the miscarriage of justice?’

They opened, saying, ‘They sent a message to Joseph, saying… ‘We beseech you, forgive, pray, the crime and the offense of your brothers for evil they have caused you. And so now, forgive, pray, the crime of the servants of your father’s God.’ And Joseph wept when they spoke to him (Genesis 50:16–17). They transgressed against him but he pardoned all, expiating their sin. Once he forgave, who can incite regarding their offense? This is the meaning of the men of caliber were degraded (Ecclesiastes 12:3). Gross miscarriage of justice—foisted upon those men of caliber. Woe unto us! Who will have compassion upon us? Who will speak to our hearts? Who will comfort us?

‘What a huge distortion of justice! On account of Mother’s banishment, Her flight, drifting away—this made perversion of justice possible. Left alone was the one who prosecuted us, with no one to fend him off nor to offer a defense on our behalf. On account of this, all Mother’s adornments were handed over to this one. For if Mother had been there, She would have gone beyond the letter of the law on their behalf [cf. BT Berakhot 7a]. For this She weeps.

‘For this She wails over Her children, for they were slaughtered in vain, and She was absent from their trials. The serpent executed his wishes against them, as is written: For your crimes, your mother was sent away (Isaiah 50:1). Sent away—so that She would not be available for your trials. Alas! She sits alone (Lamentations 1:1). At that time, She should have been taking up the case of Her children, and on Her account the decree would have been nullified.

‘When those ten jewels left the Garden of Eden to don foreign garments, all the garments, save one, were handed over to the serpent. This is as is written: Reuben returned to the pit (Genesis 37:29). Since he had counseled to put [Joseph] in the pit, he was associated with the pit, and was saved. [This is related to] the capture of Rabbi Eli’ezer” (Zohar Ḥadash 93b–d).

A Man’s Table Atones for Him

“As long as the Temple stood, the altar atoned for Israel; now a man’s table atones for him” (BT Berakhot 55a; Menaḥot 97a).

“Faithful Shepherd, prepare a table for your Master, for Him and His Matronita, with all sorts of delicacies, to fulfill in it: This is the table that is before YHWH (Ezekiel 41:22) [cf. Zohar 2:153b–155a]. For until now, everyone was enjoying from the King’s table, as it says: Come, partake of my bread, [and drink the wine I have mixed] (Proverbs 9:5). Bread—Written Torah [Ze’eir Anpin]. Wine—Oral Torah [Malkhut], in which there are many savories, flavors of Torah, from all the adornments and delicacies in the world and of the King.

The Faithful Shepherd rose and began to speak: Aaron the priest, rise from your sleep to slaughter oxen and sheep and goats and lambs and fowl, and all varieties needed for the King’s feast. לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים (Leḥem ha-panim), bread of the Presence (Exodus 25:30), corresponding to the two tablets of Torah, written on both their sides [lit., מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה הֵם כְּתֻבִים (mizeh u-mizeh hem ketuvim), from this and from this they were written] (Exodus 32:15). זֶּה (Zeh), this—twelve faces, which are [the twelve letters of יהוה (YHWH) written three times]: יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה (yivarekha Adonai), YHWH bless you… יָאֵר יְהוָה (ya’er Adonai), YHWH light up… יִשָּׂא יְהוָה (yisa Adonai), YHWH lift up (Numbers 6:24–25). The second זֶּה (zeh), this, is: אֲדֹנָי (Adonai), אֲדֹנָי (Adonai), אֲדֹנָי (Adonai)—twelve living beings, of which it says, and the face of a lion, on the right side: and the four had the face of an ox on the left side; the four also had the face of an eagle (Ezekiel 1:10). And it says of them: And each one had four faces (ibid., 6). That is, in each of the three beings there are four faces: lion, ox, eagle, and man, and three times four amounts to twelve living beings. That is the meaning of, And זֶה אֶל זֶה (zeh el zeh), one unto another, cried and said, [Holy, holy, holy, is YHWH of hosts: the whole earth is full of His glory] (Isaiah 6:3). They also correspond to the twenty-four books of Torah. And this is: זֶה (zeh), This, is the table, that is before YHWH (Ezekiel 41:22). Utensils on the King’s table are Masters of Mishnah—masters of prayer arranged to correspond to the sacrifices.

He opened and said: and you shall make a table of acacia wood (Exodus 25:23). Come and see: those present at the King’s meal had goodly and fine customs to show they were members of the King’s table. First the eldest would wash his hands. When they entered to sit for the meal, the oldest would sit at the head of the table. The second would be below him, and the third below the second. These are called the ‘three beds,’ corresponding to the three Patriarchs, and to the priests, the Levites and Israel. From here on, they had no order, rather whoever came first was seated.

Second, the master of the house breaks bread so that he may apportion it generously [lit., with a good eye]. He first completes [the blessing] and then breaks it. The Rabbis of the Mishnah have arranged it so that none of those reclining at the feast table are permitted to taste until the giver of the blessing has tasted first. The one who apportions is not permitted to taste until all present have finished saying ‘amen.’ And if he wishes to delegate honor [by inviting another to break bread] he may do so. In addition, it is said that the guest blessed [the meal after it was eaten] so that he bless the master of the house [see BT Berakhot 58a]. And the mystery of the matter: The master of the house breaks—the middle pillar, קָו הָאֶמְצָעִי (qav ha-emtsa’i), the middle cord. And on the Sabbath, he must break from two cuts: הה (he, he). The master of the house is ו (vav) in the middle. In order not to appear a glutton, he may apportion to each one a piece the size of an egg. What is the size of an egg? It is י (yod) and י (yod) which are the vocalizations of the Holy Name [יְאֲהדֹוָנָהִי (YAHDWNWY)] called ‘crumbs the size of an olive’ [see M Berakhot 7:1–2; Kil’ayim 8:5; Terumot 7:3; Ḥallah 1:2; Shabbat 10:5]. These correspond to drops of seed. And whoever disparages these crumbs, throwing them out in an inappropriate place, poverty chases him and he will constantly wander [cf. BT Pesaḥim 111b; Ḥullin 105b], as is written, he wanders for bread—where is it? (Job 15:23). Bread—Torah; he cries out, looking for someone who will have compassion on him, but will find no one.

Crumbs the size of an olive belong to the Righteous One [Yesod], who presses these olives [Netsaḥ and Hod. Cf. BT Berakhot 52b; Zohar 1:14b]. The אוֹרֵחַ (oreaḥ), guest, blesses, as is written: But אֹרַח (oraḥ), the path, of the righteous is like light’s radiance (Proverbs 4:18). Blessings on the righteous man’s head (Proverbs 10:6)—Vitality of the Worlds [Yesod]. Therefore, the guest makes the blessing.

As he was speaking, the Holy Lamp came to him, and said: Faithful Shepherd, one day I went along with the Companions to an inn. There was a child there who rose and by himself prepared for us a lamp and a table, as if he were twenty years old. Yet he was only a five year old boy. He set that table with different dishes and drinks and said, ‘The Rabbis have decreed that the master of the house breaks bread and the guest makes the blessing. Yet, I am young in years, and you are aged. Therefore was I awed and feared to speak my mind to you (Job 32:6) until I obtain permission from you.’ They said to him: Speak up my son, angel of God [for more on this יַנוּקָא (yanuqa), child, a wunderkind-and-enfant-terrible who amazes and teases, challenges and stumps the rabbis, see Zohar 3:186a–192a, cf. M Avot 5:26–27: ‘Rabbi Yose son of Yehudah of Bavli village said: When you learn from the young, what is it like? Like eating unripe grapes or drinking wine straight from the vat. When you learn from the old, what is it like? Like eating ripe grapes and drinking old wine. Rabbi Me’ir said: Do not look at the flask but at what it contains, for a new flask may contain old wine, and an old flask may not contain anything, even new wine’].

He said to us: ‘Do you desire indulgences without battle, or bread of battle?’ [the child may be playing on לֶחֶם (leḥem), bread, and לָחֶם (laḥem), war (see Judges 5:8); cf. Zohar 3:188b: ‘Whoever wants bread, let him eat by the mouth of the sword’; Proverbs 13:25: The righteous man eats for the sating of his gullet, but the belly of the wicked will want]. The Rabbis of the Mishnah decreed that mealtime is a time of war. If you desire to battle over it let no one eat and he who has won the battle shall eat first and apportion to the rest. The Companions said to him: You are still small, my son, and you have yet to learn how mighty men wage battle with sword, in waving the sword, with lance, with bow and arrows, and with slingstones.

He said to us: Let not the buckler of armor boast like the unfastner (1 Kings 20:11) [one shouldn’t boast of his prowess before the battle, but only after winning]. It has been explained that whoever reads the recitation of Shema at his bedside is as if he holds a double-edged sword, as is written: Exultations of God in their throat and a double-edged sword [lit., a sword of mouths] in their hand (Psalms 149:6) [cf. BT Berakhot 5a; Song of Songs 3:7–8 (included in the recitation of Shema): Look, Solomon’s bed—sixty warriors round it of the warriors of Israel. All of them wielding the sword trained in battle, each with his sword on his thigh out of terror in the nights]. The waving of the sword must be done in the six directions, as was explained, in order to make Him reign over the heavens, the earth, and the four corners of the world. ו (Vav)—body of the sword; י (yod)—head of the sword; הה (he, he)—two edges [lit., mouths]; אֲדֹנָי (Adonai)—sheath of the sword [cf. Leviticus 26:33; Tiqqnuei ha-Zohar 8b].

The רֹמַח (romaḥ), lance, is the 248 words in the recitation of Shema, and together with the six words in the unification [בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד (Barukh shem kevod malkhuto le-olam va-ed), Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever], they total רוֹמַח (romaḥ), lance [spelled fully with ו (vav), numerically equivalent to 254]. The מָגֵן (magen), shield, is with sword: מִיכָאֵל גַּבְרִיאֵל נוּרִיאֵל (Mikhael, Gavriel, Nuriel), Michael, Gabriel and Nuriel. They serve the three Patriarchs [Ḥesed, Gevurah and Tif’eret]. The bow [Yesod] shoots arrows, but ‘Any seed that does not shoot forth like an arrow does not beget offspring’ (BT Ḥagigah 15a; Niddah 43a). The sling is the recitation of Shema Yisra’el, and the five slingstones—שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה (Shema Yisra’el Adonai Elohenu Adonai), Hear, O Israel, YHWH our God, YHWH (Deuteronomy 6:4) [Ḥesed, Gevurah, Tif’eret, Netsaḥ, Hod]—correspond to David [Malkhut]: and he chose five smooth stones from the creek [and put them in the shepherd’s pouch he had, in the satchel, and his slingshot was in his hand, and he came forward toward the Philistine] (1 Samuel 17:40). When he placed them into the sling, the lip, Shekhinah, all five turned into one stone and killed the Philistine [שָׂפָה (safah), lip, and שְׁכִינָה (Shekhinah) are numerically equivalent].

And until now, I have been זָרִיקְנָא (zariqna), throwing, the stone at Samael, a stone of siege [alluding to the musical intonation זַרְקָא (zarqa), thrown. On the image of prayer shot from a sling, see Bahir §89–§91, §178; Zohar 1:23a–24b (TZ); cf. Judges 20:16]. I have ruined his siege and lowered him down. Therefore, I said to you, Let not the buckler of armor boast like the unfastner. Now it is clear to you that, indeed, I do know how mighty men wage battle with swords, with lances, with bows and with slings. We were astonished and could not speak before him. He said to us: Rabbis let us now see who will get נַהֲמָא (nahama), bread, the לֶחֶם הַמּוֹצִיא (leḥem ha-motsi), bread of ‘[Who] brings forth’ (Grace after Meals).

He opened, saying: When it happens that you eat of the bread of the land, you shall תָּרִימוּ (tarimu), present, a donation to YHWH (Numbers 15:19). How is the Shekhinah אַתְרִימָת (atrimat), raised, who is the ה (he) of ‘הַמּוֹצִיא (ha-motsi),’ regarding which the Masters of Mishnah have decreed that whoever breaks the bread of הַמּוֹצִיא (ha-motsi) must be precise in pronouncing the ה (he)? [cf. BT Berakhot 38b; ZḤ 87b]. Surely it has been decreed by the Masters of Mishnah that, ‘Chaff and straw are exempt from tithing’ [see, Zohar 2:120b (RM), cf. ibid. 2:272a; TZ 17, 31a; 69, 114a; TZḤ 113c]. When She is in the chaff and straw She is in prison, and the ה (he) does not have permission to rise to the מ (mem) [Ze’eir Anpin] to become, with it, מַה (Mah), What [numerically equivalent to the full spelling of יהוה (YHWH): יוד הא ואו הא (Yod, He, Vav, He)]. This is the meaning of תְרוּמָה (terumah), raise, which is the ה״ (five) of the five books of Torah, in which it says: and Moses was on the mountain forty days… (Exodus 24:18) [תְרוּמָה (terumah) can be read as: תּוֹרָה מ״ (Torah arba’im), Law forty].

Our Rabbis referred to the chaff and straw of the wheat, when they said that the tree of which Adam ate was wheat [see BT Berakhot 40a]. For by eating of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, he drew ח״ט (ḥet, tet), chaff and straw [alluding to חֵטְא (ḥet), offence], near the ה (he) [Shekhinah]. י״ (Ten) was gone from it, its tithing, therefore, when She is in straw and chaff which correspond to the removal of the foreskin and the uncovering of the male organ it is exempt from tithing [two layers of skin cover the penis, one of which is cut off and the other is cut open in פּרִיעָה (peri’ah), uncovering, at a ritual circumcision]. For י (yod) has no permission to join ה (he), which are man and woman. And this is the mystery of י (yod) in אִישׁ וְאִשָּׁה (ish ve-ishah), man and woman [cf. BT Sotah 17a]. Therefore, whoever breaks the bread must be precise pronouncing ה (he) and must break the bread where it is nicely baked, because ripening is the completion of fruit.

Ten things one should perform for the meal: first is washing hands; second is preparation of the two loaves for Sabbath [see BT Berakhot 39b; Shabbat 117b]; third is to eat of three meals and add from weekdays to holiness; fourth is to light a candle on the table, as was explained, that a table should be to the north side, and the candle on the south, and to recline, as was explained that if they recline together, one makes the blessing for everyone.

And with Sabbath, one should add from the secular to the holy in everything he does, with his food and drink, his clothing and his reclining [cf. Mekhilta, Baḥodesh 7; JT Berakhot 4:1, 7c, 13d; BT Berakhot 27a. Cf. Bereshit Rabbah 11:7; Zohar 2:47b]. He must prepare a fine sofa with many pillows and embroidered cushions from all that he has in his house, as when preparing the marriage canopy for the bride, because Sabbath is both a queen and a bride. And for this reason the Masters of Mishnah used to hasten to come out on Sabbath eve to welcome Her on the way. And they used to say: ‘בֹּאִי כַּלָּה בֹּאִי כַּלָּה (Boi kalah, Boi kalah), Come, O bride! Come, O bride!’ [see BT Shabbat 119a: ‘Rabbi Ḥanina robed himself and stood at sunset of Sabbath eve (and) exclaimed, Come and let us go forth to welcome the queen Sabbath. Rabbi Yannai donned his robes, on Sabbath eve and exclaimed, Come, O bride, Come, O bride!’]. Thus, one should arouse song and gladness for Her on that table.

There is yet another secret: just as one should receive a lady by lighting many lamps [so too] for the Sabbath, and with many delights, fine clothes, a house arrayed with many adornments, and with a beautiful sofa arranged for everyone. For gladness and preparation cause the evil slavegirl to remain in the dark in hunger, in weeping, in mourning, and in black dress like a widow. When this one is filled, this one is parched.

The good impulse is the Holy Matronita. The holy מַלְכוּת (Malkhut), Kingdom, that descends on Sabbath, comprised of ten sefirot. She is decorated with seven names that are not erased, with many chariots of living beings, and with many armies and camps. The King goes out to Her with many camps, and the evil impulse, which is the [wicked] slavegirl remains in the dark, like a widow without her husband, without [any] chariots.

It was said of those who sacrifice and burn incense to the queen of the heavens and the constellations, which I did not command (Deuteronomy 17:3), worship the slavegirl that rules on the eve of Sabbath and the eve of the fourth day. What do they do? They wear black clothes, extinguish their lights, and lament on Sabbath nights to join with her, because One against the other God has set (Ecclesiastes 7:14) [cf. Zohar 2:275a; Ibn Ezra, Perush ha-Torah on Exodus 20:14; Idel, Saturn’s Jews, p. 31–2, n. 120].

After Israel sinned and the Temple was destroyed, it is said regarding the Shekhinah, Holy Mother: How does the city sit solitary, that was full of people! How has she become like a widow! (Lamentations 1:1). People extinguish lamps and candles on the ninth of Av, and sit like mourners to join in the sorrow of the Shekhinah, because they caused Her all this calamity [but not on the Sabbath].

Fifth is the כּוֹס (kos), cup, for saying, וַיְכֻלּוּ (vayekhullu), then they were completed (Genesis 2:1). Sixth is to speak words of Torah at the table. Seventh is to extend the meal and allow the poor to come to the table. Eighth is washing hands with finger bowl water. Ninth is the blessing after the meal. Tenth is the cup for the blessing [after the meal]. It is necessary to repeat [these ten things] and to order them in accordance with the holy mystery, for She is comprised of ten sefirot. She is the table of the blessed Holy One from the side of Gevurah. Hence, the Rabbis have explained that the table should face the north [see Exodus 26:35, 40:22; BT Yoma 21b, 33b].

First, washing of hands: the Rabbis of the Mishnah explained ‘Filthy hands are unfit for blessing, because they are twice removed from uncleanness’ (BT Berakhot 53b). Unclean hands are the cause of defilement, being once removed from uncleanness. Clean hands are twice removed from uncleanness and are fit to bless, because blessing rests only on purity, since blessing rests on a priest, who is a pure man, a man of Ḥesed. This is: Like goodly oil on the head (Psalms 133:2). Therefore, Speak to Aaron and to his sons, saying, ‘Thus shall you bless the Israelites’ (Numbers 6:23). It was explained that every priest who blesses is blessed, and if he does not bless he is not blessed. The Masters of Mishnah have further explained that any blessing that does not have a recitation of the Name and Malkhut, is not considered a blessing, since Malkhut is Adonai.

In addition, hands should be washed up to the joint because it was decreed [to wash] י״ד (fourteen) joints. At that time, the יַד (yad), hand, of YHWH rests on him. It is the hand of blessing from the side of Ḥesed, wherein Ḥokhmah lies in the right hand. It is the hand of holiness from the side of Gevurah that prevails in Judgment. It is also the hand of unification from the aspect of Tif’eret. This rests on the fourteen joints of the body, because there are twelve joints in the two arms and in the two legs, three joints in each for a sum of six and together they are twelve. Together with the two in the body and the genital organ, they amount to fourteen.

Three times fourteen equals forty-two; ייי (yod, yod, yod) of יַד (yad), יַד (yad), יַד (yad), alludes to יְבָרֶכְךָ (yivarekha), bless you… יָאֵר (ya’er), light up… יִשָּׂא (yisa), lift up (Numbers 6:24–25) from יְהוָה יְהוָה יְהוָה (YHWH, YHWH, YHWH). דדד (Dalet, dalet, dalet) of יַד (yad), יַד (yad), יַד (yad) are implied in אֲדֹנָי (Adonai), אֲדֹנָי (Adonai), אֲדֹנָי (Adonai). Of them the prophet said: The temple of YHWH, the temple of YHWH, the temple of YHWH, are these (Jeremiah 7:4) [הֵיכַל (heikhal), temple, is numerically equivalent to אֲדֹנָי (Adonai)]. Thus is established the washing of hands [comprised of י״ד (fourteen) joints].

Every side is comprised of three faces of the living beings which are יְהוָה יְהוָה יְהוָה (YHWH, YHWH, YHWH), and the three wings of the living beings are דדד (dalet, dalet, dalet). They must all derive from the power of man: יוֹד וָאו דָּלֶת הֵא אָלֶף וָאו אָלֶף וָאו הֵא אָלֶף (Yod, Vav, Dalet, He, Alef, Vav, Alef, Vav, He, Alef) [כֹּחַ (koaḥ), power, is numerically equivalent to twenty-eight, the number of letters in this doubly full spelling of יהוה (YHWH), and the number of joints in the human hands. Furthermore, אָדָם (adam), human, corresponds to the simple full spelling of יהוה (YHWH): יוד הא ואו הא (Yod, He, Vav, He), since each are numerically equivalent to forty-five]. The Matronita does not dwell in his power until all the filth of the wicked, unfit slavegirl, wife to the unfit, is removed. Therefore, the Masters of Mishnah explained that ‘Filthy hands are unfit to make a blessing’ (BT Berakhot 53b).

This water is for cleansing the hand upon which the hand of YHWH rests. The hand of YHWH is water of Torah. The ignorant people are considered like unclean reptiles [see BT Pesaḥim 49b]. What good will immersing in water do them, holding in their hand that reptile, which is the wicked slavegirl, stolen goods in their possession, the stolen blessings they stole from the blessed Holy One. They do not know what a blessing is, or what filth is.

Immediately after the Companions and I heard these words, we could not bear to wait for him to finish each of these ten matters of blessings. We bowed before him, saying ‘Certainly, there is no one who could speak these matters except for you, since you are comparable to the four divisions of the Garden of Eden [see Genesis 2:10]. If a person enters the children’s section, he becomes a child; in the youth’s section he becomes a youth; in the young men’s section, he becomes a young man, and in the elder’s section, he becomes an elder. Therefore, it is written of you: מִמְּכוֹן שִׁבְתּוֹ הִשְׁגִּיחַ אֶל כָּל יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ (mimkhon shivto hishegiḥa el kal yoshvei ha-arets), from his firm throne he surveyed all who dwell on the earth (Psalms 33:14). Also, it is about you that it says: for he is but flesh. [Let his days be a hundred and twenty years] (Genesis 6:3) [בְּשַׁגַּם (beshagam), for, in as much, is numerically equivalent to מֹשֶׁה (Moshe), Moses, see BT Ḥullin 139b]. For you were present in the generation of the dispersion, and in every generation [you return] by rolling like a wheel that turns round in many ways, yet you revealed yourself only at that generation when Torah was given at your hands [cf. BT Yoma 38b; BT Ḥagigah 13b–14a; Bahir §195].

As soon as you departed from the world you became like the sun that shines in every generation [cf. Zohar 1:147a]. Even when the sun is gathered at night, it illuminates the moon and 600,000 stars [cf. BT Bava Batra 75a: ‘The face of Moses was like that of the sun, the face of Joshua like that of the moon;’ BT Pesaḥim 94a–b]. So are you who shine on the 600,000 people in each and every generation. That is what Qohelet indicated in the verse: A generation goes and a generation comes (Ecclesiastes 1:4). The Rabbis have explained that a generation does not consist of less than 600,000 people [cf. Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah 4:2]. He [namely, Rabbi Akiva] also explained the generation that passes away is the one that comes [see Bahir §121–§122]. This fulfills: מַה שֶּׁהָיָה הוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה (mah shehayah hu sheyihyeh), that which was is that, which will be [and that which was done is that which will be done, and there is nothing new under the sun] (Ecclesiastes 1:9) [מֹשֶׁה (Moshe), Moses]. From here on, complete the ten matters of the Sabbath table openly. The Faithful Shepherd said: ‘Holy Lamp, blessed is your lot that the blessed Holy One revealed to you what He has not revealed to any prophet or seer’ [cf. BT Bava Batra 12a].

Second is to break bread over two loaves of bread on Sabbath, which are alluded to in the two tablets of Torah that were given on the Sabbath in pairs. On the third day they descended [from the Heavens, i.e., Tif’eret], on which it was said טוֹב (tov), good, twice [since it comprises right and left]. On the Sabbath Torah was given, in which there are two females, which correspond to twice טוֹב (tov), good. Though it was explained that demons are assigned to [harm] pairs as has been explained [one must not eat] two eggs or two nuts, yet if this is so, why are two loaves of bread used on Sabbath, seeing they are a pair? [see BT Pesaḥim 110b]. He responds, it is a halakhah from Moses at Sinai that those sent on pious missions will meet no evil [see BT Qiddushin 39b; cf. Pesaḥim 8a; Yoma 11a].

You may wonder why we learned that one should not begin anything on the second day or finish on the fourth day because they are pairs, which applies to matters of decrees as well, even though those sent on pious missions meet no evil. [He answers,] this is when with the motley throng, who are never sent on pious missions, because they have not converted for Heaven’s sake. [Then it is] forbidden to begin on the second day or the fourth day. However, the righteous, who have no connection with the motley throng may start on the second day and the fourth day for the sake of performing a decree, because those sent on a pious mission shall come to no harm. Therefore, after they were gone from the world [i.e., after the sin of the golden calf] the blessed Holy One commanded to take two stone tablets like the first ones (Exodus 34:1), saying: and I shall write on the tablets the words which were on the first tablets (ibid.) [and He did not mind the pairs].

Two loaves of bread on Sabbath indicate the יוֹדִין (yodin), two yods [in] יְאֲהדֹוָנָהִי (YAHDWNHY). For אֲדֹנָי (Adonai) [Malkhut] is alone without Her husband during the six weekdays. On Sabbath He descends to אֲדֹנָי (Adonai) and the combination יְאֲהדֹוָנָהִי (YAHDWNHY) is formed. Hence, all nishmatin, ruaḥin, and nafshin leave and come down in pairs on Sabbath, and no adversary or harmer, has power on the Sabbath day. Even Hell has no power and does not burn on the Sabbath. Therefore, you shall not kindle a fire in all your dwelling places on the sabbath day (Exodus 35:3). That refers to strange fire, but the fire of sacrifice is a fire of holiness. There is no need to speak at length on their apportioning as it was already explained.

Third is to eat three meals on Sabbath, as was explained by the Masters of Mishnah. One of them [Rabbi Yose] said: ‘May my portion be of those who eat three meals on the Sabbath’ (BT Shabbat 118b) [cf. BT Gittin 7a; Bava Batra 10a; Bava Metsi’a 85a; Nedarim 40a; Berakhot 15b; Pesaḥim 118a; Shabbat 118a], which complete the seven blessings in the Amidah by bringing them to a total of ten. The secret of עֹנֶג (oneg), delight, is: וְנָהָר יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת אֶת הַגָּן (ve-nahar ma-eden le-hashqot et ha-gan), now a river runs out of Eden to water the garden (Genesis 2:10). Whoever can but does not observe them, for him the עֹנֶג (oneg), delight, turns into scaly נֶגַע (nega), affliction. In order that he should not come to this, the blessed Holy One says: Borrow on Me and I will pay, Then shall תִּתְעַנַּג (tit’annag), you delight yourself, upon YHWH (Isaiah 58:14).

Fourth is to light the table with a candelabra, as was decreed by the ancients, that a table should be at the north and the candelabra at the south, for the table of the blessed Holy One [Malkhut], should be set in this manner. Fifth is the wine cup of וַיְכֻלּוּ (vayekhullu), then they were completed (Genesis 2:1). The sum of כּוֹס (kos), cup, is that of אֱלֹהִים (Elohim). וַיְכֻלּוּ (Vayekhullu)—[numerically equivalent to] seventy-two which the Holy Bride comprises [i.e., the number of words said over the cup at the sanctification of the Sabbath is likewise seventy-two, as is the numerical value of מְלֹא (melo), fullness]. The כּוֹס (kos), cup, is filled with the wine of Torah which must bear testimony to the Work of Creation.

Sixth is to have words of Torah at one’s table, because that is how the Masters of Mishnah decreed ‘Three who eat at one table, and do not speak words of Torah, [they are as if they had eaten of sacrifices of dead idols]’ (M Avot 3:4). The secret is that they have decreed that the table should be to the north and that Torah was given from the right. In order to join the right, which is Compassion, with the left, which is Judgment. Torah is YHWH [Ze’eir Anpin] which was given from the right, and the table is אֲדֹנָי (Adonai) [Malkhut] which is from the left [i.e., north]. One must join them, since that table is at the left side, the Masters of Mishnah have explained that a person’s sustenance is as difficult to obtain as the splitting of the Reed Sea [see BT Pesaḥim 118b (in the name of Rabbi El’azar son of Azariyah); Bereshit Rabbah 97:3 (in the name of Rabbi Yehoshu’a son of Levi); Zohar 1:207b; 2:52b, 170a; 3:292b (IZ); ZḤ 86d (MhN, Rut)]. Therefore, one should invite for himself a Torah scholar, who will study Torah.

Seventh is to stay a long time at the table for the lowly. Whoever stays long at the table will have his days and years extended. For that reason: righteousness saves from death (Proverbs 10:2). Since a poor man is like a dead man whom he revives the blessed Holy One also revives him [BT Berakhot 54b–55a: ‘Rav Yehudah said, There are three matters which, if one prolongs their duration, extend a person’s days and years: … one who prolongs his mealtime…. Regarding prolonging one’s mealtime, perhaps a poor person will come and he will give him’; ZḤ 86d].

Furthermore, a secret explanation: All the poor originate from the aspect of ד (dalet), about which it is said: דַּלּוֹתִי (Dalloti), I plunged down, but He did rescue me (Psalms 116:6). The pronunciation of ד (dalet) in אֶחָד (eḥad), one (Deuteronomy 6:4), should be prolonged. That is meant by the verse: in order that he may long endure in his kingship (Deuteronomy 17:20). Therefore, it is incumbent on one to stay long at the table, which is ד (dalet), because it has ד״ (four) legs. In honor of ד (dalet), one should stay long at the table for the sake of the lowly.

In relation to it the Rabbis explained that the blessed Holy One sought a beautiful quality for Israel, and found only the quality of דַלּוּת (dallut), poverty [see Tanna devei Eliyyahu Zuta 5]. A difficulty was raised here, since the ancients explained that the number of different deaths is equivalent to the sum of תֹּצָאוֹת (totsaot), ways out (Psalms 68:21), and that an empty pocket is the most difficult. How could it be said He found no better quality for Israel than poverty?

It is only because about each people and tongue, [And they shall pass through it, hardpressed and hungry:] and it shall come to pass, that when they shall be hungry, they shall be enraged, and curse their king and their god, and look upward (Isaiah 8:21). However, the children of Israel are in a covenant with the blessed Holy One, also with this quality [poverty] and do not deny His existence. Hence they shall be redeemed by this quality. This is: a lowly people You rescue (2 Samuel 22:28). עָנִי (Ani), lowly, is derived from עִנּוּי (innui), suffering, since even when one has wealth but suffers from illnesses and afflictions, he is considered lowly. Or he is distressed [due to his wealth] and is afflicted every day. This is surely true for one who is lowlier than him, and must wander from place to place.

Another [kind of] עָנִי (ani), lowly one, who lost his mind like Job, about whom, it is said: Job speaks without דַעַת (da’at), knowledge (Job 34:35). So too is ד (dalet), which is the Shekhinah. When א״ח (alef, ḥet) [of אֶחָד (eḥad), one] were gone from Her, which is the middle pillar called דַּעַת (Da’at), Knowledge. And one [who is without knowledge] does not incur guilt with [improper] speech. Furthermore, א״ח (alef, ḥet) is Torah which is comprised of the 613 decrees. This is the meaning of: That is My name forever and thus am I invoked in all ages (Exodus 3:15). שְּׁמִי (Shemi), My name, plus יָהּ (Yah) is 365, and זִכְרִי (Zikhri), am I invoked, plus ו״ה (vav, he) is 248. Therefore it has been explained that one is lowly only in Torah and mitsvot. This is because the other lowly people suffer [but are not poor]. ד (Dalet) of אֲדֹנָי (Adonai), is also lowly without יְהֹוָה (YHWH).

Eighth is the finger bowl water that was instituted due to the salt of Sodom that is blinding to the eyes [see BT Ḥullin 105b: ‘Rabbi Yehudah son of Rabbi Ḥiyya said: Why did they say that it is obligatory to wash the hands after the meal? Because of a certain salt of Sodom which makes the eyes blind’]. Why is it considered obligatory? According to the mystery of the matter, deadly poison rests on filthy hands, with which one makes a blessing, and on a cup, over which one makes a blessing without cleanliness, and it is considered defiled. Just as a cup from which people drank is considered unclean for a blessing until it is cleansed by rinsing it inside and out, the hands all the more so. Hence finger bowl water is obligatory. The mystery is: And you shall sanctify yourselves (Leviticus 20:7)—washing of hands before the meal. And you shall become holy (ibid.)—finger bowl water. For I am Holy—fragrant ointment. [These three things] correspond to Holy, holy, holy (Isaiah 6:3). And you shall sanctify yourselves—so that it shall be known that you are children of the blessed Holy One. That is what is meant by: You are children to YHWH your God (Deuteronomy 14:1).

Ninth is the cup of blessing. As has been explained by the Masters of Mishnah, ten things were said about this cup of blessing, which are: decorating, wrapping, washing, rinsing, unmixed wine, full cup, receiving it with both hands and leaving it with the right, raising it from the surface a handbreadth, looking at it, and sending it as a gift to the members of his household [cf. BT Berakhot 51a; Zohar 1:1a, 156a (ST), 240a, 250a; 2:138b, 143b, 157b; 3:245a–b (RM)]. Now we have only four, which are washing, rinsing, unmixed wine, and a full cup. Some say the wine should be taken unmixed from the cask, and water may be added to it in the cup. Some say that unmixed wine means the cup should be whole [i.e., undiluted] because its breaking is its death [on mixed and unmixed wine, see Isaiah 1:22; 65:11; Proverbs 9:2, 5; 23:30–32; BT Berakhot 50b; Sanhedrin 70a; 2 Maccabees 15:39].

כּוֹס (Kos), cup, according to the way of wisdom: אֱלֹהִים (Elohim) is מָלֵּא (malle), full, with יָהּ (Yah) [Malkhut is אִלֵּם (illem), mute, when in a state of קַטנוּת (qatnut), constriction, empty of יָהּ (Yah), cf. BT Gittin 56b; Ginnat Egoz 11c; 13d; Zohar 1:36b; 3:221a (RM)], and they are whole. However, כּוֹס (kos), cup, without ו (vav) is כֵּס (kes), throne, instead of כִּסֵּא (kisse), throne, deficient and lacking without א (alef). It is lacking without ו (vav), and is deficient. הַכִּסֵּא (Ha-kisse), the Throne, is numerically equivalent to כּוֹס (kos), cup.

כּוֹס (Kos), cup, is ה״ (five) [reckoned according to its reduced numerical value] and ten things are needed, parallel to י (yod) [in order to draw the fifty gates of Binah, see BT Rosh ha-Shanah 21b; Nedarim 38a: ‘Fifty gates of Binah were created in the world, and all were given to Moses save one, as it says, And You made him little less than אֱלֹהִים (Elohim) (Psalms 8:6)’], and they are: crowning—סוֹד הָעַטָרָה (sod ha-atarah), secret of the corona, the עֲטֶרֶת תִּפְאֶרֶת (ateret tif’eret), Diadem of Beauty [Malkhut of יְסוֹד (Yesod)]. And this is the mystery of coronation with which our patriarchs, of blessed memory, would crown disciples, and She is the עֲטֶרֶת הַבְּרִית (ateret ha-berit), Diadem of the Covenant [i.e., the covenant of circumcision]. עִטּוּף (Ittuf), wrapping: A prayer for the lowly when יַעֲטֹף (ya’atof), he covers (Psalms 102:1)—all of these blessings and prayers are covered together until the prayer of the lowly rises.

Washing and rinsing, these are like: and cleanse it and consecrate it (Leviticus 16:19). Cleansing is from the right—Ḥesed. Consecrating is from the left—Gevurah. The cup of blessing [Malkhut] is from the aspect of Binah called אֱלֹהִים (Elohim). עֲטָרָה (Atarah), corona, is from the aspect of כֶּתֶר (keter), Crown. חַי (Ḥai), unmixed, is from the aspect of Yesod [חֵי עָלְמִין (ḥei almin), Vitality of Worlds], called Peace, as is written: neither shall the covenant of My peace be removed, says YHWH that has mercy on you (Isaiah 54:10) [rather, it will live forever, and thus Malkhut is called חַי (Ḥai), Living, from this aspect]. Full is from the aspect of Tif’eret. Receiving with two hands is הה (he, he) [of יהוה (YHWH)].

Leaving is with the right hand. Upper ה (he)—Ḥesed; lower ה (he)—Gevurah. Lifting off the surface a handbreadth is the mystery of י (yod), since ה (he) is raised by י (yod) [meaning that one should raise the five sefirot of Malkhut from Her place, which is the mystery of the surface, multiply Her by י״ (ten), and meditate on Her receiving the fifty gates of Binah]. Looking with the eyes is the mystery of יְאֲהדֹוָנָהִי (YAHDWNHY) since יהוה (YHWH) shines in the pupil of the eye [אֲדֹנָי (Adonai)]. יהוה (YHWH) is white, red and green, [Ḥesed, Gevurah and Tif’eret of Ze’eir Anpin (Sullam)]. Adonai shines in the two eyelids, as well as the two pupils [of the eye and hair of the eyelashes (ibid.)]. Sending a gift to the members of the household is Binah, of which is written: ‘Let Moses rejoice in the gift of his portion’ (Sabbath Morning Liturgy) [since Moses merited Binah and one must attach the cup, which is Malkhut, to the lights of Binah (ibid.)].

Tenth is blessing after the meal. It was explained by the Rabbis: with three כּוֹס (kos), a cup, is needed [at the dining table, i.e., God, must be present when three, or more, people eat together at one table, see M Avot 3:4; כּוֹס (kos), cup, and אֱלֹהִים (Elohim), God, are numerically equivalent]. And the mystery of the matter: אַהֲבַת כְּלוּלֹתָיִךְ (ahavat kelulotayikh), the love of your betrothals (Jeremiah 2:2)—[read: לְאַבוֹתָיִךְ הַכֹּל (le-avotayikh ha-kol), to your fathers: all] the Patriarchs: בַּכֹּל (bakol), in all (Genesis 24:1), מִכֹּל (mikol), of all (ibid. 27:33, cf. ibid. 25:5), כֹל (khol), all (ibid. 33:11). But we should not speak at length of it.

How do we know that grace after meals is from the Torah? Because it is written: And you will eat and be sated and bless YHWH your God [on the goodly land He has given you] (Deuteronomy 8:10). And we learned in a barraita: and blessfeeds. YHWH your Godgrace after meals. On the land—blessing on the land. The goodly—builds Jerusalem. Thus, it says, this goodly high country, and the Lebanon (Deuteronomy 3:25). But this is only after [the meal], where is [proof of the requirement to recite a blessing] before [the meal]? It is said: He has given you—from the time it is given to you [i.e., even before eating] you must bless Him [cf. JT Berakhot 7:1, 5a–b; BT Berakhot 35a].

The sages, of blessed memory, have interpreted that Moses instituted for the Israelites the blessing ‘[who] feeds’ when manna descended on them. Joshua instituted for them blessing the land in the time of the rallying for the land. David and Solomon instituted the blessing for the building of Jerusalem. Moreover, an allusion to grace after meals is found in the portion Manna, in the manna itself: ‘In the morning you shall have your fill of bread, and you shall know that I am YHWH your God’ (Exodus 16:12).

Rabbi Shim’on said: The mystery of these seven זַיְינִין (zayinin) that are inscribed on the tefillin, is that the ז (zayin) in the ש (shin) allude to the seven lobes in man’s lung, by which he draws air and exhales with it a fiery spark from his mouth [since a breath is composed of fire, water, and air, see Sefer Yetsirah §10–§14]. They also allude to the seven days and the weeks from Passover to Shavuot. Also, they allude to the seven branches of the candelabra, on which there are seven holy lamps. They also allude to the seven stars that shine in the firmament and they allude to the seven rungs by which the world is maintained, which are the foundation, root and essence of everything [i.e., the seven planets and seven lower sefirot]. The Companions said about these that whoever wishes to put on the head tefillin has to examine these two שִׁינִין (shinin) hinted in the seven זַיְינִין (zayinin), for hinted in them are hidden mysteries and deep allusions” (Zohar 3:272a–74b, Ra’aya Meheimna Eqev [for various additional customs pertaining to the Sabbath, see Zohar 2:206b–209a; 3:244b (RM)]).

Different Earth shall be Taken and the House Plastered

“Rabbi Shim’on said, ‘If a person obtains a recycled soul and fails to have it rectified within him, it is as though he falsifies the truth of the King; and I apply to him the verse: or if he finds something lost and denies it and swears falsely (Leviticus 5:22). And denies it—better for him if he had never been created! [cf. BT Niddah 30b; Zohar 3:13a].

We have learned: ‘A completely righteous person is not thrust aside; an incompletely righteous person is.’ Who is completely righteous, and who is incompletely righteous? Could it be that one whose deeds are flawed is called righteous? [cf. BT Berakhot 7a–b, Megillah 6b, Bava Metsi’a 71a, Avodah Zarah 4a].’

‘Well, a completely righteous person is clearly recognized, for he has not taken tortuous convolutions; and with his inheritance he builds a structure, erects walls, hews out wells, and plants trees.

An incompletely righteous person is one who builds a structure with another’s inheritance—digging into it, restoring the foundation stones as before, toiling over it; yet he does not know if it will remain his. Furthermore, regarding himself, he is considered good and righteous; but regarding that inheritance, not so.

This may be compared to a person who builds a beautiful and attractive building. But when he examines the foundation, he sees that it is sinking and distorted in all directions. The building is incomplete until he demolishes it and rebuilds it anew. Regarding his building itself, it was fine and beautiful; but regarding the foundation, it was bad and distorted. So it is not called a complete project; it is not called a complete building. Consequently, ‘an incompletely righteous person is thrust aside [at the revival of the dead].’ Thus, while the wicked swallows up the one more righteous than he (Habakkuk 1:13) [cf. BT Berakhot 7b, Megillah 6b, Bava Metsi’a 71a]” (Zohar 3:213a–b).

“The Faithful Shepherd [Moses] said… in order that the bailiff [of Sheol] not recognize a person it is necessary to perform for him a change of place, a change of name, and a change of deed [see BT Rosh ha-Shanah 16b]. As it was with Abraham, it was said: Go forth from your land and your birthplace and your father’s house (Genesis 12:1)—a change of place. And no longer shall your name be called Abram but your name shall be Abraham (ibid. 17:5)—a change of name. And there is also the change of deed, for he changed from doing bad deeds, as he had at first, to performing good deeds. A similar thing happens with the spirit of a man who dies childless, for likewise the blessed Holy One does to the man in banishing him from that world and bringing him to this world. And this has already been discussed [see Zohar 3:97a–111a (RM), cf. BT Pesaḥim 113b].

You change his face and send him away (Job 14:20). It is said the spirit עָבְרָה (avrah), passes by, him (Psalms 103:16)—one of the evil messengers [called] עֶבְרָה (evrah), Anger (Psalms 78:49). And when he encounters him and sees that he is changed the Prince of Destruction investigates, asking the bailiff ‘Is this your offender?’ and he answers, ‘He is not.’ 

When he is banished from his place and planted elsewhere, it is said about him: And his place will no longer know him (Psalms 103:16), for different earth shall be taken and the house plastered (Leviticus 14:42). And this is the secret of he shall raze the house, its stones, and its timbers (Leviticus 14:45)—those bones, sinews, and flesh that he had returned to the dust. What is written about it? And עָפָר (afar), dust, shall be the serpent’s food (Isaiah 65:25)—since he was afflicted. Later: And different עָפָר (afar), earth, shall be taken and the house plastered—to build for himself bones and sinews, as an old house is renovated, he is certainly renewed.

What about And his place will no longer know him? This is [his] spirit, for his little spirit is engulfed in supernal spirit. This is similar to a tree that is not producing fruit. They take his branches and graft onto a superior tree which produces fruit, combining both with each other. Of this time it is said, And his place will no longer know him.

And so it is with a man who lives in a city where bad people dwell, and he is unable to keep the decrees of Torah and is not successful in Torah. He should change his place of residence and move from there, and settle somewhere with good people, Masters of Torah, who keep the decrees [cf. M Avot 6:9]. This is because Torah is called a Tree, as is written: A tree of life is she to those who grasp her (Proverbs 3:18). Man, too, is a tree, as is written: Like the tree of the field is a human (Deuteronomy 20:19) [cf. Pirqei de-Rabbi Eli’ezer 21; Zohar 2:60b; 3:202a–b], and the decrees of Torah are like fruits. And what is written about it? Only a tree that you know is not a tree for eating, it you may destroy and cut down (Deuteronomy 20:20), that is to say, you shall destroy it from this world and cut it down from the next world. This is why he must uproot from the place and plant elsewhere, among righteous people.

As the childless man is called עָקָר (aqar), ‘barren,’ and his wife ‘barren,’ so too Torah without decrees is barren. On this we have learned: ‘Not learning but doing is the עִקַּר (iqqar), main thing’ (M Avot 1:17). The Companions came and prostrated themselves in front of him and said: We have certainly learned something new here—how one רוּחַ (ruaḥ), spirit, can be incorporated in another. We are as one who perceives with his own eyes and it is revealed to him. Originally we had only a tradition but now it has been elucidated” (Zohar 3:217b, Ra’aya Meheimna Pineḥas).

A Prisoner cannot Free Himself from Jail

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In his day you shall give his wages (Deuteronomy 24:15).

The Faithful Shepherd opened, ‘The following decree is to give a hired worker his hire in time. This is, In his day you shall give his wages, and the sun shall not set on him (ibid.). Listen, heads of the Academy high and low: Metatron is the hire of the hired worker, a messenger from the eighteen worlds to receive the eighteen blessings of the Amidah prayer every day, three times a day. For that reason, In his day you shall give his wages—the Shaḥarit service; and the sun shall not set on himMinḥah service, for if the day is past, the offering is no longer valid. For he is poor (ibid.)—surely he is poor in exile and has nothing but what he is given in prayer [see Zohar 1:179b: ‘(Metatron) the youth who is a poor child, possessing nothing at all of his own’]. For that reason his prayer is, prayer for the lowly when יַעֲטֹף (ya’atof), he is faint (Psalms 102:1), namely the יַעֲטוֹף (ya’atof), wrap, of the tsitsit and the hand tefillin [playing on two senses of the root עטף (‘tf), which can mean both ‘to be faint’ and ‘to cover oneself, wrap,’ as in ‘wrapping oneself in a tallit’ before binding tefillin, cf. Zohar 3:113b, TZ 6, 22a–b, 11, 26b; 21, 55b].

And his heart counts on it (Deuteronomy 24:15)—the Arvit (evening) service, which [corresponds to] the parts of the sacrifice and the fatty parts that are left from the offerings of the day [since prayer replaces Temple sacrifice, see BT Berakhot 6b on Psalms 141:2. Cf. Psalms 69:31–32; Hosea 14:3]. They are like single grapes of the vineyard and the edge of your field (Leviticus 19:9) of which we learned leaving things [over for the poor] is a mitsvah and hinders [divine] punishment. For the poor [Shekhinah and Metatron] and for the sojourner you shall leave them (ibid. 10). For the middle pillar [Tif’eret], when He is outside of His place is called a sojourner. For that reason, I [Moses the Faithful Shepherd, my rung being the middle pillar], called myself a sojourner in the first exile. This is, A sojourner have I been in a foreign land (Exodus 2:22), for He [Ze’eir Anpin] lies in exile for Her sake.’

The Masters of Mishnah asked him, ‘Faithful Shepherd, but Israel performed this decree in the land of Israel? He said to them, ‘This is in order to invoke compassion on those driven away from their place. For a man outside his place is called a sojourner, and all the more so the נִשְׁמָתִין (nishmatin), souls, that go naked from that world and come into this world. Of them is said, Like a bird wandering from its nest is a man wandering from his place (Proverbs 27:8). The soul, from which the Shekhinah does not move, is a man (ibid.), of whom it says, YHWH is a man of war (Exodus 15:3); wandering from his place (Proverbs 27:8)—roaming and roving from His place, which is the World that is Coming [Binah]. And He wanders after her in this world, until the days that the soul needs to go outside her place are completed. He guards her until He returns her to her place and swears He shall not return to His place before He returns her to her own. [Therefore] whoever repents is as if he returned the blessed Holy One and His Shekhinah to His place. This is the mystery of redemption, as is said, If you would only heed His voice! (Psalms 95:7)” (Zohar 3:278a–b, Ra’aya Meheimna Ki Tetse).

If you should lend money to My people, to the pauper among you, you shall not be to him like a creditor, you shall not impose interest on him. If you should indeed take in pledge your fellow man’s cloak, before the sun comes down you shall return it to him. For it is his sole covering, it is his cloak for his skin—in what can he lie? (Exodus 22:24–26).

“Woe to the sons of man who imprison the blessed Holy One with them in exile. The Shekhinah is imprisoned with them too, as is said, ‘A prisoner cannot free himself from jail’ (BT Berakhot 5b)—release is תְּשׁוּבָה (teshuvah), Repentance [lit., returning], supernal Mother [Binah], which does depend on them. The fifty gates of freedom are with Her [cf. Leviticus 25:54], for the fifty times going out of Egypt is mentioned in the Torah [see Zohar 3:262a]. This is: and he turned כֹּה וָכֹה (koh va-khoh), this way and that way (Exodus 2:12). Through these fifty letters one unifies twice every day in the recitation of Shema which has כ״ה וכ״ה (twenty-five and twenty-five) letters. And saw that no man was about (ibid.)—to awaken Her inside of them.

She watches from the windows, it says of them: And now, I pray you, beseech אֵל (El), God, that He will be gracious to us (Malachi 1:9)—to Her. Of Her is said, אֵל (El), God, pray, heal her, pray (Numbers 12:13), and the healing is through His hands, which is the spread hand to receive the penitents. And saw that no man was about—this is: through the window she looked out, and moaned (Judges 5:28), like teru’ah [of the ram’s horn], which is moaning. As is said, Noah opened the window of the ark he had made (Genesis 8:6)—on Yom Kippur, because the ark of Noah is supernal Mother. Through Her window, the middle pillar, came the light. And Torah is light—אוֹר הַגָּנוּז (or ha-ganuz), the hidden light.

And he turned this way and that way (Exodus 2:12). 

Peeping through the crannies (Song of Songs 2:9)—the Ten Days of Repentance. And saw that no man was about (Exodus ibid.). Furthermore: Peering through the windows (Song of Songs ibid.)—the windows of the house of assembly. Father [Abba] and Son [Ze’eir Anpin] are in the house of prisoners, and every day He [Arikh Anpin] watches over them and gives them sustenance.

And he turned this way and that way—if there might be someone who stirred to return and break his prison, as is written, That You may say to the prisoners, Go forth; to them that are in darkness, Show yourselves (Isaiah 49:9). And he turned this way and that way and saw that no man was about (Exodus 2:12). We have turned everyone to his own way (Isaiah 53:6); they all look to their own way, everyone for his gain, from his own quarter (ibid. 56:11). To gain more in this world, to inherit this world, and they are not from that place of which it says, God-fearing men, truthful men, haters of bribes (Exodus 18:21). Rather, in prayer on Yom Kippur all were howling like dogs. ‘Give! Give! Money, forgiveness, atonement, life. Seal us for life!’ And these are the greedy, likened to dogs [see Isaiah 56:1; Proverbs 30:15]. They are the nations of the world, that moan for themselves, and they are not shamefaced [see BT Sotah 49b: ‘With the footsteps of Messiah braz will increase… the face of the generation is like the face of a dog]. There are none who call to Him in repentance, to return the Shekhinah to the blessed Holy One, who is far from Him, to return Her to Him. They resemble dogs, as it says, And they mingled with the nations and learned their deeds (Psalms 106:35). These are the motley throng. Every good deed they do is only to benefit themselves [cf. BT Shabbat 33b; Bava Batra 10b].

Furthermore, they [only] ask for food, clothing, and time, which is time for coupling, as it says, he should not stint for this one her flesh, כְּסוּתָהּ (kesutah), her wardrobe, and her conjugal rights (Exodus 21:10) [cf. BT Ketubbot 48a]. There is nobody who asks for food of Torah, clothing of the Shekhinah, upper Mother [Binah], as it says, And do not forsake your mother’s teaching (Proverbs 1:8). ‘Clothing’ is the covering of tsitsit, and its cloak, and the tefillin of the hand as it says, A prayer for the lowly when he covers (Psalms 102:1). ‘And time’ is recitation of Shema in its proper time. With these three they did not act for the Shekhinah, [And if he does not do these three for her,] she shall go free without payment, with no כֶּסֶף (kesef), money (Exodus 21:11)—they have no כִּסּוּפָא (kissufa), shame, for the Shekhinah [who is like a pauper], they are brazen. Furthermore: With no כָּסֶף (kesef), money—they will not have any portion in the כִּסּוּפָא (kissufa), hidden, world that is coming [cf. Zohar 2:97a (SdM)].

Look, all this God performs twice or thrice with a man [to bring back his being from the Pit, to glow in the light of life] (Job 33:29). Because of this: for it is his sole כְסוּתֹה (khesutoh), covering (Exodus 22:26)—the first [life] cycle. It is his cloak for his skin (ibid.)—his second [life] cycle. In what can he lie? (ibid.)—his third [life] cycle. These are the three garments, the three coverings of the three colors of the eye, which are garments for the pupil of the eye which is the נְשָׁמָה (neshamah), soul” (Tiqqunei ha-Zohar 7, 22a–b).

The Serpent and the Messiah

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“And the human called his woman’s name חַוָּה (Ḥavvah), Eve, for she was the mother of all that lives (Genesis 3:20)—she was given to him for an adviser, but she played the eavesdropper like the serpent. He showed her how many generations she had destroyed. Rabbi Aha interpreted: The serpent was your serpent [i.e., seducer], and you are Adam’s חִוְיָא (ḥivya), serpent” (Bereshit Rabbah 20:11, cf. ZḤ 19b).

And she bore a son and called his name Seth, as to say, ‘God has granted me other seed in place of Abel, for Cain has killed him’ (Genesis 4:25). Rabbi Tanḥuma said in the name of Shemu’el Kozit: [She hinted at] seed which would arise from another source, namely King Messiah [i.e., not from Hebrew stock]” (Bereshit Rabbah 23:5).

And this is the lineage of Perez. Perez begat Hezron. And Hezron begat Ram and Ram begat Aminadab. And Aminadab begat Nahshon, and Nahshon begat Salmah. And Salmah begat Boaz, and Boaz begat Obed. And Obed begat Jesse, and Jesse begat David (Ruth 4:18–22).

“Rabbi Abba son of Qahana opened, רִגְזוּ (Rigzu), quake, and do not offend (Psalms 4:5). David said to the blessed Holy One ‘How long will מִתְרַגְּזִים (mitraggezim), they rage against, me and say, Is he not of tainted descent? Is he not a descendant of Ruth the Moabite? Speak in your hearts on your beds (ibid.). You also, are you not descended from two sisters [namely, Rachel and Leah who married the same man]? Look upon your own genealogy and be still (ibid.). And Tamar who married your ancestor Judah—is it not a tainted descent? She was but a descendant of Shem the son of Noah [who married his sister, see Jubilees 4:11]. Do you then have an honorable descent?’

[Quake and do not offend.] Rabbi Ya’aqov son of Ahiyah said: Fight against your impulse and do not offend. The Rabbis explain: Anger your impulse and do not offend.

וְאֵלֶּה (Ve-elleh), And these, are the lineage of Perez (Ruth 4:18). Rabbi Abba said: Wherever אֵלֶּה (elleh), these, occurs, it invalidates the preceding; וְאֵלֶּה (ve-elleh), and these, adds to the preceding.

And Hezron begat Ram (ibid., 19). But was not Jerahmeel the elder son, as is written, The sons also of Hezron, that were born unto him; Jerahmeel, and Ram, and Chelubai (1 Chronicles 2:9)? [Jerahmeel is omitted] because he married a Canaanite woman in order to adorn himself with her, as is written, Jerahmeel had also another wife, whose name was עֲטָרָה (Atarah)Diadem, Adornment (ibid. 2:26).

And Ram begat Aminadab. And Aminadab begat Nahshon, and Nahshon begat Salmah (Ruth 4:19–20). [Why is he called שַׂלְמָה (Salmah)?] Because up to him they formed סוּלָמוֹת (sulamot), ladders, of princes, from him onwards they formed ladders of kings.

Rabbi Yitsḥaq opened, Then did I think: Look, I come (Psalms 40:8). I ought to have sung a song that I have come, since the word אָז (az), then, refers to song, as is said, אָז (az), then, did Moses sing (Exodus 15:1). I was included in the verse No Ammonite nor Moabite shall come into YHWH’s assembly. [Even his tenth generation shall not come into YHWH’s assembly ever] (Deuteronomy 23:4), but I have come with the scroll of the book written for me (Psalms 40:8). With the scroll—referring to: whom You did command that they should not enter into Your assembly (Lamentations 1:10). The book—as is said, No Ammonite nor Moabite shall come into YHWH’s assembly. And not only have I been allowed to enter, but in the scroll of the book it is written concerning me. In the scroll—Perez, Hezron, Ram, Aminadab, Nahshon, Boaz, Obed, Jesse, David; the bookAnd YHWH said, ‘Arise, anoint him, for this is the one’ (1 Samuel 16:12).

Rav Huna said: It is written [And she bore a son and called his name Seth, as to say,] ‘God has granted me other seed [in place of Abel, for Cain has killed him’] (Genesis 4:25)—seed from another place, referring to the Messiah [cf. Bereshit Rabbah 23:5; 51:8]. Rabbi Berekhiyah and Rabbi Shim’on said: We may illustrate with a parable: A king who was travelling from one place to another, when a precious pearl fell from his head. So the king and all his retinue stopped there. All the passers-by asked, ‘What are the king and his retinue doing here?’ They discerned the reason and said, ‘A pearl has fallen from his head.’ What did he do? He gathered all the soil into heaps and brought brooms [alt., sieves]. He had one heap swept, but did not find it; a second heap, and he did not find it; but in the third, he found it, and they announced ‘The king has found his pearl!’ So the blessed Holy One said to Abraham, Go forth [lit., Go to yourself] (Genesis 12:1). It was to you that I looked forward. What need had I to record the lineage of Shem, Arpachshad, Shelah, Eber, Peleg, Reu, Serug, Nahor, and Terah? (1 Chronicles 1:24–26). Only on account of you, Abram; the same is Abraham (ibid.); And found his heart faithful before You (Nehemiah 9:8). So said the blessed Holy One to David, ‘What need had I to record the lineage of Perez, Hezron, Ram, Aminadab, Nahshon, Salmah, Boaz, Obed, and Jesse? Only on account of you; I found David My servant (Psalms 89:21)” (Rut Rabbah 8a).

“Rabbi Tanḥum said: Son of Qappara expounded in Sepphoris: These six shares of barley he gave me (Ruth 3:17)—what six shares of barley? Shall we say six shares of barley literally? But was it the way of Boaz to give six shares of barley? Rather six se’ahs. But is it the way of a woman to take hold of six [weighty] se’ahs? Rather, he hinted to her that six sons were destined to issue from her, who should each be blessed with six blessings. And these are: David and Messiah, Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah.

David, as is written, And one of the lads answered and said, Look, I have seen a son of Jesse the Bethlehemite, skilled in playing, a valiant fellow, a warrior, prudent in speech, a good-looking man, and YHVH is with him’ (1 Samuel 16:18)…. Messiah, as is written, [And a shoot shall come out from the stock of Jesse, a branch shall bloom from his roots.] And the spirit of YHWH shall rest on him, a spirit of wisdom and insight, a spirit of counsel and valor, a spirit of knowledge and fear of YHWH (Isaiah 11:2)…” (BT Sanhedrin 93a–b).

“Come and see: Tamar was the daughter of a priest. Now, would you ever imagine that she set out to whore with her father-in-law, given that she was inherently modest? Rather, she was righteous and did this out of wisdom. She offered herself to him only because she possessed knowledge and contemplated wisdom. So she approached him to act kindly and faithfully; that is why she came to him and engaged in this affair.

Come and see: Because she possessed knowledge and exerted herself in this affair, the blessed Holy One offered assistance in that very act and she immediately conceived. All issued from Him.

Now, you might ask: ‘Why didn’t the blessed Holy One bring those sons through some other woman? Why through this one? But precisely she, and no other woman, was needed for this act.

There were two women through whom the seed of Judah was established, from whom issued King David, King Solomon, and King Messiah. These two women correspond to one another: Tamar and Ruth, whose husbands died first, who exerted themselves in this action.

Tamar enticed her father-in-law, who was next of kin to his sons who had died. Why did she entice him? As is written: for she saw that Shelah had grown up and she had not been given to him as wife (Genesis 38:14). That is why she engaged in this act with her father-in-law.

As for Ruth, her husband died and then she engaged in this act with Boaz, as is written: She uncovered his feet and lay down (Ruth 3:7). Engaging with him, she later gave birth to Obed. Now, you might ask ‘Why didn’t Obed issue from another woman?’ But precisely she was needed, no one else.

From these two, the seed of Judah was established and consummated. Both of them acted properly, acting kindly toward the dead so that the world would later be enhanced. This corresponds to what was said: I praise the dead, who have already died (Ecclesiastes 4:2), because when they were first alive, they were not praiseworthy, but later they were. Both of them exerted themselves to act kindly and faithfully toward the dead, and the blessed Holy One assisted in that act. All was fitting!…

It is written: Look, there were twins in her womb! (Genesis 38:27)—they were twins; previously they were brothers [Er and Onan].

Rabbi Ḥizkiyah said, ‘That’s not the implication! Rather, other sons were born.’ Rabbi Abba said, ‘This is why she exerted herself: to recover what had been lost.’

Come and see what is written: As he was drawing back his hand, look, out came his brother, and she said, ‘What a breach you have breached for yourself!—alluding here to the original, licentious breach that he breached, because of which he died. This is implied by the phrase you have breached for yourself—for yourself you have breached a breach, since you had to trouble your Lord; consequently, you will make a breach in other nations. So, he named him פָּרֶץ (Perets), Breach.

After the entire incident of Judah has been told—how he sold Joseph and brought all of this about: for if Judah had said, ‘Let’s return him to our father,’ his brothers would have done so; consequently, his brothers demoted him from dominion over them. After he was banished from his brothers and all this came upon him, Scripture speaks of Joseph: Joseph was brought down to Egypt. Why was brought down? Because the blessed Holy One approved that act, to fulfill the decree that He had issued: Know well that your seed will be strangers… (Genesis 15:13)” (Zohar 1:188a–b, cf. Bahir §§197–198).

“For Rabbi Abba has said, ‘How many wicked there are in the world who engender more virtuous children than the righteous!’” (Zohar 2:12b).

“Evil was consumed and good eventually emerged—the one of whom is written: goodly to look on, and YHWH is with him (1 Samuel 16:12, 18)” (Zohar 2:103b).

“Seed of David…. In his anger he is calm, immediately appeased; but he retains enmity like a serpent in the end, for that side provokes this, surrounding on all sides. However, the kernel within the shell and the heart are upright and firm” (Zohar 2:74b).

Through these Three Adam Attained a Change of Name, a Change of Place, and a Change of Deed

“Rabbi Yitsḥaq said, ‘Four things tear up a person’s verdict: charity, crying out, a change of name, and change of deeds. צְדָקָה (Tsedaqah), charity, as is written, But צְדָקָה (tsedaqah), righteousness, saves from death (Proverbs 10:2). Crying out, as is written, And they cry to YHWH from their straits from their distress He brings them out. [He turns the storm into silence, and its waves are stilled, and they rejoice that these have grown quiet, and He leads them to the realm of their desire] (Psalms 107:28). Change of name, as is written, Sarai your wife shall no longer call her name Sarai, for Sarah is her name (Genesis 17:15); and it continues, And I will bless her and I will also give you from her a son (ibid., 16). Change of deeds, as is written, And God saw their acts, that they had turned back from their evil way, and God relented from the evil that He said to do to them, and he did not do it (Jonah 3:10). And some say a change of place, as is written, And YHWH said to Abram, ‘Go forth from your land [and your birthplace and your father’s house to the land I will show you] (Genesis 12:1), and afterwards, And I will make you a great nation [and I will bless you and make your name great, and you shall be a blessing] (ibid., 2). And the other [namely, Rabbi Yitsḥaq, why does he not include this]?—in that case it was the merit of the Land of Israel which helped him” (BT Rosh ha-Shanah 16b).

And you shall hold them in estate for your children after you to inherit a holding forever (Leviticus 25:46). It is a command to have a Canaanite slave as a servant, as is written: A holding forever. They come from the side of Ham, who uncovered nakedness [of Noah], of whom it says, Cursed be Canaan, the lowliest slave shall he be to his brothers (Genesis 9:25). Why the lowliest slave? Because he is a slave to a slave עוֹלָם (olam), forever, which is the olam, world, of Jubilee [even at the Jubilee he will not be set free like other slaves (Sullam)]. It may be said that as he is a brother to Shem and Japheth, why should he not be like them? Also, seeing Eliezer, Abraham’s servant, was the descendant of Ham, why was he not like him but instead righteous? [Because] the blessed Holy One approved of the blessing Laban gave him [see Genesis 24:31].

Surely this pertains to the mystery גִלְגּוּלָא (gilggula), rolling: ‘Who גּוֹלֵל (golel), rolls away, light from before darkness’ (Evening Service)—Abraham’s servant who came out of darkness, the issue of Ham. It suffices for the servant to be like his master, Abraham, who came from Terah the idol worshiper! ‘And darkness from before the light’ (ibid.)—Ishmael who came out from Abraham, and Esau from Isaac.

The mystery is that this is caused by the mixture of drops in a place it does not belong. This is he who mingles his drop with a maid, Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael or a daughter of a strange god who are evil and darkness, while his drop is goodness and light: And God saw the light, that it was good (Genesis 1:4). He who mingles good with evil transgresses the words of his Master, who said, but from the tree of knowledge, good and evil, you shall not eat (Genesis 2:17).

The blessed Holy One rolls that which the man mingled together with him so as to receive punishment. If he repents, learns Torah and separates good from evil, forbidden from permitted, impure from pure, unfit from fit, that evil is separated from good, it says of him ‘A creation for good and a creation for evil’ [cf. BT Berakhot 61a: ‘וַיִּיצֶר (va-yetser), and formed (Genesis 2:7)—spelled with two letters י (yod) to show that God created two impulses, one good and the other evil’]. And through Torah he separates them, and the blessed Holy One bequeaths him a נִשְׁמְתָא (nishmata), soul, from Him, so he will rule them both, the one which is light, the World that is Coming, and the other, which is darkness, this world. Hence, it is written: And blew into his nostrils the נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים (ayyim nishmat), breath of life (Genesis 2:7).

According to his merits and liabilities. As we have explained, ‘He who does one mitsvah is treated well. He who is average, is a person whose merits and liabilities are balanced, the half of merits is below and the half of liabilities below’ [see BT Qiddushin 40b; Sotah 3b]. This is the secret of What is your petition? and it shall be granted you, and what is your request? Up to half the kingdom, and it will be done! (Esther 5:6). In the case of a completely righteous man, all his merits are above and his liabilities below. For a completely evil man, his liabilities are above and his merits are down below.

The man who sins in public is of two grades. If he does penance in public [then he is seated] among the righteous [of that world], who are familiar with the laws of the blessed Holy One and refrain from sinning; [if] secretly [then] among the wicked men [who envy him his repentance] so that the eyes of the wicked will pine (Job 11:20) is fulfilled.

Adam’s sin was therefore against, And YHWH God commanded (Genesis 2:16)—we explained commanded referrers to idolatry since he sinned in idolatry. He formed him in תֶרַח (Teraḥ), Terah’s, drop of semen, in which he [the soul of Adam] רָתַח (rataḥ), enraged, the blessed Holy One by transgressing in idolatry. He did penance and smashed the images of idols and all the victuals. He mended the sins and smashed the sin and the evil structure he built. And he made the blessed Holy One and His Shekhinah rule over the whole world.

By sanctifying His Name in public, and by going into the fire to be burned, so that the words would be fulfilled the images of their gods you shall burn in fire (Deuteronomy 7:25). Furthermore, he caused his father, Terah, to repent and brought him, his mother, and all the rulers of that age to the Garden of Eden [cf. Zohar 1:77b]. He was thus purified as silver by fire [cf. Bereshit Rabbah 38:13: ‘When Abraham descended into the fiery furnace (of Nimrod he) was saved’], like the king’s coin forged with a mixture of lead. He was therefore put in fire, and the lead came out, which is Ishmael. Ishmael therefore was mocking and worshipped idols, while Adam remained purified by fire. This is the change of name. For when Adam was rolled he had to undergo a change of name, change of place, and change of deed.

Then came Isaac, and he became stronger through him, the second transgression of which it says, the human (Genesis 2:16), which refers to bloodshed. This brought the trial of Isaac by the cleaver [see Genesis 22:10]. He was cleansed by him, as food is picked from refuse. And the dross came out, which is Esau who sheds blood.

Then came Jacob who formed it to Laban and became his servant. Hence it says, I will serve seven years for Rachel your younger daughter (Genesis 29:18). Since he exchanged her with her sister, he served an additional seven years, in order to remove the two drops Adam spilt in a foreign place [cf. Bereshit Rabbah 20:11: ‘Throughout the entire one hundred and thirty years during which Adam held aloof from Eve the male demons were made ardent by her and she bore, while the female demons (Lilit and Naamah) were inflamed by Adam and they bore, as is written, so should he do wrong, I will chastise him with the rod men use and with the afflictions of humankind (2 Samuel 7:14)—Adam, which means, the children of the first man’]. This is incest, alluded to by saying, [‘From every fruit of the garden you may surely eat. But from the tree of knowledge, good and evil, you shall not eat, for on the day you eat from it, you are doomed to die’] (Genesis 2:16). He took them out of Laban the Aramean, the serpent.

Through these three Adam attained a change of name, a change of place, and a change of deed [the Patriarchs repaired the three cardinal sins: idolatry, murder, and sexual immorality]. He obtained a change of name through Abraham, a change of place through Isaac, and a change of deed through Jacob. And if it was said of him: Then He saw and recounted it [set it firm and probed it, too…] (Job 28:27–8), that if He accepted his repentance, all the more so that of others [who are not as great].

Therefore, for a good servant, the place brings it about, and for an evil servant, also, but as for other servants, a holding forever (Leviticus 25:46). The heads of the academy rose and said Happy the people who has it thus (Psalms 144:15). שֶׁכָּכָה (Shekakhah), has it thus, is [numerically equivalent] as that of מֹשֶׁה (Moshe), Moses. The Faithful Shepherd rose and said, ‘Happy the people whose God is YHWH’ (ibid.)” (Zohar 3:97a–111a, Ra’aya Meheimna Behar, cf. ibid. 3:217b).

I have rolled away from you the shame of Egypt (Joshua 5:9).

He Will be like a Tree Planted by Water

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“Ulla Nahota was dying there [in Babylonia]. He began to cry. They said to him, ‘Why are you crying? We will bring you up to the land of Israel [for burial]. He said to them, ‘What benefit [is it] to me, I will lose מַרְגָּלִיתִי (marggaliti), my pearl, in an impure land [cf. Hymn of the Pearl]. Not like he who is delivered into his mother’s bosom is he who is delivered into the bosom of an alien woman [cf. Proverbs 2:16: To save you from a stranger-woman, from a smooth-talking alien woman]” (JT Kilayim 9:3, 32c).

“Rabbi Yirmeyah son of Abba said in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan, ‘Whoever walks four cubits in the land of Israel is assured to be a son of the world to come.’ Now… aren’t the righteous outside the Land going to be revived? Rabbi Il’a said, ‘By גִּלְגּוּל (gilggul), rolling.’ Rabbi Abba Sala the Great objected, ‘Rolling will be painful to the righteous!’ Abbaye replied, ‘Tunnels will be made for them underground” (BT Ketubbot 111a, cf. Zohar 1:113b–114b [MhN], 131a).

“[Addressing the apparent contradiction between revival of the dead and גִּלְגּוּל הַנְשָׁמוֹת (gilggul ha-neshamot), rolling souls] Rabbi Ḥizkiyah said, ‘If you say that all bodies of the world will arise, aroused from the dust, what will become of those bodies sown in a single soul [cf. BT Gittin 58a: ‘two wicks in one flame’]? Rabbi Yose replied, ‘These bodies that have been virtuous and have not flourished are considered as if they never existed. As they were a withered tree in this world, so too at that time. The final body will arise, for once sown, it flourished and took root fittingly. Of this one is written: He will be like a tree planted by water… its leaves will be luxuriant… (Jeremiah 17:8), for it generated fruit, took root and flourished fittingly. Of that previous body is written: He will be like a shrub in the desert, and will not see when good comes… (ibid., 6). When good comes—revival of the dead, and it is written: For you will revere My name, the sun of victory will rise, with healing in its wings (Malachi 3:20). Then good will prevail in the world, and the one called Evil will be eliminated from the world, as we have said. Then those previous bodies will be as though they had never been” (Zohar 1:131a).

“Rabbi Shim’on said, ‘If a person obtains a recycled soul and fails to have it rectified within him, it is as though he falsifies the truth of the King; and I apply to him this verse: or if he finds something lost and denies it and swears falsely (Leviticus 5:22). And denies it—better for him if he had never been created [cf. BT Niddah 30b; Zohar 3:13a]!

We have learned: ‘A completely righteous person is not thrust aside; an incompletely righteous person is.’ Who is completely righteous, and who is incompletely righteous? Could it be that one whose deeds are flawed is called righteous? [cf. BT Berakhot 7a–b, Megillah 6b, Bava Metsi’a 71a, Avodah Zarah 4a].’

‘Well, a completely righteous person is clearly recognized, for he has not taken tortuous convolutions; and with his inheritance he builds a structure, erects walls, hews out wells, and plants trees.

An incompletely righteous person is one who builds a structure with another’s inheritance—digging into it, restoring the foundation stones as before, toiling over it; yet he does not know if it will remain his. Furthermore, regarding himself, he is considered good and righteous; but regarding that inheritance, not so.

This may be compared to a person who builds a beautiful and attractive building. But when he examines the foundation, he sees that it is sinking and distorted in all directions. The building is incomplete until he demolishes it and rebuilds it anew. Regarding his building itself, it was fine and beautiful; but regarding the foundation, it was bad and distorted. So it is not called a complete project; it is not called a complete building. Consequently, ‘an incompletely righteous person is thrust aside [at the revival of the dead].’ Thus, while the wicked swallows up the one more righteous than he (Habakuk 1:13) [cf. BT Berakhot 7b, Megillah 6b, Bava Metsi’a 71a]” (Zohar 3:213a–b).

The Ship Threatened to Break Up

“Jonah, descending into the ship, is the human soul descending into this world to enter a human body. Why is she called יוֹנָה (Yonah), Jonah? Because as soon as she joins the body, she is יֹנַה (yonah), cheated, in this world, as is said: וְלֹא תוֹנוּ (Ve-lo tonu), You shall not cheat, one another (Leviticus 25:17). Then a person moves through this world like a ship in the great ocean about to break up, as is said: The ship threatened to break up (Jonah 1:4).

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Impregnation: Two Spirits Invigorated within Him

IMG_0975Rabbi Shim’on was sitting delving into this portion [Pineḥas] when his son, Rabbi El’azar, came and asked him, ‘What do Nadab and Abihu have to do with Phinehas? If we say  that Phinehas didn’t exist in the world when they died and only later came into the world, restoring their place—not so, for, in fact, Phinehas was in the world, serving as deputy high priest, his soul enduring vitally within him!’

He replied, ‘My son, there is a sublime mystery here, as follows: When [Nadab and Abihu] departed from the world, they were not concealed beneath the wings of the holy Rock [Shekhinah]. Why? Because it is written and they had no children (Numbers 3:4)—for they diminished the image of the King, despite being worthy of the high priesthood [cf. BT Yevamot 63a–b; Bereshit Rabbah 34:14, in the name of Son of Azzai: ‘Whoever abstains from procreation is as though he spilled blood and diminished the image’].

When Phinehas acted zealously for the holy covenant—entering amidst the multitudes and hoisting the adulterers on a spear in the sight of all Israel, with all the hordes of the tribe of Simeon coming at him—his soul flew away from him. Two souls that were naked [stripped of children], placeless, approached her, and they merged as one; and נִשְׁמָתֵיהּ (nishmateh), his soul, returned intermingled—כְּלִילָא רוּחָא דְּאִתְכְלִיל בִּתְרֵין רוּחִין (keliyla ruḥa de-itkelil bitrein ruḥin), a spirit mingled with two spirits, invigorated within him. Then he attained their place, to become high priest, which he did not deserve previously.

So he was נָקִי (naqi), innocent (Job 4:7), not perishing at that moment—his spirit did not perish when it flew away from him.

And where were the upright obliterated? (ibid.)—the sons of Aaron [Nadab and Abihu], for what was lost in their lifetime returned to the world. Thus of Phinehas is written son of, son of (Numbers 25:11), twice’”  (Zohar 3:217a).

“And this was why Moses said: וַיִּתְעַבֵּר (va-yit’abber), and [YHWH] was angry, with me for your sakes (Deuteronomy 3:26)—the mystery of עִבּוּר (ibbur), impregnation. The Faithful Shepherd saved 600,000 certain times by rolling [into each generation, see Bereshit Rabbah 56:7: ‘There is no generation which does not contain men like Abraham, and there is no generation which does not contain men like Jacob, Moses, and Samuel.’ Cf. Rabbi Yitsḥaq of Akko, Me’irat Einayim 134a]. For this reason the blessed Holy One ascribed to him the merit of all of them, and this is why the Rabbis taught: ‘One woman in Egypt brought forth in one womb 600,000 at one birth’ [see Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah 4:2]. And although the Rabbis expounded this verse with regard to other matters ‘Torah has seventy faces’ (Bemidbar Rabbah 3:15) [on the Rabbis’ interpretation of Deuteronomy 3:26, see BT Berakhot 32b; Sotah 13b]” (Zohar 3:215a, Ra’aya Meheimna Pineḥas).